Delivery work Natural delivery A fetus of a pregnant woman progressively grows into a ductile fibrous base called the uterus in the abdomen and exits the vagina about 9 weeks and 10 days after the woman has been pregnant for about 40 weeks or according to a simple count. As the fetus grows, so does the uterus. In the womb, the forehead of the fetus is downward, like a sitting posture with the feet posture, the chest is cinched and both hands are placed on the chest. In the middle of a clean curtain bag in the uterus, the fetus floats inside a water-like substance. This curtain bag is called ammoniac sac and the water substance inside it is ammoniac-fluid. The water that comes out at the time of delivery comes out from the bursting of the curtain bag near the forehead of the fetus. This water substance prevents the pressure of the body on the fetus inside the uterus, which is very important during delivery. Due to the smoothness in this water substance, it makes the delivery gate smooth during delivery. This way it becomes very easy to deliver. A few days before the delivery of a pregnant woman, the abdomen hangs, which means that the front and bottom circles become enlarged, that is, the head of the fetus comes down to the head and the upper abdomen becomes very empty. And it spreads a lot downwards. This gives comfort to the pregnant woman and she can breathe and leave without hard work. During this time, the face of the uterus of the pregnant woman spreads continuously and for this reason the distance between the vagina and the uterus keeps decreasing continuously. A few days before delivery a pregnant woman starts to have pain slowly. This is called the false pain of childbirth. This pain occurs in the upper part of the stomach and this pain is temporary and irregular. Due to this false pain, the pregnant woman gets enlargement of the uterus, pressure in the intestines and indigestion. This kind of indigestion is eliminated by taking a mild laxative and at the same time the pain goes away. First stage Any change that takes place from the pain of the natural delivery of a pregnant woman till the uterus expands is called the first stage of delivery. This pain can last from several hours to several days. At this time, the pain of real delivery starts. A pregnant woman wanders here and there due to restlessness. This pain often arises after half an hour. There is pressure on the back bone. A pregnant woman keeps urinating again and again, some women vomit and shiver in the body. The uterine face spreads and joins with the vagina. The water bag wants to push out and after that the hair from the forehead of the fetus appears. At this time, there is an increase in mucous secretion of the vagina and the passage of the vagina. Due to the secretion and the water that comes out of the sac, it becomes so slippery in the way of delivery that delivery happens soon. At this time, some part of the khedi also gets separated from the uterus, due to which a little blood also appears with this secretion. Due to the head of the fetus being stuck in a relatively difficult osteoblast, and shrinking the uterus in the water inside the sac, according to the natural rule, there is some pressure on the fetus and only the contraction of the uterine muscle on the forehead of the fetus. The pressure leads to the forehead of the fetus as there is no pressure. This spreads the mouth of the uterus and makes it easier for the baby to be born. Second stage The stage of delivery of a fetus after the pregnant woman's uterus has completely spread is called the second stage of delivery. Such a state can range from minutes to hours. At this time, the pregnant woman is in constant pain, which is such as if she wants to get out by pushing something. A pregnant woman herself also puts pressure on the abdomen with the help of the muscles of the waist by pressing down on the breath. Sometimes a pregnant woman holds on to anything nearby and armpits loudly, starts crying and crying. Due to the pressure of armpits and uterine contraction, the forehead of the fetus keeps coming out slowly. Due to this pressure, the area between the anus and the vagina, called the perineum, also gets pushed out. Due to the pressure of the fetus, the pregnant woman keeps coming to the pit and urine frequently. After this, the forehead of the fetus comes outward with loud pain and then the whole body comes out. Third stage The exit of the placenta after the exit of the fetus in the delivery of a pregnant woman is called the third stage of delivery. It often takes an hour. At this time, the uterus starts shrinking again. The real function of this contraction is to stop bleeding of the arteries and prevent bleeding. Normally, in 96 percent of cases, the fetus' forehead at the time of delivery goes out first and the head of the fetus first appears or enters the vastus. The first mouth, hands, feet, legs etc. of any fetus come out which are considered inauspicious. In many such cases, the child dies. It is very difficult to get treatment at such time of delivery. Even the best right cannot easily deliver it. Delivery skills It is very important to mention three topics for delivery, such as the delivery path, fetus and delivery power. When measuring the forehead of a fetus in a pregnant woman's womb, it is seen that the front, back diameter is as big as the width. Here, the corner of the