Diagnosis requires detailed history about pain characteristics, type of pain, laterality, duration of episodes, triggering and relieving factor to rule out whether it's migraine or tension headache or somatoform pain disorder or headache related with other Psychiatric disorders like mood disorder / anxiety disorders. Investigations can include Hb level, PNS x-ray, CT brain to rule out medical causes. If final diagnosis is migraine then management of acute attack by analgesics like naproxen, ibuprofen on sos basis, triptans like sumatriptan, and prophylaxis to prevent attacks with sod valproate, Flunarizine, Beta- blockers like propranolol, TCAs like Amitriptyline.
Needs further investigation and evaluation to conclude and treatment plan. Tab vasograin + PCM TDS till reports complied. Multivitamin and antioxidant orally.
NEED'S CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION WITH.. * X-RAY STUDY.. PNS & HEAD.. * CTCE STUDY.. HEAD , BRAIN..
NEEDS ... FURTHER. EVALUATION... ALL. ROUTINE. INVESTIGATIONS RULE. OUT ANEMIA
If clinically migraine, can consider flunarizine prophylaxis. Naproxen sos.
Do complete evaluation
Adv. Ct scan Head
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#HolisticMedicine #CCAUpdates ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION Here is an article of a list of all the major medications of anxiety disorder and the problems they address. Each of the major problems (panic attacks, generalized anxiety, and so forth), with descriptions of the commonly recommended medications for that difficulty has been described. BENZODIAZEPINES alprazolam (Xanax) panic, generalized anxiety, phobias, social anxiety, OCD clonazepam (Klonopin) panic, generalized anxiety, phobias, social anxiety diazepam (Valium) generalized anxiety, panic, phobias lorazepam (Ativan) generalized anxiety, panic, phobias oxazepam (Serax) generalized anxiety, phobias chlordiazepoxide (Librium) generalized anxiety, phobias BETA BLOCKERS propranolol (Inderal) social anxiety atenolol (Tenormin) social anxiety TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS imipramine (Tofranil) panic, depression, generalized anxiety, PTSD desipramine (Norpramin, Pertofrane and others) panic, generalized anxiety, depression, PTSD nortriptyline (Aventyl or Pamelor) panic, generalized anxiety, depression, PTSD amitriptyline (Elavil) panic, generalized anxiety, depression, PTSD doxepin (Sinequan or Adapin) panic, depression clomipramine (Anafranil) panic, OCD, depression OTHER ANTIDEPRESSANTS trazodone (Desyrel) depression, generalized anxiety MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOIs) phenelzine (Nardil) panic, OCD, social anxiety, depression, generalized anxiety, PTSD tranylcypromine (Parnate) panic, OCD, depression, generalized anxiety, PTSD SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIs) fluoxetine (Prozac) OCD, depression, panic, social anxiety, PTSD, generalized anxiety fluvoxamine (Luvox) OCD, depression, panic, social anxiety, PTSD, generalized anxiety sertraline (Zoloft) OCD, depression, panic, social anxiety, PTSD, generalized anxiety paroxetine (Paxil) OCD, depression, panic, social anxiety, PTSD, generalized anxiety escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro) OCD, panic,depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, PTSD, generalized anxiety citalopram (Celexa) depression, OCD, panic, PTSD, generalized anxiety SEROTONIN-NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SNRIS) venlafaxine (Effexor) panic, OCD, depression, social anxiety, generalized anxiety venlafaxine XR (Effexor XR) panic, OCD, depression, social anxiety, generalized anxiety duloxetine (Cymbalta) generalized anxiety, social anxiety, panic, OCD MILD TRANQUILIZER buspirone (BuSpar) generalized anxiety, OCD, panic ANTICONVULSANTS Valproate (Depakote) panic Pregabalin (Lyrica) generalized anxiety disorder Gabapentin (Neurontin) generalized anxiety, social anxiety A. Panic Attacks For panic attacks, the greatest benefit that medications can provide is to enhance the patient's motivation and accelerate progress toward facing panic and all of its repercussions. For a drug to help in this area, it must help in at least one of the two stages of panic. The first stage is anticipatory anxiety: all the uncomfortable physical symptoms and negative thoughts that rise up as you anticipate facing panic. The second stage is the symptoms of the panic attack itself. Both current research and clinical experience suggest that certain medications may help reduce symptoms during one or both of these stages for some people. However, if a medication can specifically block the panic attack itself, many patients no longer anticipate events with such anxiety and can overcome their phobias more quickly. The primary medications used today for panic disorder are several types of antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the benzodiazepines (sometimes in combination with these SSRIs). