Normal development and developmental disabilities.

Before knowing the developmental disabilities we should have some knowledge about normal development. Because when we know about the normal development then we should able to identify the developmental disabilities. so, in this post I share normal development. What is normal development? Development refers to maturation of functions and acquisition of various skills for optimal functioning of an individual. Developmental milestones are very common term for all of us; these milestones are important, easily identifiable events during the continuous process of development.eg. turning over, sitting, reaching for objects and pointing to objects. some basic facts related to development- 1- development is a continuous process, starting in utero and progressing in an orderly manner until maturity. 2- It depends on the functional maturation of the nervous system. In the absence of nervous system maturity child is unable to learn a particular milestone or skill. 3- Process of development progresses in a Cephalocaudal direction. 4- Initial disorganized mass activity is gradually replaced by specific and useful actions. Factors affecting development- 1- Prenatal factors- include genetic factor, maternal factors ( maternal nutrition, exposure to drugs and toxics, maternal diseases and infections eg.preganancy induced hypertension, hypothyroidism etc.) 2- Neonatal risk factors- include IUGR , prematurity, perinatal asphyxia. 3- Post neonatal factors- includes infant and child nutrition, iron deficiency, iodine deficiency, infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, malaria etc. 4- Psychosocial factors like parenting, poverty, violence and abuse, maternal depression etc. 5- Breastfeeding and maternal education affects the development in protective manner. Domains of development- Development is asses under the following domains. 1- Gross motor development 2- Fine motor skill development 3- personal and social development and general understanding 4- language 5- vision and hearing

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DearDr. Bhawana Bhatt, You are right that one should know normal development .

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