Dr.Thanks. Kindly advice on tubal blockage and how to effectively Rx in any system of med.
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Wich are the best medicine for this ?
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Friends today I am discussing about a serious problem in males known as Low sperm count. Most of the newly married couple wants baby in first or second year of marriage. But if they don't succeed very few males check their sperm count most people think that the problem is in female. for more such like articles plz like my face book page Kamla Clinic Pathankot. Low sperm count is a condition called oligospermia This is the term used to describe the condition when the sperm count is low, less than 15 million sperm/ml. If there are no sperm at all in the semen sample, the condition is termed azoospermia. When you are trying to have children, the number of sperm you ejaculate is quite important. In cases of low sperm or no sperm, we recommend coming in for an appointment to examine male fertility factors and medical history. For the medical history, specific questions will be asked about any past condition that may have affected the testicles. In order to determine the best treatment options, the specialist will also ask questions regarding whether there were any operations in the groin area, undescended testicles in childhood or whether there has been any major injury or infection in the genital area. Low Sperm Count Resources Testicular Mapping Increase Your Sperm Count What Causes Low Sperm Count? While the average man can produce this many sperm multiple times per day, sometimes an internal factor, such as varicocele, could lower the number of sperm. External factors such as smoking, drug usage, poor diet and lack of exercise can also all decrease sperm count. Here are some of the external factors that could impact your sperm count: Heat can have a detrimental effect on normal sperm production. It is for this reason that nature has placed the testicles outside the body in the scrotum rather than in the abdomen like the ovaries. Soaking in a bathtub full of hot water can almost halt sperm production completely. Obese men can also become sterile because the sagging layers of fat can overheat the testicles. Men whose jobs involve long hours of sitting, e.g. long distance lorry-drivers may have infertility due to the increased heat to the genital area. Very frequent intercourse can lead to the demand exceeding the supply. There are quite a number of infertile men whose sex drive is such that they must ejaculate 2-3 times a day thus giving them a lower sperm count. Smoking over 20 cigarettes a day has been shown to reduce both the sperm count and sperm motility. Excessive alcohol intake can lead to infertility. Alcohol can lower the production of sperm and of the male hormone testosterone. A workaholic husband may find that stress and fatigue can potentially interfere with sperm production. Infected semen can also be a cause of infertility. Previously it was believed that mumps could cause sterility in men. However, it is now known that even when the testicles are involved in mumps such as orchitis (a very painful swelling of the testicles), it is extremely rare for this to lead to sterility. Sperm Analysis to Help Increase Sperm Count Defining a person's sperm count is a complex process. There are a number of measurements that are considered in semen analysis. First, a physician will look at the concentration -- how many sperm there are per cc or milliliter of semen (the fluid). Next, we need to know how many cc of semen are present. So a count of 40 million sperm per cc with only 1cc of fluid may not be as good as a count with 18 million and 4cc. We like to see more than 20 million sperm per cc and 2-5cc of semen. Another measurement to consider is what percentage of the sperm is moving forward progressively; 50 percent motility is considered normal. The next factor is sperm morphology which determines what percentage of sperm look normal. When you assess the fertilizing potential of a given specimen, you must consider all these factors. Thus, a slight abnormality in sperm count may be compensated for by better motility or an increase in volume. What Problems May Be Identified During Examination Every infertile man must be carefully examined. The examination of the external genitalia in the male rarely shows anything out of the ordinary. However, sometimes one or both testicles are very small or rarely may even be absent. Additionally there may be congenital absence of each vas deferens, the ducts through which sperm pass from the testicles to the female at intercourse. Other factors which may contribute to lowered fertility, and which can be identified on examination include a wide