Not a single anti epileptic is safe during pregnancy, but u better don't change. Levecetram is comp safe. Put her on 2_4 tsf of duphalac or white cremafin. Or daily insertion of 1_2 dulcolax suppositions in morning hrs. Lot of buttermilk & leafy vegetables in diet . More of fibers.
Please build on dose of levecetram. Please don't taper or change medicines. A seizure now can be catastrophic. Of course there are side effects of the AEDs, but not taking them puts the mother at risk of convulsions which, and I repeat, can be catastrophic. Add folate, but talk to the obstetrician. Folate can have teratogenic effects in over adequate dose.
For grandmal epilepsy oxcarbazepine is a bad choice U can continue levitiracetam Slowly taper oxcarb Start on folic acid, methylcobalamine
Sir , Levecetram is safe in pregnancy, Oxcarbamazepine also has no proved study of having any effect on fetus nor on IQ of baby( as per study). But regarding use of antiepileptic drug in pregnancy,the protocol should be... *To change to safer drug 6 months before conception. *To give folic acid minimum for 3 months preconceptionally,5 mg od because folic acid reduces the harmful effects of these drugs. *If already on one drug continue it. *NO DRUG IS SAFE IN FIRST TRIMESTER. *Best is to give one drug. Here,as patient is already stable on Oxcarbamazepine and Levecetram... continue these. Add folic acid. Continuous fetal monitoring is important here. Adv NT scan at 12 wks. Anomaly scan at 19-20 wks.
Almost all antiepileptic drugs are not safe in pregnancy.Continue the same treatment and consult the Neurophysician for her follow-up.
Protocol is that to put patient on single drug Tab levecetram is relatively safe Continue folic acid whole pregnancy NT scan at 12 - 13 weeks Good anomaly scan at 19 to 20 weeks
Risk factor is more, refer to Gyanecologist.
Please continue with same antiepileptic drugs
Agree with Dr sailesh modi, taper and stopOXY carb and increase the dose of levecetram
Cases that would interest you
- Login to View the image
12 YEARS OLD CHILD CAME WITH HISTORY OF SEIZURE , NOT WELL EXPLAINED BY ATTENDANTS BUT WHAT I CAUGHT, NATURE WAS GENERALISED TONIC NOT CLONIC WITH UPROLLING OF EYEBALLS , SIMILAR EPISODE IN PAST TWO TIMES, EVER TIME NOT EXCEEDING FIVE MINUTES NO HISTORY OF EPILEPSY IN FAMILY NO FEVER NO FOCAL NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT ON EXAMINATION NO HISTORY OF CONSTIPATION DEVELOPMENT HISTORY NAD PERINATAL HISTORY NAD OPHTHALMOLOGIST OPINION NAD FUNDUS EEG NAD MRI BRAIN ATTACHED PVL ? HIE I HAD TALKED TO RADIOLOGIST I WAS KEEN TO SEARCH METABOLIC CAUSE OF SUCH FINDINGS OR WHITE MATTER DISEASE BECAUSE MOTHER WAS NOT GIVING HISTORY OF PERINATAL ASSAULT BUT RADIOLOGIST SAID BASAL GANGLIA INVOLVEMENT IS MUCH MORE IN KRABEE LIKE DISEASES HOW TO FURTHER APPROACH,SHOULD WE START ANTIEPILEPTIC TSH PTH REPORTS AWAITING ATTACHED MY PRESCRIPTION TOO@Dr. Manish Verma @Dr. Minol Amin @Dr. Sree Harsha @Dr. Brahmananda Merugu @Dr. Saumya Mittal @Dr. Mohd Izhar Jaweed @Dr. Ahemad KarimDr. Ashok Pareek2 Likes16 Answers
- Login to View the image
Good evening everyone..... Identity the plant & it's uses.Dr. Vasundhara Nanavaty6 Likes32 Answers
- Login to View the image
-A male patient age about 31 years old - A case of CSM -A C/O severe neck pain left upper limb numbness hamiprasis since last week 4/2/2021 - H/O CAD - H/O lifestyle poor diets hardworking Not know HTN DM COPD IBS TB epilepsy -No C/O fever. Cold. Cough -No Costipetion O/E Patient Counsicsess Dullness PR:90 TM BP:110/70 mmhg Temp: normal Spo2 :99% Motor sensory aphasia 3/4 GCS:E.4 V5. M6Dr. T.s Mohammed Imran4 Likes15 Answers
- Login to View the image
