I think no other treatment is necessary because increased level of IgM class of Anti Cardiolipin antibody is due to missed abortion, which have occurred one month back. To rule out SLE. Cardiolipin is a phospholipid, or a kind of fat in the blood. The levels of these antibodies are often high in people with abnormal blood clotting, autoimmune diseases like lupus, or repeated miscarriages.
Put her on preconceptional folic acid She is ACA positive so low dose aspirin is needed.
Reassurance is the treatment of choice along with Folic acid @Dr. Minakshi Pal . Thank you.
No need for any treatment now apart from folic acid.
No need of other treatment mam.
Maam here as you said preconceptional folic acid, yes. For apla to repeat in next conception.
Cardiolipin IgM is positive,so may need ecospirin 75 once she conceives apart from folic acid
Cases that would interest you
- Login to View the image
Type B Insulin resistance syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterised by production of antibodies against the Insulin receptors, which leads to disorder in glucose metabolism (from hyperglycemia to hypoglycemia), extreme Insulin resistance, Acanthosis Nigricans and hyperandrogenism. Treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine was initiated for 6 weeks, in the patient displayed in the slide. There was normalization of blood glucose, Insulin and Testosterone levels, and clinical improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans (panel C & D).Dr. Mohammed Parvez11 Likes19 Answers
- Login to View the image
sixty years old lady complaining of discoloration of skin as seen in the photograph associated with mild pain n itching. No history of fever ,diabetes or any other systemic disease. Blood report normal with normal platelet count. Please help with the diagnosis and treatment. Patient had similar history six months back.Dr. Bablu Das3 Likes24 Answers
- Login to View the image
Health Benefits of Alfalfa Grass ............................................................... Alfalfa grass is a flowering plant that is very common and the alfalfa grass health benefits are plentiful. The following will uncover 5 surprising health benefits of alfalfa grass… It is a perennial plant, which means that it grows and blooms over the spring and summer. During the fall and winter, the plants die back. In the spring, they return from the rootstock. The basic benefit of alfalfa is that it is very nutritious when it is consumed. This plant is high in chlorophyll, micronutrients, and vitamins A, B1, B6, C, E, and K. It also contains calcium, iron, zinc, and potassium. Finally, it contains more protein than most plants. What Are the Health Benefits of Alfalfa Grass? Other than the nutritional value, alfalfa has several health benefits. These include: Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An alfalfa study was published in the July 2009 issue of Journal of Biomedical Science. The study was performed on animals that were injected with compounds that contained inflammation. The animals that were not fed alfalfa sprouts had increased inflammation compared to those who were fed alfalfa sprouts. Bolsters Immune System: A study was performed and published in the March 2009 issue of “Lupus”. During this study, animals were injected with alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract. The scientists doing this study wanted to see if alfalfa sprouts could be beneficial for people who suffer from autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. The animals that were given alfalfa had lower T-cell counts at the end of the study. Antioxidant Effects and Radiation Protection: A study was conducted in Turkey, and the results were published in the February 2008 issue of Photocheistry and Photobiology. According to the study, alfalfa can protect the cells from damage from x-rays, due to its antioxidant properties. The animals that were given alfalfa before having an x-ray had less free radicals and cell damage than those who were not given alfalfa. Lower Cholesterol: High cholesterol can lead to stroke and heart disease. A study was performed and published in the May 1087 issue of Atherosclerosis. According to the study, patients with high cholesterol were given alfalfa for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, their LDL, also known as bad cholesterol, dropped by 30 percent. After the study, the patients stopped eating alfalfa, and their cholesterol returned to the previous levels before the study was conducted. The study indicated that regular consumption of alfalfa could successfully reduce cholesterol. Improves Certain Medical Conditions: Alfalfa has been used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including kidney, bladder, and prostate conditions. It can also increase urine flow. Patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, upset stomach, and asthma can benefit from alfalfa. Side Effects of Alfalfa Grass Alfalfa is relatively safe for adults. However, if you take large amounts of alfalfa for a long period of time, the seeds can cause a reaction that is similar to lupus. Also, alfalfa can make the skin more sensitive to the sun. It is important for light skinned people to wear sunblock when going outdoors. Patients who are pregnant should avoid alfalfa. There is evidence that alfalfa can act like estrogen, which can have a negative effect on the pregnancy. Its estrogen effect can also be harmful for patients who suffer from breast cancer, uterine cancer, and ovarian cancer. If you have diabetes, you should check your blood sugar levels often, as alfalfa can lower your blood sugar. You may think that you are eating right, and your blood sugar levels are fine, but the alfalfa can have an effect on it. Patients who have had a kidney transplant should avoid consuming anything with alfalfa. There has been one reported case of a patient who had a transplant and rejected it due to their consumption of