range of chemical substances that can affect sperm quality and/or quantity, including medications. The medications listed below have been associated with male infertility: Anabolic steroids Antihypertensives Allopurinol Erythromycin Chemotherapy Cimetidine Colchicine Cyclosporine Dilantin Gentamycin Nitrofurantoin Tetracycline Low Sperm Count Treatment Treatment options for men with low sperm count vary depending on the cause of the condition. For example, surgery is the most common treatment for men suffering from varicocele. For low sperm count due to infections of the urinary/reproductive tract, antibiotics can be prescribed to help clear the infection. Medication and hormone replacement treatment options can also be used when the cause of low sperm count is related to a hormone imbalance. In cases of low sperm motility, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments would be used to facilitate conception by inserting sperm into the female reproductive tract. Recommended homeopathic Treatment for low sperm count (Oligospermia): The recommended homeopathic medicines for low sperm count are X-Ray, Agnus Castus, Conium, Aurum Met and Rhododendron. X-Ray is a very effective medicine to improve the sperm count when accompanied by general debility, fatigue and low vitality. Agnus Castus is helpful when oligospermia is accompanied with diminished sexual powers (erectile dysfunction). Conium works well to improve sperm count in males having orchitis as the cause. The last medicines i.e. Aurum Met and Rhododendron are helpful for low sperm count wherein hydrocele is the cause.Dr. Rajesh Gupta8 Likes9 Answers
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ABC OF : TESTICULAR CANCER. (Part II ). MAY BE USEFUL. *** TESTICULAR CANCER TYPES :- More than 90% testicular tumors originate from the testicular cells (also known as GERM CELL TUMORS). There are TWO PRIMARY HISTOLOGICAL VARIETIES : SEMINOMA and NONSEMINOMA. *** IT'S VERY RARE....... Fewer than 100 thousand cases per year in India....... Treatable by a medical professionals....... Requires a medical diagnosis....... Lab tests or imaging always required....... Consult a doctor for medical advice....... *** RISK FACTORS :- Scientists have found few risk factors that make someone more likely to develop testicular cancer. Also, most boys and men with testicular cancer do not have any of the known risk factors....... Risk factors for testicular cancer include : * AN UNDESCENDED TESTICLE * FAMILY HISTORY OF TESTICULAR CANCER * CARCINOMA IN SITU OF THE TESTICLE * HIV INFECTION * HAVING HAD TESTICULAR CANCER BEFORE * Being of a CERTAIN RACE/ETHNICITY....... * BODY SIZE....... Several studies have found that tall men have a somewhat higher risk of testicular cancer, but some other studies have not. Most studies have not found a link between testicular cancer and body weight. * AGE....... ABOUT HALF of TESTICULAR CANCERS OCCUR in men BETWEEN the ages of 20 AND 34. But this cancer can affect males of any age, including infants and elderly men....... *** CAN TESTICULAR CANCER BE FOUND EARLY ? Most testicular cancers can be found at an early stage. In some men, early testicular cancers cause symptoms that lead them to seek medical attention. Most of the time a LUMP ON THE TESTICLE IS THE FIRST SYMPTOM, or the testicle might be swollen or larger than normal. BUT SOME testicular cancers MAY NOT CAUSE SYMPTOMS until after they have REACHED an ADVANCED STAGE....... ***** TESTICULAR SELF-EXAM :- The best time for you to examine your testicles is during or after a bath or shower, when the skin of the scrotum is relaxed. ● Hold your penis out of the way and examine each testicle separately. Hold your testicle between your thumbs and fingers with both hands and roll it gently between your fingers. ● Look and feel for any hard lumps or nodules (smooth rounded masses) or any change in the size, shape, or consistency of your testicles. ● It’s normal for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other, and for one to hang lower than the other. Normal testicles also contain blood vessels, supporting tissues, and tubes that carry sperm. Some men may confuse these with abnormal lumps at first. If you have any concerns, ask your doctor......who will rule out hydrocele or varicocele....... *** SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :- * LUMP or SWELLING IN THE TESTICLE * feeling of HEAVINESS or ACHING IN the LOWER ABDOMEN OR SCROTUM. * Some testicular tumors might cause PAIN, but most of the time they do not. * BREAST GROWTH or SORENESS.......certain types of germ cell tumors secrete high levels of HCG, which stimulates breast development....... Some Leydig cell tumors can make estrogens, which can cause breast growth or LOSS OF SEXUAL DESIRE....... * EARLY