#Cap-BHMS TUMOR MARKERS A tumor marker is anything present in or produced by cancer cells or other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions that provides information about a cancer, such as how aggressive it is, whether it can be treated with a targeted therapy, or whether it is responding to treatment. There are two main types of tumor markers that have different uses in cancer care: circulating tumor markers and tumor tissue markers. • Circulating tumor markers can be found in the blood, urine, stool, or other bodily fluids of some patients with cancer. Examples of commonly used circulating tumor markers include calcitonin (measured in blood), which is used to assess treatment response, screen for recurrence, and estimate prognosis in medullary thyroid cancer; CA-125 (measured in blood), to monitor how well cancer treatments are working and if cancer has come back in ovarian cancer; and beta-2-microglobulin (measured in blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid), to estimate prognosis and follow response to treatment for multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and some lymphomas. • Tumor tissue markers are found in the actual tumors themselves, typically in a sample of the tumor that is removed during a biopsy. Examples of commonly used tumor tissue markers include estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor (breast cancer), used to determine whether treatment with hormone therapy and some targeted therapies is appropriate; EGFR gene mutation analysis (non-small cell lung cancer), to help determine treatment and estimate prognosis; and PD-L1 (many cancer types), to determine whether treatment with a type of targeted therapy called an immune checkpoint inhibitor is appropriate. Following are some tumour markers : * ALK gene rearrangements and overexpression Cancer types: Non-small cell lung cancer and anaplastic large cell lymphoma * Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Cancer types: Liver cancer and germ cell tumors * B-cell immunoglobulin gene rearrangement Cancer type: B-cell lymphoma * Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) Cancer types: Multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and some lymphomas * Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta-hCG) Cancer types: Choriocarcinoma and germ cell tumors * BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations Cancer types: Ovarian and breast cancers * BCR-ABL fusion gene (Philadelphia chromosome) Cancer types: Chronic myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and acute myelogenous leukemia * C-kit/CD117 Cancer types: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, mucosal melanoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and mast cell disease * CA15-3/CA27.29 Cancer type: Breast cancer * CA19-9 Cancer types: Pancreatic, gallbladder, bile duct, and gastric cancers * CA-125 Cancer type: Ovarian cancer *CA 27.29 Cancer type: Breast cancer * Calcitonin Cancer type: Medullary thyroid cancer * Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Cancer types: Colorectal cancer and some other cancers * Chromogranin A (CgA) Cancer type: Neuroendocrine tumors * Chromosome 17p deletion Cancer type: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia * Circulating tumor cells of epithelial origin (CELLSEARCH®) Cancer types: Metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers * Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) Cancer type: Hepatocellular carcinoma * Gastrin Cancer type: Gastrin-producing tumor (gastrinoma) * 5-HIAA Cancer type: Carcinoid tumors * JAK2 gene mutation Cancer type: Certain types of leukemia * KRAS gene mutation Cancer types: Colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer * Lactate dehydrogenase Cancer types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma * PCA3 mRNA Cancer type: Prostate cancer * Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Cancer type: Prostate cancer * Somatostatin receptor Cancer type: Neuroendocrine tumors affecting the pancreas or gastrointestinal tract (GEP-NETs) * Thyroglobulin Cancer type: Thyroid cancer UGT1A128 variant homozygosity Cancer type: Colorectal cancer * Urine catecholamines: VMA and HVA Cancer type: Neuroblastoma


A very well compiled information. Tumour markers are very useful in cancer screening, aiding diagnosis, assessing prognosis, predicting in advance a likely response to therapy, and monitoring patients with diagnosed disease. As a homeopathic we must keep ourself updated about such things. Today patinets are very smart & well educated and they google information before coming to a doctor. Thanks for sharing this information
Thank you doctor
Good information dr. Well post today. No of pt this type suffering problem..
Very informative.

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