Autism Spectrum Disorders

Children having developmental disorders are special and are needed to be handled differently. Most of the children have severe communication impairments making with difficult for them to interact with others and to express themselves. Developmental disorders consists of a group of psychiatric disorders originating in childhood. These disorders comprises of : a. Developmental language disorder b. Learning disorders c. Motor disorders d. Autism spectrum disorders Today i will like to discuss about AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS. Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong developmental disabilities characterized by marked difficulties in SOCIAL INTERACTION, IMPAIRED COMMUNICATION, RESTRICTED AND REPITITIVE INTERESTS AND BEHAVIORS and SENSORY SENSITIVITIES. CAUSE : Basically it is of idiopathic origin. The disabilities result from " abnormalities in brain structure or function" . a. Genetic factors Autism is 50-200 times more prevalent in siblings of autistic probands than in the general population. Among probands who do not have autism, there is also an increased prevalence of Mulder forms of developmental disabilities related to communication and social skills. b. Neuroanatomic and neuroimaging findings Though not diagnostic, these have consistently revealed increased cerebral volume that affects both grey and white matter, as well as enlarged ventricles. Neuroimaging findings can also include abnormalities in brain chemistry, serotonin synthesis and brain electrophysiology. c. Environmental factors Research shows that different environmental factors contributing to vitamin D deficiency and Increased risk of autism. Use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception wad associated with lower risk of autistic disorders. RISK FACTORS: A sibling with autism A sibling with another ASD Parental history of schizophrenia like psychosis Parental history of affective disorder Parental history of another mental or behavioural disorder Maternal age more than 40 years Birth weigh less than 2500gms Premature baby Also with other medical conditions like: Intellectual disability Fragile X syndrome Neonatal encephalopathy/ Infantile spasm Cerebral palsy Downs syndrome Muscular dystrophy In the next half I will be discussing about the signs and symptoms and the treatment aspect of ASD . Reference - Textbook of child and adolescent mental health @#cap Admin Ayurveda

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