Dx Rx and suggestion on priority basis
Respected sir,/Madam my son 26 months old I am noticing for 15 days that he seems to be mildly looking sequent occasionally I am getting very worrysome kindly suggest me as earlier what should be done?
SUGGESTIVE OF MILD STRABISMUS... EARLY. TREATMENT...NEEDED TO. PREVENT... .. AMBLYOPIA
IT'S..A CASE OF.. ? CROSSED EYES.. ? SQUINT.. NEED'S.. OPHTHALMIC EXAMINATION..
Antiallergic drugs should be advice But better for consult ophthalmologists
Ophthalmologist can give u right advice
Consult eye specialist
Ophthalmologist opinion is advised.
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TURNER SYNDROME *45,X SYNDROME *BONNEVIE-ULLRICH SYNDROME *MONOSOMY X *ULLRICH - TURNER SYNDROME. Turner syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder that affects females. The disorder is characterised by MONOSOMY X PARTIAL OR COMPLETE LOSS OF ONE OF THE X CHROMOSOMES. CAUSES. Complete or partial loss of X chromosome. This is RANDOM & SPORADIC . This is due to error in the division of parent's reproductive cells. This genetic error contained in all cells of body COMPLETE TURNER. Spontaneous errors during very early fetal development can lead to some normal cells with 46 chromosomes and other cells with partial or complete loss of X chromosome.This is called TURNER MOSAIC. Sometimes some cells are 45,X and some cells contain Y chromosome not sufficient to cause development of male features but is associated with an increased risk of developing GONADOBLASTOMA. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS. 1)Webbed neck and short neck 2)low hair line. 3)Low set ears. 4)High arched palate. 5)Retrognathia /reversing jaw. 6) Hypothyroidism -Hashimoto's thyroiditis. 7)Broad chest with widely spaced nipples called SHIELD CHEST. 8) Swollen puffy hands and feet due to LYMPHEDEMA. 9) Narrow fingernails and toenails that are turned up upward. 10) SHORT STATURE -GROWTH FAILURE 11) Normal intelligence. 12) Learning disabilities . 13) Crossed eyes -STRABISMUS. 14)Lazy eyes -AMBLYOPIA. 15) Drooping eyelids. 16) CUBITUS VALGUS increased carrying angle at elbow. 17) Scoliosis. 18)PES planus. 19) CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. Bicuspid aortic valve. Coarctation of aorta. Congestive heart failure. 20)RENAL. Renal agenesis. Horse shoe kidney. Hypertension. 21)HEPATIC. Fatty liver. 22) EAR. Otitis media. 23)GIT. GERD. 24)GONADAL DYSGENESIS. They may not attain puberty (PRIMARY AMENORRHEA ) They may attain menarche but menstruation stops later (PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE ) Among these symptoms THE CHARACTERISTIC OF TURNER SYNDROME ARE GONADAL DYSGENESIS. SHORT STATURE. PRIMARY AMENORRHEA //PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE. WEBBED NECK. SHIELD CHEST. CUBITUS VALGUS. BICUSPID AORTIC VALVE. COARCTATION OF AORTA. DIAGNOSIS. 1) Antenatal ultrasound. shows fluid filled sac near the neck. 2)Chromosomal analysis of cells obtained by amniocentesis an chorionic villus sampling. 3) Diagnosis of Turner is based on characteristic symptoms,detailed history,thorough clinical evaluation and tests. 4) Karyotyping. 5)Echo cardiogram -complete cardiac workup 6) Thyroid function tests. 7) ultrasound. 8)Liver function tests. 9)Renal function tests 10) Hypertension screening. 11)ENT examination. TREATMENT. Treatment is directed towards specific symptoms. There is NO CURE for Turner syndrome. Genetic counseling is given. PRIMARY THERAPIES ARE GROWTH HORMONE THERAPY AND ESTROGEN THERAPY. Growth hormone therapy can normalize height. SEX HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY is given in order to undergo normal development associated with puberty and menstrual periods.This therapy is started at 12 -24 years age and continued till menopause. Most individuals cannot conceive. IVF WITH DONOR EGG is possible. TURNER SYNDROME WITH Y CHROMOSOME MOSAICISM ARE AT INCREASED RISK OF DEVELOPING GONADOBLASTOMA.THEREFORE NON FUNCTIONING OVARIES ARE REMOVED. Rest of the treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Hypothyroidism-thyroid replacement therapy. This baby was diagnosed with Turner syndrome and aborted at 12 weeks. SUMMARY. 45,XO. SHORT STATURE. GONADAL DYSGENESIS. PRIMARY AMENORRHEA. OR PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE.Dr. Suvarchala Pratap16 Likes8 Answers
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Glasses for Children: Why does a child need glasses? Children may need glasses for several reasons—some of which are different than for adults. Because a child’s visual system is growing and developing, especially during the first 5-6 years of life, glasses may play an important role in ensuring normal development of vision. The main reasons a child may need glasses are: • To provide better vision, so that a child may function better in his/her environment • To help straighten the eyes when they are crossed or misaligned (strabismus) • To help strengthen the vision of a weak eye (amblyopia or “lazy eye”). This may occur when there is a difference in prescription between the two eyes (anisometropia). For example, one eye may be normal, while the other eye may have a significant need for glasses caused by near-sightedness, far-sightedness or astigmatism. • To provide protection for one eye if the other eye has poor vision How can a child be tested for glasses, especially in infancy or early childhood? An ophthalmologist can detect the need for glasses through a complete eye exam. Typically, the pupils are dilated in order to relax the focusing muscles, so that an accurate measurement can be obtained. By using a special instrument, called a retinoscope, your eye doctor can arrive at an accurate prescription. The ophthalmologist