Panchakarma- Five Teatments -1 Pancha Karma is the cornerstone to Ayurvedic management of disease. Pancha Karma is the process which gets to the root cause of the problem and corrects the essential balance of 'Tridosha' in body. Pancha Karma is not only good for alleviating disease but is also a useful tool in maintaining excellent health. Ayurveda advises undergoing Pancha Karma at the seasonal changes to clean the body, improve the digestion and to improve the metabolic processes. Panchakarma is a Sanskrit word that means "five actions" or "five treatments ". This age-old science of purifying the body is an ancient branch of Ayurveda, The Treatment in Ayurveda consists of two main types. One is Shaman Chikitsa, used to subdue the vitiated Doshas, due to which any ailments may be produced. It is administered by using various medicinal herbo-mineral preparations. However, if the Doshas are vitiated beyond a particular level, they give rise to various endotoxins, which have a tendency to be accumulated in the minute channels. These are beyond the level of pacification and hence need to be eliminated or removed from the body. In such cases, the second type of treatment, which is Shodhan Chikitsa or cleansing therapy, is indicated. Since it consists of the five types of main therapies, it is known as the Panchakarma Chikitsa. Panchakarma has been given a special place in all the ancient Ayurvedic texts. Aacharya Charak, the author of the most important ancient text on internal medicine, has described a wide use of Panchakarma therapy for almost all the major diseases. Two separate sections, Kalpa Sthanam, and Siddhi Sthanam in Charak Samhita describe the details of special decoctions and other preparations used for Panchakarma therapy. Panchakarma includes three parts namely: Poorva Karma (Preparatory Methods)which includes : Paachan (Digestion) Snehan (Internal and external oleation) Swedan (Fomentation) Pradhan Karma (Main methods)which includes : Vaman (Induced vomiting) Virechan (Induced purgation) Basti (Medicated enema) Nasya (Nasal medicine) Rakta Mokshan (Artificial bloodletting) Pashchat Karma (Post-Therapeutic Measures)which includes: Sansarjan Krama (Specific dietetics), DhumaPana (smoking of medicinal cigars) and some rules to follow specific activities. Purvakarma : Pre-purification Measures Before the actual operation of purification begins, there is a need to prepare the body in prescribed methods to encourage the body to let go of the toxins. The two procedures are 'snehan' and 'swedan'. Snehan is the oil massage. Oil is applied to the entire body with a particular type of massage which helps the toxins to move towards the gastro-intestinal tract. Oil massage also makes the superficial and deep tissues soft and supple. Snehan is given daily for three to seven days, as indicated. Swedan is sudation or sweating and is given every day immediately following the snehan. An herbal concoction may be added to the steam to further loosen the toxins from the individual. Swedan liquefies the toxins and increases the movement of toxins into the gastro-intestinal tract. After three to seven days of snehan and swedan, the doshas become well "ripened". A particular panchakarma method is then given according to the individual's constitution and disorder, prakruti and vikruti, respectively. Panchakarma - Five Basic Shodhans: Cleansing Methods 1) Vaman : therapeutic vomiting or emesis 2) Virechan : purgation 3) Basti : enema 4) Nasya : elimination of toxins through the nose 5) Rakta moksha : detoxification of the blood Vaman: Emesis Therapy When there is congestion in the lungs causing repeated attacks of bronchitis, colds, cough or asthma, the Ayurvedic treatment is therapeutic