PUBERTY IN BOYS : Some Leydig cell tumors can make androgens (male sex hormones)...... Androgen-producing tumors may not cause any specific symptoms in men, but in boys they can cause signs of PUBERTY AT AN ABNORMALLY EARLY AGE, such as a deepening voice and the growth of facial and body hair. *** SYMPTOMS OF ADVANCED TESTICULAR CANCERS :- Even if testicular cancer has SPREAD to other parts of the body, many men might not have symptoms right away. But some men might have some of the FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS: LOW BACK PAIN, from cancer spread to the lymph nodes (bean-sized collections of immune cells) in back of the belly ● SHORTNESS OF BREATH, chest pain, or a cough (even coughing up blood) may develop from cancer spread in the lungs. ● BELLY PAIN, either from enlarged lymph nodes or because the cancer has spread to the liver. ● HEADACHES or CONFUSION, from cancer spread in the brain. ** A number of NON-CANCEROUS CONDITIONS, such as testicle injury or inflammation, CAN CAUSE SYMPTOMS SIMILAR TO those of testicular CANCER. Inflammation of the testicle (known as ORCHITIS) and inflammation of the epididymis (EPIDIDYMITIS) can cause swelling and pain of the testicle. Both of these also can be caused BY VIRAL OR BACTERIAL infections. SIGNS OF TESTICULAR CANCER : Some men with testicular cancer have no symptoms at all, and their cancer is found during medical testing for other conditions. Sometimes IMAGING TESTS done to find the cause of infertility can UNCOVER a small testicular cancer. *** HOW IS TESTICULAR CANCER DIAGNOSED ? Testicular cancer is usually found as a result of symptoms that a person is having. It can also be found as a result of tests for another condition. Often the next step is an exam by a doctor. * ULTRASOUND OF THE TESTICLES * Blood tests for tumor markers like alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). *** NON-SEMINOMAS often raise AFP and/or HCG levels. PURE SEMINOMAS occasionally raise HCG levels but NEVER AFP LEVELS, so any increase in AFP means that the tumor has a non-seminoma component....... * lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH levels can also be increased in conditions other than cancer. A high LDH level often (but not always) indicates widespread disease. * SURGERY TO DIAGNOSE TESTICULAR CANCER : Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing a small piece of the tumor and looking at it under a microscope for cancer cells....... *** IMAGING TESTS :- * Computed tomography (CT) SCAN and CT GUIDED NEEDLE BIOPSY....... * Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) SCAN....... * Positron emission tomography (PET) SCAN....... can help spot small collections of cancer cells in the body....... * Bone scan....... *** SURVIVAL RATES, BY STAGE :- ** Stage 5-Year Relative Survival Rate Localized 99% Regional 96% Distant 73% *** OTHER PROGNOSTIC FACTORS :- As can be seen in the table above, how far the cancer has spread at the time it’s diagnosed can affect chances of long-term survival. But IN GENERAL, the outlook for testicular cancers is VERY GOOD, and most of these cancers can be cured, even if they have spread. Some other factors can also affect outlook, such as: ● The type of testicular cancer ● Levels of tumor markers after the testicular tumor has been removed....... Patient should ASK his DOCTOR how these or other prognostic factors might affect his outlook.......Dr. Puranjoy Saha12 Likes20 Answers
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case f primary infertility.. husband semen an..9 million/ ml sperm count.fsh low, tsh high, ft3,ft4- N , LH-N, sr Testosterone-N, .cc-25 mg given. next mgt..reports attachd..Dr. Santosh Sahu5 Likes11 Answers
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Friends today I am discussing about a serious problem known as Male infertility. Male InfertilityCauses Causes Not all cases of male infertility or azoospermia (no sperm in the ejaculate) are the same or should be treated in the same way. AZOOSPERMIA CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO BROAD CATEGORIES: Obstructive Azoospermia (OA):: OA means that sperm are being produced normally inside the testicle, but there is a blockage or obstruction in the reproductive tubing that is preventing the sperm from flowing to the outside world. Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA): NOA means that the tubes are open, but there is a sperm production problem where either no sperm are produced at all or there is a very low level of sperm production. This level is often so low that the sperm never make it all the way out of the testicle and can only be found inside the testicle during surgery. Causes of Obstructive Azoospermia CAUSES OF OBSTRUCTIVE AZOOSPERMIA CAN BE GENETIC, CONGENITAL, OR ACQUIRED. Vasectomy: The most common cause of obstructive azoospermia, this surgical procedure interrupts the sperm ducts to stop the flow of sperm. Watch this video to learn more about vasectomy and vasectomy reversal. Infection: Obstructive azoospermia can also be caused by infections of the testicles, prostate, or reproductive tract such as epididymitis/orchitis, prostatitis, and venereal diseases such as Chlamydia. These can cause a blockage in the small tubules of the epididymis or the ejaculatory duct. Congenital Conditions: Some men are born missing a portion of the vas deferens that is essentially a genetic situation similar to a vasectomy. Other men are born with a cyst in the prostate that blocks the ejaculatory ducts. Surgical Complications: Surgical procedures performed on the urogenital organs or hernia repair can result in scarring that leads to a blockage. This is more common in pediatric patients because the reproductive tract is so small in children. Causes of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Non-Obstructive azoospermia can be caused by abnormalities within the testicle or with reproductive hormones that control sperm production. The causes can be genetic, congenital or acquired. Some causes can be treated effectively and others can be bypassed to allow a man to father a child with IVF. Some men have a problem with the production of hypothalamic or pituitary hormones and this is treated by replacing the missing hormones in order to encourage sperm production. Genetic Causes: These include chromosomal abnormalities where the number of chromosomes is not as it should be (called aneuploidy) or parts of the chromosome arms break off and switch locations (called translocations). The most common chromosomal problem causing azoospermia in men is a situation where there is an extra X chromosome. This is called Klinefelter Syndrome. Another genetic cause of azoospermia is a deletion of some of the genes on the Y-chromosome. The Y-chromosome is responsible for giving men their “male” characteristics. When one or more of the genes on this chromosome that is responsible for sperm production are deleted, it can result in azoospermia. Genetic causes of azoospermia are not reversible but most men with genetic issues still produce small amounts of sperm within the testicles that can be used to father normal children. Varicocele: This reversible cause of NOA is characterized by varicose veins around the testicle. This condition is the most common cause of male infertility and is easily fixable. Most varicoceles only cause a minor lowering of sperm count but in some cases the varicocele results in azoospermia. You can learn more about varicocele and varicocele repair here. Hypospermatogenesis: This means that there is sperm production within the testicle but just at lower amounts than normal, and what would be required to see sperm on a routine semen analysis. This is the most common finding on biopsy. Maturation Arrest: In this situation there is a problem in the development of sperm during the maturation phase that causes the testicle to fill with only precursor sperm. This arrest in development can occur at an early or late stage of the sperm maturation process. There is close to a 50% chance of finding some mature usable sperm in this situation. Causes of Male Infertility & Azoospermia Sertoli-Cell Only Syndrome (SCO) or Germ Cell Aplasia (GCA): This is typically a worst-case-scenario cause of NOA. With SCO or GCA, the germ cells that divide and become sperm are missing from the testicle. But even in this situation 15-20% of men with SCO will have some low level of sperm production somewhere within the testicle. One of the most important things we have learned about the testicle in the last 20 years is that sperm production in the abnormal situation is not homogeneous, meaning it is not the same or constant in all areas of the testicle. So, while one area might have scarred tubules with SCO pattern, another area might have some germ cells and some mature sperm. This phenomenon has led to the development of microsurgical sperm extraction techniques that enable the reproductive surgeon to examine the inside of the testicles, specifically the seminiferous tubules, using a microscope. This means there is a greater chance of finding an area that has sperm, and a better chance of becoming a biological father. Testicular Cancer: Sometimes the first sign of testicular cancer or other tumors of the reproductive system is azoospermia or a very low sperm count. This is one of the most important reasons why a male reproductive specialist must examine someone with an abnormal sperm count. By detecting the tumor early, it could save a patient’s life. Medical Treatments: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy used to treat cancer are two types of medical treatment that can cause temporary azoospermia. Most men who undergo these treatments will have sperm production resume within two years following therapy, depending on the type of treatment received. Prescription Drugs: Among the biggest drug-related causes of NOA are testosterone and other anabolic steroids. These can cause sterilization and are a very common and usually reversible cause of azoospermia. Overwhelming Oxidative Stress causes sperm damage There are numerous causes of male infertility but no matter what the etiology, the final common pathway to sperm damage (DNA fragmentation) is through free radical peroxidation leading to overwhelming amounts of oxidative stress on the sperm. Ironically, oxidative stress is necessary for normal sperm function and sperm actually produce free radicals, but when more stress is generated than the system can compensate for, the body is unable to neutralize the toxins which ultimately injure the sperm cell membrane and the sperm DNA. This leads to functional impairment of the sperm cell and, ultimately, infertility. Best Homeopathic Medicines for Oligospermia Many homeopathic remedies have been known to cure Low sperm Count. Some of these are; Agnus Castus: Sexual melancholy. Fear of death. Sadness with impression of speedy death. Absentminded, forgetful, lack of courage. Illusion of smell-herrings, musk. Nervous depression and mental forebodings. Yellow discharge from urethra. No erections. Impotence. Parts cold, relaxed. Desire gone (Selen; Con; Sabal). Scanty emission without ejaculation. Loss of prostatic fluid on straining. Gleety discharge. Testicles, cold, swollen, hard, and painful. Anacardium Orientalis: Fixed ideas. Hallucinations; thinks he is possessed of two persons or wills. Anxiety when walking, as if pursued. Profound melancholy and hypochondriasis, with tendency to use violent language. Brain-fag. Impaired memory. Absent mindedness. Very easily offended. Malicious; seems bent on wickedness. Lack of confidence in himself or others. Suspicious (Hyos). Clairaudient, hears voices far away or of the dead. Senile dementia. Absence of all moral restraint. Voluptuous itching; increased desire; seminal emissions without dreams. Prostatic discharge during stool. Argentum Nitricum: The patient is intellectual strong, patient complaint of memory loss, along with disturbed sense of reasoning. Patient is involved in foolish task, with strange conclusions. Patient experience strange illusions and hallucinations. His mind is full of useless and troublesome thoughts specially at night time, which makes him very anxious. Due to anxiety patients keeps on walking.Melancholia.Weak of memory, It seems time passes very slowly. Dulness of head, mental confusion ; dizziness ; tendency to fall sideways. Caladium: Patient is unable to remember things, he is very forgetful with vague mind. Due to absentmindedness, he keep on searching different things. Concentration is very less due to which he is unable to put his ideas into speech. He has high desire for sex with relaxation of his organ. A state of total impotency. During intimacy there is urethral discharge. at times impotency is due to mental suppression. Severe itching on testcles. Conium Mac: Mental state is full of hysteria with the nervousness. Patient complaint of weakness of muscles with trembling. Patient has very high desire for sex, but due to impotency he is not able to perform. Patient complaints of semen loss during sleep with or without dreams. Ejaculation is very painful- as if cutting with a knife due to acrid semen. Swelling and hardness Lycopodium: There is great desire to be alone. Despondent. Mentally and physically patient is very tired with complaint of chronic fatigue, with great aversion to his work. He is very forgetful, with dread of public appearance. Great Sensitivity, patient cries even when thanked. It is one of the most used medicines for impotency. Genital organ are feeble due to low vitality. Patient marries to live a normal life, but after marriage he finds he is sexually impotent without erections or very weak and short erections as if he is not a man. There is history of gonorrhoeal discharge with warts on male genitals. Patient is not trustworthy; he is very suspicious and find fault in every task. Patient is very timid with low self-confidence.Dr. Rajesh Gupta5 Likes7 Answers
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27 yrs Male Patient Dx of Infertility 1 degree x5yrs He was taking Allopathic medicine No Hx of DM HTN Thyroid Dysfunction Varicocele Hydrocele Scrotal injury o/E male external Genitalia Good kindly give valuable opinion and Treatment for Severe OligospermiaDrkarthik Nagarajan.S10 Likes20 Answers