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for panic today and offer fewer side effects than the tricyclic antidepressants. These include fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa) and escitalopram (Lexapro). In studies of patients with panic disorder, 75 to 80% of those placed on an SSRI significantly improve. This rate is equal to the success rate of the tricyclic antidepressants that have proven helpful. The serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNR) venlafaxine (Effexor) has also been shown to help control panic attacks, as has the mild tranquilizer buspirone (BuSpar). The most common benzodiazepines for panic attacks are alprazolam (Xanax), alprazolam XR (Xanax XR), and clonazepam (Klonopin). They block panic attacks quicker than the antidepressants, often in a week or two. They are also used as needed before a panic-provoking situation. They tend to have fewer side effects than the antidepressants. However, they can cause withdrawal symptoms as you taper off them. Because alprazolam is quicker acting than clonazepam, its withdrawal effects can be stronger as well. In studies on panic disorder, 43% of patients on alprazolam improved after eight weeks on less than 4 mg per day, and 30% get better on 4 to 6 mg per day. The quick acting nature of alprazolam makes it an ideal medication to take as needed just before panic-provoking events. It takes about 15 to 20 minutes to offer you its anxiety-reducing benefits. If you place it under your tongue to dissolve (called sublingual), it can offer benefits within 5 to 8 minutes. Be ready for its bitter taste! Clonazepam and is the extended release (XR) formula of alprazolam last longer in the body than alprazolam. This allows you to dose twice a day for a full 24-hour coverage, while alprazolam requires four or five dosings for the same period. Some investigators believe they are a better choice than alprazolam during those times because their primary effects are not as strong and also wear off more slowly. When you are practicing the skills of facing your fears, if you notice the effects of a medication, you may tend to attribute your successes more to the medication than to your own efforts. Medications should serve as helpers to your own courage and skills and not get all the credit for good results. Because alprazolam XR’s and clonazepam's effects can be less noticeable, you will be more likely to say, "Hey, I did it!" instead of saying, "Boy, that drug really works well. Thank goodness it was there to save me!" However, some patients don't like how long the effects last. No reliable studies support the use of other minor tranquilizers such as oxazepam (Serax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium) or clorazepate (Tranxene), although these drugs may make the patient feel somewhat calmer. Of the antidepressants, the tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine (Tofranil) has the longest track record for treating panic attacks. Other tricyclic antidepressant drugs that can help control panic attacks are desipramine (Norpramin or Pertofrane), nortriptyline (Aventyl or Pamelor), amitriptyline (Elavil), doxepin (Sinequan or Adapin), trazodone (Desyrel) and clomipramine (Anafranil). In studies of patients with panic disorder, 75 to 80% of those placed on an antidepressant significantly improve. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are another family of antidepressants that manage the symptoms of panic. Research studies support extensive clinical experience that shows phenelzine (Nardil) as the preferred MAOI. Tranylcypromine (Parnate) is also sometimes effective. The antidepressants amoxapine (Asendin) and maprotiline (Ludiomil) are not generally effective for panic disorder. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) does not have enough evidence yet to verify its effectiveness for panic. If a physician recommends a combination of a benzodiazepine and an antidepressant, two approaches are possible. One is to take the antidepressant daily and use a benzodiazepine as needed for increased periods of anxiety or panic. Another method is to use the benzodiazepine with the antidepressant during the first month or two of treatment. As the primary effects of the antidepressant begin, after 4 to 8 weeks, the patient then slowly tapers off the benzodiazepine. B. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder For those suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), medications can reduce the degree of intensity of the worries and their corresponding distress. Medications do not prevent obsessions from occurring. However, when the medication lessens the strength of the worries, the patient can then use self-help skills to control them. The SSRIs appear helpful in treating OCD, as well as the antidepressants clomipramine (Anafranil) and venlafaxine (Effexor). The anti-obsessional benefits of any of these medications may not be fully apparent until 5 to 10 weeks after treatment starts. Imipramine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), venlafaxine, alprazolam and the mild tranquilizer buspirone (BuSpar) also show some indications of being useful for certain individuals. In addition, some patients with OCD may also have an underlying mood disorder and can benefit by the drug