vomiting, vaman, to eliminate the kapha causing the excess mucus. First, after the snehan and swedan, three to four glasses of licorice or salt water is administered, then vomiting is stimulated by rubbing the tongue which triggers the vomiting center through the gag reflex. One may alternatively take two to three glasses of salt water which will also aggravate kapha and then rub the tongue to induce vomiting. Once the mucus is released the patient will feel instantly relieved. It is likely that congestion, wheezing and breathlessness will disappear and that the sinuses will become clear. Therapeutic vomiting is also indicated in chronic asthma, diabetes, chronic cold, lymphatic congestion, chronic indigestion and edema. Emetic Substances: madan-emetic nut, madhuka-yastimadhu-licorice, neem-bitter leaf, bimbi, kutaj-kurchi- conessi bark, murva-clematis, triloba-devdaru-deodar, Cedrus deodara, Salt, NaCl, ela-cardamom, nux vomica. Indications for Vaman : used for all kapha type disorders good for pitta headache, dizziness, and nausea will help to release blocked emotions respiratory congestion bronchitis chronic cold sinus congestion kaphagenic asthma Contra-Indications for Vaman : below the age of 12 or over age 65 menstruation pre-menstrual period (one week prior) pregnancy emaciation delicate or sensitive person with too much fear, grief or anxiety hypoglycemia vata prakruti vata diseases heart diseases during vata season acute fever diarrhea obesity Virechan : Purgation Therapy When excess bile, pitta, is secreted and accumulated in the gall bladder, liver and small intestine, it tends to result in rashes, skin inflammation, acne, chronic attacks of fever, biliary vomiting, nausea and jaundice. Ayurvedic literature suggests in these conditions the administration of therapeutic purgation or a therapeutic laxative. Virechan is facilitated with senna leaves, flax seeds, psyllium husks or triphala in a combination that is appropriate for the individual person. Virechan Substances: Senna, prune, bran, flaxseed husk, dandelion root, psyllium seed, cow's milk, salt, castor oil, raisins, mango juice, triphala. Indications for Virechan: allergic rash skin inflammation acne, dermatitis, eczema chronic fever ascites biliary vomiting jaundice urinary disorder enlargement of the spleen internal worms burning sensation in the eyes inflammation of the eyes conjunctivitis gout Contra-Indications for Virechan: low agni acute fever diarrhea severe constipation bleeding from rectum or lung cavities foreign body in the stomach after enema emaciation or weakness prolapsed rectum alcoholism dehydration childhood old age ulcerative colitisAyurveda-Panchakarma Basti & Nasya -2 Basti: Enema Therapy Vata's predominant site is the colon. Ayurvedic basti involves the introduction into the rectum of herbal concoctions of sesame oil, and certain herbal preparations in a liquid medium. Basti, is the most effective treatment of vata disorders, although many enemas over a prescribed period of time are usually required. It relieves constipation, distention, chronic fever, cold, sexual disorders, kidney stones, heart pain, backache, sciatica and other pains in the joints. Many other vata disorders such as arthritis, rheumatism, gout, muscle spasms and headaches may also be treated with basti. Vata is a very active principle in pathogenesis. If we can control vata through the use of basti, we have gone a long way in going to the root cause of the vast majority of diseases. Vata is the main etiological factor in the manifestation of diseases. It is the motive force behind the elimination and retention of feces, urine, bile and other excreta. There are eight main types of basti, according to traditional texts, each with their own indications and contra-indications as listed below. 