alfalfa. Because alfalfa boosts the immune system, it can make the anti-drugs that are given after the surgery, less effective. How to Take Alfalfa Grass The most common way to ingest alfalfa is to add alfalfa sprouts to a salad. You can also purchase alfalfa supplements and take them with your daily multivitamin. Alfalfa Grass in Green Powder Drinks If salad is not your favorite thing to eat, and you would rather not take a daily supplement, you can purchase green powder drinks that contain the right amount of alfalfa that is healthy for your diet. Green powder drinks such as Total Living Drink Greens contain numerous ingredients, including alfalfa grass, which are rich in vitamins and nutrients. Just having a drink or two a day can greatly improve your health. Alfalfa grass grows all over the world, and is very plentiful. For years, many people did not know the many health benefits of alfalfa grass. As studies were conducted on this grass, more and more people began putting alfalfa sprouts in their salad, and even eating them on their own. As the health food industry began seeing the importance of this grass, many companies began using alfalfa in their green drink powders.Dr. Sanjay Kumar Mallick6 Likes23 Answers
- Login to View the image
56 year old female presented with ulcers over the left and right leg. Patient complaints of pain and swelling over the legs.no h/o renal disease, joint pain, insect bite or fever. Patient is diabetic. lesion present since 2-3 months. what is the diagnosis and treatment.Dr. Sweety Bajoria1 Like16 Answers
- Login to View the image
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY. Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive damage to the retina which occurs in diabetics.It is a serious sight- threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy depends on the duration of diabetes and the glycemic control. Here ,the tiny blood vessels leak blood and other fluids. SYMPTOMS. 1.Seeing spots or floaters. 2.Blurred vision. 3.Having a dark or empty spot in the centre of the vision. 4.Difficulty seeing well in the night. Long standing hyperglycemia causes fluid to accumulate in the lens that controls focussing. This changes the curvature of lens leading to blurred vision. STAGES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY. STAGE I : Microaneurysms occur. STAGE II : Some blood vessels that nourish the retina are blocked. STAGE III : More blood vessels are blocked, depriving several areas of retina of it's blood supply. STAGE IV : New blood vessels grow (Neo vascularization),but they are abnormal and fragile. They leak blood leading to vision loss and blindness. ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION. 1.NON-PROLIFERATIVE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY Signs of NPDR given in a mnemonic. Microsoft Dot com Rated Internet Very Cool and Definitely Hot. Micro aneurysms. Dot and blot hemorrhages. Retinal edema. Intraretinal micro vascular abnormalities. Venous abnormalities. Cotton-wool spots. Dark blot hemorrhages. Hard exudates. 2.PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY. Neo vascularization of disc. Neo vascularization elsewhere in the retina Fibrovascular proliferation. Vitreous hemorrhage TREATMENT. Treatment of Diabetic retinopathy depends on the stage of disease. THE GOAL OF ANY TREATMENT IS TO SLOW OR STOP THE PROGRESSION OF THE DISEASE. PHARMAVOLOGIC THERAPY. TRIAMCINOLONE: Administered intra vitreously, corticosteroid used in the treatment of Diabetic macular edema. BEVACIZUMAB :Administered intra vitreously, monoclonal antibody that can help to reduce Diabetic macular edema and neo vascularization of disc and retina. RANIBIZUMAB : Administered intra vitreously, monoclonal antibody that can help to reduce Diabetic macular edema and neo vascularization of the disc and retina. GLYCEMIC CONTROL. Intensive glucose control is essential to slow or stop these changes. In the early stages of non-proliferative Diabetic retinopathy, regular monitoring may be the only treatment. Diet,exercise and maintaining normoglycemia helps to control the progression of the disease. In the later stages,leakage of blood through the capillaries can be reduced by LASER TREATMENT OR PHOTO COAGULATION .A laser beam of light creates small burns in the retina with abnormal blood vessels and the leaks are sealed LASER PHOTO COAGULATION IS INDICATED IN THE TREATMENT OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT MACULAR EDEMA IN NDPR. PANRETINAL PHOTO COAGULATION IS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF PDR. VITRECTOMY :This is used in PDR in cases of long standing vitreous hemorrhage. CRYOTHERAPY : When laser photo coagulation in PDR is precluded in the presence of an opaque media, such as in cases of cataract or vitreous hemorrhage, cryotheapy may be applied. DIAGNOSIS. LABORATORY STUDIES OF HbA1C LEVELS ARE IMPORTANT IN THE LONG TERM FOLLOW UP CARE OF PATIENTS WITH DIABETES AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY. FLOTESCEIN ANGIOGRAPHY. OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY SCANNING B- SCAN ULTRASONOGRAPHY. PATIENT EDUCATION. THE MAINSTAY OF DIAGNOSING DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IS A COMPLETE OPHTHALMIC EXAMINATION AND DILATED RETINAL EXAMINATION BY AN OPHTHALMOLOGIST. EXCELLENT GLUCOSE CONTROL IS BENEFICIAL IN ANY STAGE OF RETINOPATHY. IT DELAYS THE ONSET AND SLOWS DOWN THE PROGRESSION OF OF THE DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN THE EYE. SYSTEMATIC PROBLEMS LIKE HYPERTENSION, RENAL DISEASE AND HYPERLIPIDEMIA MAY CONTRIBUTE TO DISEASE PROGRESSION. SMOKING MAY COMPROMISE OXYGEN DELIVERY TO THE RETINA. THEREFORE, ALL EFFORTS SHOULD BE MADE IN THE REDUCTION, IF NOT OUTRIGHT CESSATION OF SMOKING. VISUAL SYMPTOMS LIKE VISION CHANGES, FLOATERS,DISTORTION, REDNESS AND PAIN COULD BE MANIFESTATIONS OF DISEASE PROGRESSION AND SHOULD BE REPORTED IMMEDIATELY.Dr. Suvarchala Pratap16 Likes8 Answers