lithium. About 20% of individuals with OCD also have tics, which are sudden, uncontrollable physical movements (such as eye blinking) or Tourette’s syndrome, which includes vocalizations (such as throat clearing). The atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, clozapine and quetiapine, and the blood pressure drugs clonidine and guanfacine, can help with these tics and Tourette’s symptoms. Your physician can help determine what medications can be used in combination with any of these. Tricyclic antidepressants and Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) have not been shown to be helpful for OCD. C. General Anxiety For those with general anxiety, medications help reduce some of the symptoms of anxiety. All of the SSRIs appear beneficial, as well as many of the tricyclic antidepressants. Other commonly prescribed drugs are buspirone (BuSpar), trazodone, venlafaxine and several of the benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax) and chlordiazepoxide (Librium). D. Simple Phobias For those with simple phobias, medications can help to reduce the tensions associated with entering the fearful situation. A patient can take a low dose of a benzodiazepine about one hour before exposure to the phobic stimulus to help reduce anticipatory anxiety. If this is not sufficient, the physician can prescribe a higher dose for the next time. A chemically dependent patient who is not currently abusing drugs might benefit from one that is not attractive to drug abusers, such as oxazaepam (Serax) or chlordiazepoxide (Librium). It is important to note that medications are not a successful primary treatment of simple phobias. The treatment of choice involves many of the steps you have read about in this book-- learning skills of relaxation and gradually approaching your feared situation while applying those skills. Consider medications only as an option to assist you in your efforts. In a novel approach to treating anxiety, researchers are exploring the use of d-cycloserine, an antibiotic, to enhance learning and memory during cognitive behavioral treatment. Small studies with individuals experiencing specific phobias or social anxiety have shown that, taken one hour before "exposure" treatment, this prescribed drug improved subjects’ success rate. E. Social Anxieties and Phobias For those with social anxieties, medications can help to reduce the tensions associated with entering the fearful situation, to bring a racing heart and sweaty palms under control, and to reduce some shyness. Physicians use several classes of medications that are beneficial, individually or in combination. These include the beta-blockers, benzodiazepines, venlafaxine, the SSRIs and trazodone. The drugs with the longest history of use with social anxiety are the beta adrenergic blocking agents, also known as beta blockers. The most commonly used are propranolol (Inderal) and atenolol (Tenormin). The patient can take propranolol as needed or in dosages of 10 to 20 mg three to four times a day, or atenolol in dosages of 25 to 100 mg once daily. Surprisingly, controlled research studies have not supported the widespread anecdotal reports of success with beta blockers. It's possible that their best use is for occasional mild social anxieties associated with performance. The high potency benzodiazepines clonazepam (1-4 mg per day) and alprazolam (1.5 to 6 mg per day) may also be effective. A combination of a beta blocker and low dosages of clonazepam or alprazolam could be best for some individuals. Current research suggests that the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), especially phenelzine, are most highly effective medications for treating those with the more generalized form of social anxiety. In studies, about 70% of subjects improve significantly within four weeks. Occasionally, however, a social phobic can experience an exaggerated response to an MAOI and become too talkative, outgoing or socially uninhibited. In that case the prescribing physician will lower the medication dosage or stop it altogether. One approach to drug treatment that experts recommend for social fears is to begin by taking a medication only as needed. If patients are anxious only about specific events and if they experience primarily physical symptoms (sweating, racing heart, etc.), then about one hour before the event, they can take propranolol or atenolol. Propranolol seems to work better for occasional problems, while atenolol may work better for continued problems. If their symptoms are more cognitive (they worry about their performance or the judgment of others), then they can take alprazolam one hour before the event. If they have a mix of these symptoms then a combination of these medications may be more helpful. Benefits of these drugs should last about four hours. If the social anxiety is more general, unpredictable and widespread, then patients may need to take venlafaxine, an MAOI such as phenelzine, or an SSRI such as sertraline. Keep in mind that these medications take several weeks to work. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) does not have enough evidence yet to verify its effectiveness for social anxiety disorder. As mentioned in the previous section, researchers are currently experimenting with the use of d-cycloserine, an antibiotic, to enhance learning and memory during cognitive behavioral treatment. Small studies have shown its benefit with specific phobias and social anxiety. F. Anxiety or Panic with Depression For those suffering from a combination of depression and anxiety or panic, certain antidepressant medications can help reduce the depressive symptoms while simultaneously helping to control the panic attacks. The physician can prescribe one of the tricyclic antidepressants with sedating effects, such as imipramine or one of the MAOI's. It is also possible to combine the use of a tricyclic antidepressant with buspirone or the benzodiazepine alprazolam. G. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Medications can be effective in treating PTSD, acting to reduce its core symptoms as well as lifting depression and reducing disability. The SSRIs appear to be the medications of choice, with some study showing the benefits of tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs and some anticonvulsants. However, research into the pharmacotherapy of PTSD lags behind that of the other anxiety disorders. In the years to come, other medications or newer drugs may prove to be more effective.Sushmita Haodijam0 Like2 Answers
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A 18-YR -BOY C/O BREATHLESSNESS & PAIN OVER RT CHEST SINCE 5 DAYS.PLEASE FIND OUT ANY THING IN THIS X-RAY ?Dr. Umesh Patnaik2 Likes73 Answers
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WHAT is a PANIC DISORDER ? Many a times, I was forced to go to my casualty to see patients with PD in the middle of the nights. Let me share the information about what I learnt. ! Panic disorder(PD) is a frequent and debilitating psychiatric condition associated with reduced Quality of life and impaired work performance. The condition is characterized by discrete periods of intense fear or discomfort often accompanied by somatic and/or cognitive symptoms. Genuine physical signs such as chest pain, palpitations and shortness of breath resembling the known symptoms of Acute Cardiac events are common. PD often remains undiagnosed or untreated. It is estimated up to 40% of Individuals with panic attacks never seek treatment of any kind. Around 30-40% of patients with chest pain and normal angiographic findings meet the diagnostic criteria of PD. Most of them get labelled as dyspepsia ironically. Between 30-50% of Individuals diagnosed with PD also suffer from Agoraphobia( fear of places and situations that might cause panic or helplessness or embarrassment ), but by itself the prevalence of agoraphobia is considerably higher. Typically onset of PD occurs between late adolescence and the early twenties, but I , myself has seen in premenopausal women very often. Currently the diagnosis of PD is mainly based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM ), which is the standard system to classify mental disorders for clinical studies. The most important risk factor for the development of PD is family history of anxiety disorders. First degree relatives of subjects with PD have a 4-7 times greater risk of developing PD. Finally PD can be defined as an inherited biochemical disturbance in the overall function or structure of GABAergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and/or dopaminergic systems. It is generally agreed that treatment of PD is Long term, lasting minimally 1 year and often 3 yrs or longer. But then the treatment of PD can come only in my next post !Dr. Chakradhar Nannapaneni18 Likes19 Answers
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Respected Curofyians, please help me to solve this case. A female, 18 years, overweight. C/o difficulty in movements of right upper limb 2 years ago when she was studying 10th standard. Occasional tremors were observed in the hand initially. She could write. Lost ability to lift weight and fine actions gradually. Was taken to neurologist. All relevant investigation done Diagnosed to be Dystonia of right upper limb. She is feeling and mother is also telling she has become extremely slow in her actions. She has become mentally also slow and learns very slow. Because of which she has been failed who was among toppersearlier. Now on examination Power good. Tone reduced to 3 No atrophy. No tremors *Reflexes good and intact!!!* Appetite good. Lifestyle good from beginning Menstrual history no problemDr. Mamata Bhagwat3 Likes32 Answers
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Bezoars are uncommon findings in the gastro- intestinal tract and are composed of a wide variety of mate- rials. Large metal bezoars are very rare with only a few case reports till date in literature. We report a case of a metal bezoar in a man with Maniac Depressive Psychosis who had a history of ingesting Nails and screws of sizes varying from 2 cm to 15 cm for more than 1 year without causing any perforation and other acute complication.Dr. Shashank Kumar Srivastav25 Likes34 Answers