1. Anuvasana (oil enema) is used in pure vata disorders and when a person is having excess hunger or dryness related to vata imbalances. 2. Niruha-Asthapana (decoction enema) is used, among other conditions, for evacuation of vata, nervous diseases, gastro-intestinal vata conditions, gout, certain fever conditions, unconsciousness, certain urinary conditions, appetite, pain, hyperacidity and heart diseases. 3. Uttara Basti (through the urethra with men or vagina with women) is used for selected semen and ovulation disorders and for some problems involving painful urination or bladder infections. This is not to be used for someone with diabetes. 4. Matra Basti (daily oil enema) is used by someone emaciated by overwork or too much exercise, too much heavy lifting, walking too long of a distance, too much sexual activity or someone with chronic vata disorders. It does not need to be accompanied by any strict dietary restriction or daily routine and can be administered, in the appropriate cases, in all seasons. It gives strength, promotes weight and helps elimination of waste products. 5. Karma Basti (schedule of 30 bastis), 6. Kala Basti (schedule of 15 bastis; 10 oil + 5 decoction) 7. Yoga Basti (schedule of 8 bastis; 5 oil + 3 decoction). 8. Bruhana Basti (nutritional enema) is used for providing deep nutrition in select conditions. Traditionally, highly nutritive substances have been used, such as warm milk, meat broth, bone marrow soup and herbs like shatavari or ashwagandha. General Indications for Basti: constipation low back ache gout rheumatism sciatica arthritis nervous disorders vata headache emaciation muscular atrophy General Contra-Indications for Basti (include but are not limited to the following): Enema therapy should not be used if the patient is suffering from diarrhea, bleeding of the rectum, chronic indigestion, breathlessness, diabetes, fever, emaciation, severe anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, old age or for children below the age of seven years. for oil enemas: diabetes, obesity, indigestion, low agni, enlarged liver or spleen, unconsciousness, tuberculosis and cough. for decoction enemas: debility, hiccough, hemorrhoids, inflammation of anus, piles, diarrhea, pregnancy, ascites, diabetes and some conditions involving painful or difficult breathing. for nutritional enemas: diabetes, obesity, lymphatic obstruction, ascites. for urethra or vaginal enemas: diabetes Nasya: Nasal Administration The nose is the doorway to the brain and it is also the doorway to consciousness. The nasal administration of medication is called nasya. An excess of bodily humors accumulated in the sinus, throat, nose or head areas is eliminated by means of the nearest possible opening, the nose. Prana, life force as nerve energy, enters the body through the breath taken in through the nose. Prana is in the brain and maintains sensory and motor functions. Prana also governs mental activities, memory, concentration and intellectual activities. Deranged prana creates defective functioning of all these activities and produces headaches, convulsions, loss of memory and reduced sensory perception. Thus nasal administration, nasya is indicated for prana disorders, sinus congestion, migraine headaches, convulsions and certain eye and ear problems. There are six main types of nasya, as listed below. 