pregnant woman's dress-gunner is also stronger than the back of the front. From this, it can be easily understood that the long diameter of the forehead of the fetus i.e. the diameter from the front to the back is connected with the diameter of the body of the object, especially the forehead of the fetus from the back to the front of the object-gunner. If you do not stay towards, then delivery can happen easily. The forehead of the fetus sits properly in the vestibule and once it rotates, the forehead comes backwards to the front of the pregnant woman and the mouth comes back to the pregnant woman. In such a state, the head first comes out. After this, there is a problem. In most places the circumference of the fetus's forehead is somewhat smaller than the circumference of the Vasti-Gunhar. To remove this problem, the forehead of the fetus and the top part of the pregnant woman's vestibule are changed. The forehead of the fetus remains loose according to the location of the vestibule by the pressure of the vagina. It is called mold. After delivery, the baby's forehead gradually gets into its former shape. A pregnant woman has a crack in the bone joint of the front part of the dress-gunner, which increases the circumference of the dress-gunner. After this, the forehead of the fetus comes out due to contraction of the uterus, which is a sign of a new problem. The long-diameter object of the fetus's forehead prevents the fetus from coming out when the long-diameter follower of the gunner comes out, because the embryo's shoulder diameter is only opposite to the diameter of the forehead and the outer of the forehead. The part is much larger than the diameter. Therefore, the body of the fetus rotates at this time and the outer diameter of the shoulder is attached to the outer diameter of the Vasti-Gunhar. When the body of the fetus is rotated, its mouth remains towards the right or left Uru of the pregnant woman and the back of the forehead is towards the other Uru. At this time, because the outer diameter of the fetus's shoulder is larger than the diameter of the head and the diameter of the vestibule, the serpent's upper part comes out and then the bottom part comes out. When the shoulder comes out, the entire body of the fetus comes out easily. Delivery time precautions It is important to keep in mind that a pregnant woman's stomach should be absolutely clean shortly before the date of delivery pain starts, she should keep her stomach clean by feeding light laxatives, fruits, milk, sweets etc. Bathing a pregnant woman with lukewarm water daily keeps her skin clean. Pregnant woman should not let any fear of childbirth sit in her mind. Pregnant woman should be delivered in the cleanest, airy and light room of the house. Many things should not be kept in the house which gives birth to the child and more people especially men should not go in that room at the time of delivery. Clean clothes, clean towels, flower pots, water, olive or sesame oil, soap, clean bedding, oil cloth, a clean scissors and clean cotton should also be kept in the house. Pregnant woman should be fed warm milk after a while. The midwife of delivery should first enter the woman's vagina by washing her hands with warm water or soap, etc. and the nails of her hands should also be cut. The midwife should not have any type of skin disease. If the pain does not intensify for the pregnant woman, then she should be given some warm milk or tea. At the time of reaching the forehead of the fetus, the perineum may rupture, so the place should be pressed from outside so that it does not tear. After leaving the forehead of the fetus, a towel or clean cloth should be soaked and the child's eye should be cleaned with it. If the placenta is wrapped around the throat of a child, then with the help of midwife, the placenta should be removed carefully. The temperature of the earth varies between the baby and the womb, so it is immediately after the birth of the baby that it gets cold so it is very important to take precautions. From this time, the brain power of the child starts working. Therefore, the baby starts crying soon after taking birth. The work of breathing and exhaling also begins. Care should also be taken if there is no void in the forehead. During pregnancy, an attempt is made to keep the baby's head downwards, so the child's forehead should be placed on the side of the sloping position and put to bed. If the child does not cry after birth, it should be patted vigorously on the waist or pierced with cold water on the mouth. With this, the knowledge power of the child starts working. Apart from this, keeping a little round powder on the tongue or a slight scratching can also be done. If even after doing this, the child does not become conscious, then the doctor should be called immediately. At this time, the child's breathing and exhalation process begins. This action of the child has to be seen for some time even after it starts. After examining the placenta of the child, at the distance of the placenta of the placenta, at least one and a half inches from the navel and then 3 inches from there, two bales should be removed. The yarn with which the knot is given should boil well in boiling water. After that, hold the knot on the mother's side and cut between these two knots. For this, a knife or scissors should be boiled in hot water. After cutting the placenta, it