Why humerus is excluded in bmd in DEXA??

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Usually spine, femur are used for proximal BMD assessment in DEXA, and wrist, finger, forearm are used for distal part assessment. *some research shows DEXA of proximal end of humerus. But it is not frequently used. * The possible reasons may be: 1. Humerus's anatomical site, away from midline of body 2. DEXA instrument limitations 3. Humerus not a weight bearing joint, so the weight bearing joints are preferred for BMD

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