1. Pradhamana (virechan) Nasya (cleansing nasya) uses dry powders (rather than oils) that are blown into the nose with a tube. Pradhamana nasya is mainly used for kapha types of diseases involving headaches, heaviness in the head, cold, nasal congestion, sticky eyes, hoarseness of voice due to sticky kapha, sinusitis, cervical lymph adenitis, tumors, worms, some skin diseases, epilepsy, drowsiness, Parkinsonism, inflammation of the nasal mucosa, attachment, greed and lust. Traditionally, powders such as brahmi are used. 2. Bruhana Nasya (nutrition nasya) uses ghee, oils, salt, shatavari ghee, ashwagandha ghee and medicated milk and is used mainly for vata disorders. It is said to benefit conditions resulting from vata imbalances such as vata-type headaches, migraine headache, dryness of voice, dry nose, nervousness, anxiety, fear, dizziness, emptiness, negativity, heaviness of eyelids, bursitis, stiffness in the neck, dry sinuses and loss of sense of smell. 3. Shaman Nasya (sedative nasya) is used according to which dosha is aggravated but mainly for pitta-type disorders such as thinning of hair, conjunctivitis and ringing in the ears. Generally certain herbal medicated decoctions, teas and medicated oils are used. 4. Navana Nasya (decoction nasya) is used in vata-pitta or kapha-pitta disorders and is made from decoctions and oils together. 5. Marshya Nasya (ghee or oil nasya) 6. Prati Marshya (daily oil nasya) This helps to open deep tissues and can be done every day and at any time to release stress. Substances Used in Nasya: brahmi, ginger, ghee oils, decoctions, onion, garlic, Piper longum, black pepper, curry pepper, rose, jasmine, mogra flowers and henna. Indications for Nasya: stress emotional imbalances stiffness in the neck & shoulders dryness of the nose sinus congestion hoarseness migraine headache convulsions Contra-Indications for Nasya: sinus infections pregnancy menstruation after sex, bathing, eating or drinking of alcohol should not be used below 7 years or over 80 years of age Click here to read more about 'Nasyakarma' Raktamoksha : Traditional Ayurvedic Method for Purification and Cleansing of the Blood Toxins present in the gastro-intestinal tract are absorbed into the blood and circulated throughout the body. This condition is called toxemia, which is the basic cause of repeated infections, hypertension and certain other circulatory conditions. This includes repeated attacks of skin disorders such as urticaria, rashes, herpes, eczema, acne, leukoderma, chronic itching or hives. In such conditions, along with internal medication, elimination of the toxins and purification of the blood is necessary. Raktamoksha is also indicated for cases of enlarged liver, spleen and gout. Extracting a small amount of blood from a vein relieves the tension created by the pittagenic toxins in the blood. Bloodletting also stimulates the spleen to produce antitoxic substances which helps to stimulate the immune system. Toxins are neutralized enabling radical cures in many blood born disorders. Bloodletting is contraindicated in cases of anemia, edema, extreme weakness, diabetes and in children and elderly persons. Indications for Raktamoksha: urticaria rash acne eczema scabies leukoderma chronic itching hives enlarged liver or spleen gout Contra-Indications for Raktamoksha: anemia edema weakness young children old age during pregnancy during menstruation Read more about Various Diseases and Indicated Panchakarma procedures for them > @Dr. Tapan Kumar Sau15 Likes22 Answers
- Login to View the image