will then advise parents whether there is a need for glasses, or whether the condition can be monitored. What are the different types of refractive errors (need for glasses) that can affect children? There are 4 basic types of refractive errors: • Myopia (near-sighted) – This is a condition where the distance vision is blurred, but a child can usually see well for reading or other near tasks. This occurs most often in school-age children, although occasionally younger children can be affected. The prescription for glasses will indicate a minus sign before the prescription (for example, -2.00). If the myopia is slight, allowing a child to sit a little closer to the front of the classroom may be an alternative. • Hyperopia (far-sighted) – Most children are far-sighted early in life (this is normal!) and need no treatment for this because they can use their own focusing muscles to provide clear vision for both distance and near vision. Glasses are rarely needed if the far-sightedness is less than +1.00 or even +2.00. When an excessive amount of far-sightedness is present, the focusing muscles may not be able to keep the vision clear. As a result of this, problems such as crossing of the eyes, blurred vision, or discomfort may develop. A prescription for hyperopia will be preceded by a plus sign (for example, +3.00). • Astigmatism – Astigmatism is caused by a difference in the surface curvature of the eye. Instead of being shaped like a perfect sphere (like a basketball), the eye is shaped with a greater curve in one axis (like a football). If your child has a significant astigmatism, fine details may look blurred or distorted. Glasses that are prescribed for astigmatism have greater strength in one direction of the lens than in the opposite direction. A prescription for astigmatism will have several numbers and will look something like this: -2.00 +2.50 X 90. • Anisometropia – Some children may have a different prescription in each eye. This can create a condition called amblyopia, where the vision in one eye does not develop normally. Glasses (and sometimes patching or eye drops) are needed to insure that each eye can see clearly. How will I ever get my child to wear glasses? That is a question most parents ask, especially when their child is an infant or toddler. The best answer is that most young children who really need glasses will wear their glasses without a problem (happily) because they do make a difference in their vision. Initially, some children may show some resistance to wearing their glasses, but it is necessary for parents to demonstrate a positive attitude. If the child does not cooperate, the doctor may prescribe eye drops in an attempt to help the child adjust to the glasses. Toddlers often may wear the glasses only when they are in a good mood and reject them (and everything else) when they are not. School age children and their parents can provide input into the decision regarding the need for glasses. Some children may have small refractive errors that do not require glasses, while others may voice concern about difficulties in the classroom. Most children who have difficulty with reading do not need glasses, but this can be determined during a complete eye exam. Does my child need bifocals? Children rarely need bifocals. Occasionally, children who have crossed eyes (esotropia) may need to have bifocals to help control the crossing. Also, children who have had cataract surgery usually need bifocals or reading glasses. Will wearing glasses make my child’s eyes worse or more dependent on them? No. In fact, the opposite may be true. If a child does not wear the glasses prescribed, normal vision development can be adversely affected. What are some things I can do to help my child adjust to glasses? Getting a good frame fit by an optician who is experienced in pediatric eyewear is of great importance. The frame should be very comfortable with the eye centered in the middle of the lens. The frame should look like it fits the child now — not one that he/she will grow into in a year.(Figures 1 and 2) Lenses made of a material called polycarbonate will provide the best protection for your child because this lens material is shatterproof. Many children’s frames have soft, comfort-cables that fit around the ears. Adding elastic bands or silicone temple tips are simple additions that can help keep glasses in the correct position on a child’s face. Most children will wear glasses well if the prescription is correct and should adjust to the glasses within two weeks. If your child continues to complain that “I can’t see in my glasses” or constantly looks over the glasses call your physician. What do I do about sports and swimming now that my child needs glasses? There are glasses specifically made for sports (recreational glasses) that are a great option. Ask your optician about prescription swim goggles. They are often not as expensive as you might think. NOTE : *AVOID ALLOWING KIDS TO USE GADGETS & WATCHING TELEVISION FOR LONGER DURATION. * MAXIMUM OF 30MTS CONTINUOUS WATCHING IS ADVISABLE , THEN REQUIRED REST AND EYE MOMENT EXCERCISE CAN BE DONE.Dr. Anu Radha2 Likes0 Answer
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4yrs girl with craniosyostosis, syndactyly & developmental delay. what it could be?Dr. Narayana S3 Likes15 Answers
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spot diagnose. 3 year old child having this problem by birth .time of birth child no more and now iris move fully medialy. is it any disease or normal.Dr. Joni Yadav3 Likes26 Answers
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what very common condition is this? And what methods of correction do you believe is most appropriate?Faiz Sheikh0 Like18 Answers