ZINCUM GROUP - THE GROUP WHICH IS LEAST UNDERSTOOD. REMEDIES: ZINC-MET ZINC-PHOS ZINC-IOD ZINC-ARS ZINC-SULPH ZINC-VALERIANA ZINCUM METALLICUM SPHERE OF ACTIONS: BRAIN and NERVES [occiput; spine; orbital region]. Root of Nose. Blood. Inner canthi. Left side. Right side. POINTERS: IT IS A METAL THOUGH NOT AS STRONG AS FERRUM & CUPRUM. IT IS TIMID, SENSITIVE & THEREFORE LEFT SIDED. BEING A TIMID METAL IT HAS LOT OT IRRITABILITY. IRRITABILITY ALTERNATES WITH RESTLESSNESS. LEGS MOVES CONSTANTLY & THE PATIENT HIMSELF IS VERY RESTLESS. NERVE AFFECTION & BRAIN AFFECTIONS IS PREDOMINANT. BECAUSE OF WEAK NERVES THERE IS CONSTANT TREMBLING OF LEGS. PATIENT REPEATS THE SAME SENTENCES SAID TO HIM. VERY HURRIED IN EATING. CHANGEABLE MOOD. RELIGIOUS. ZINCUM MET = NUX-V + BARYTA ZINC. WHEN WE SEE NUX-V LIKE ANGRY PERSON WITH DULL INTELLECT OF BARYTA. BRAIN OF BARYTA & BODY OF NUX-V MAKE ZINCUM CONSTITUTION WHO WANTS TO PERFORM PHYSICALLY WHO HAS COMPETITIVE SPIRIT, LOVE TO COMPETE IN RACE BUT NOT MANIPULATIVE. WHEN COMPREHENSION & CONCENTRATION IN SPORTY CHILDREN IS WANTING. THEY NEED REPEATATION OF QUESTIONS, THEY REPEAT THINGS SAID TO THEM. ALL SUPPRESSION AGGRAVATES. ALL DISCHARGE OR EXTERIORIZATION ON SKIN AMELIORATES MENTAL SYMPTOMS AGGRAVATES WHEN ERUPTIONS OR PILES ARE SUPPRESSED. HYSTERIA WHEN MENSES SCANTY OR SUPPRESSED. MANIA WHEN ERUPTIONS SUPPRESSED. SOMNABULISM WHEN EMOTIONS ARE SUPPRESSED. COMA AFTER SUPPRESSED ERUPTIONS. CHOREA AFTER SUPPRESSED ERUPTONS. VERTIGO AFTER SUPPRESSED FOOT SWEAT. ANAESTHESIA OR NUMBNESS FROM SUPPRESSION OF ERUPTIONS. ALL SUPPRESSION INCLUDE SEXUAL DESIRE, MEASLES AFFECT ZINC. SUPPRESSED ERUPTION CAUSING PROBLEM TO NERVOUS SYSTEM – CUP-MET, ZINC-MET, MERC, AGAR, CAUST, STRAM, SULPH. SULPH NEED IS ESTEEM STRAM NEED IS SUPPORT AGAR NEED IS ESTEEM CAUST NEED IS SUPPORT (AS IT IS SALT OF KALI) MERC NEED IS ESTEEM CUP-MET NEED IS ESTEEM ZINC-MET NEED IS ESTEEM. AMONGS METALS MERC IS CHAOTIC, REBELIOUS, CONTRARY. CUP-MET IS RIGID, PEDANT, DOMINATING, THINK HE IS GENERAL. ZINC-MET IS TIMID, EMOTIONAL, SYMPATHETIC TO ANIMALS, HORRIBLE THINGS AFFECT HIM PROFOUNDLY. PHYSICAL GENERAL CHILLY THIRSTLESS CONTINUE MOTION, RESTLESSNESS. CNS AFFECTIONS SUPPRESSED ERUPTION. CHILD OF ZINC: PEEVISH, FRETFUL CHILD WHO CRY & GET VEXED IF MOVED IN SLEEP (SO DEEP IN HIS SLEEP THEY HATE TO BE DISTURBED DURING THEIR SLEEP) CHILD WHO SCREAM WITH PAIN LIKE BELLA, MOSCH. THOSE WHO REPEAT QUESTIONS BEFORE ANSWERS. CHILD WHO ARE MUDDLE IN BRAIN & MOVES LEGS CONSTANTLY IN ANY POSITION. CHILD WHO COMPLAINT OF HEADACHE & DIM VISION WHEN THEY COME FROM WALKING IN SUN (FROM SCHOOL). CHILD WHO GET HERPES IN MOUTH FROM SEA BATHING. CHILD WHO DEVELOP BRAIN AFFECTIONS, EPILEPSY AFTER SUDDEN STOPPAGE OF DIARRHOEA OR DISAPPEARANCE OF CONSTIPATION IN NEW BORN. CEREBRAL PALSY CHILD WHO TAKES STRANGE POSITION TO URINATE (BENDING BACK CROSSING THE LIMBS). SHREIKING IN SLEEP WIHOUT GETTING UP FROM SLEEP. WOMAN OF ZINC: LADIES WHO ARE RESTLESS, SAD, COLDNESS OF BODY, SENSITIVE SPINE, & FIDGETY FEET, ALL THIS SYMPTOMS ARE FOUND IN ANY OF THE WOMAN COMPLAINTS. CANT KEEP LEG & FEET STILL (i.e. RESTLESS). CHEMICALLY ZINC IS SIMILAR TO MAGNESIUM… PSORIC ZINCUM IS VERY SENSITIVE.. SENSITIVE TO MENTAL IMPRESSION. HORRIBLE STORIES AFFECT HIM PROFOUNDLY. HOME & PEOPLE… CAUSES HOMESICKNESS. SENSITIVE TO MUSIC (PIANO), TO NOISE (CRACKLING OF PAPER), TO TALKING, TO VOICE OF PEOPLE. AIR INHALED SENSITIVE TO. LIVER SENSITIVE TO CLOTHES (MENSES DURING). WEAK NECK (WHILE WRITING), SENSITIVE WEAK BACK. SENSITIVE TO MILK. SENSITIVE TO HIGH POTENCIES. ZINC IS BLUISH LUSTROUS METAL… SO BLUISH GREENISH DISCOLORATION OF SKIN. VISION BLUE COLOUR BEFORE EYES. BLUENESS AROUND EYES, AROUND MOUTH. HAND & FEET BLUE DISCOLORATION. ZINC COMMERCIALLY HAVE DULL FURNISH… SO DULL INTELLECT. NO SHOW OFF… SIMPLE PEOPLE. BARYTA TYPE OF MIND & NUX-V TYPE OF BODY. THOUGH METAL BUT TIMID, THIS GIVES IT INCONSTANCY (CHANGEABLE MOOD) INSTABILITY GIVES RISE TO RESTLESSNESS, MUST MOVES, DESIRE TO MOVE WITH ALTERNATING SIDE. EASILY EMOTIONAL. EASILY ANGEREDr. Alapati Vijay Kumar11 Likes14 Answers