is good to tie the cord again. After this, a pregnant woman should have a check if she has got a wound in the space between the anus and vagina at the time of delivery or has not been torn. If the wound is ruptured, it should be soldered with the help of a doctor. Care should be paid to the child born after this. The child should be bathed in warm water and put on a clean and soft bed. It is also good to lick a little honey with your finger. Till the navel of the child is dry, the cloth cloth should be tied with its stomach. It should also be specially kept in mind that the navel of the child does not get poked in it. After that, after taking out some milk from the breasts of the pregnant woman, the baby should be fed. After the birth of the child, mother's milk is considered to be her best food, but if the woman who is feeding the child becomes ill, then the child can become ill by drinking her milk. Therefore, it is not appropriate for a woman to feed her baby in a sick state. If the child does not digest the mother's milk due to poor liver, he should see the doctor and according to the same he should take other milk. 3 urgent tasks at the time of delivery Infection :- Childbirth (at the time of childbirth) should also be taken care that the pregnant woman should not spread the infection of bacteria. At the time of delivery, many internal parts of the pregnant woman remain in open state due to which there is always a fear of infection of bacteria. Therefore, a pregnant woman should pay special attention to cleanliness a few days before delivery. He should keep his bath and drinking water covered. If the midwife comes to deliver a pregnant woman, she should also wash her hands thoroughly with warm water and soap. Bleeding (bleeding) - Particular care should also be taken to ensure that the pregnant woman does not have excessive bleeding during delivery. If there is too much bleeding during childbirth, then pregnant woman should consume blood and strength enhancing food etc. With this, he should also get back the lost strength of the body by taking complete rest. Bursting between the anus and vagina
Dr.Anuva Sahu Ma'am Pt. have experienced 3 early miscarriages run don’t walk, run to your Ob/Gyn or get a referral to a fertility specialist to help narrow down possible causes and determine what can be done to prevent future losses. They can run a series of tests to see if there is an underlying cause to what may be causing the reoccurring miscarriage. I think much needed the Some investigations to rule out Causes of Miscarriage. Hormonal Tests. Ask to have a prolactin, thyroid and progesterone level taken if you haven’t had these already. If they are abnormal and treatment is given, make sure that you are re-tested to check your levels. Structural Tests. A hysterosalpingogram is done to evaluate the shape and size of your uterus and to rule out possible scarring in the uterus, polyps, fibroids or a septal wall, which could affect implantation. If there is concern about the uterine cavity, a hysteroscopy (examination done in combination with laparoscopy or as an office procedure) can be done. In some women, the cervical muscle is too loose causing pregnancy loss after the first trimester. A special exam is done when a woman is not pregnant to check for an incompetent cervix. Uterine Lining Tests. An endometrial biopsy is done on cycle day 21 or later and will document if your lining is getting thick enough for the fertilized egg to implant. If you have a lag of two or more days in the development of the lining, you will be treated with various hormones (Clomiphene, hCG, Progesterone). It is important to have the biopsy repeated after several cycles to make sure the treatment is helping. If you are on Progesterone, discuss the various advantages of the oral, vaginal gel creams or tablets or injection routes with your doctor. Genetic Testing. Chromosomal tests are rarely done on tissue from a miscarriage because it is difficult to preserve the tissue for adequate studies. If chromosome testing is needed, you and your partner will have blood tests to make sure there is no translocation of genes (a condition in which the number of genes is the normal 46, but they are joined together abnormally). This condition can result in pregnancy loss. Immunological Tests. Blood tests to check for immunologic responses that can cause pregnancy loss include antithyroid antibodies (antibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase) the lupus anticoagulant factor and anticardiolipin antibodies. Lupus and anticardiolipin antibodies appear to influence blood clotting mechanisms within the placenta as it develops. There are also blood tests that check for protective blocking factors. These are essential to protect the pregnancy from being rejected by the mother’s body Tnx Dr.Iqbal Sayyed Sir.
Recurrent early miscarriages (within the first trimester) are most commonly due to genetic or chromosomal problems of the embryo, with 50-80% of spontaneous losses having abnormal chromosomal number. Structural problems of the uterus can also play a role in early miscarriage. The miscarriage may be due to poor blood supply to the pregnancy or inflammation. ... A woman's immune system may also play a role in recurrent pregnancy loss. Hormone abnormalities may also impact pregnancy loss, including thyroid disease and diabetes. We have to elicit cause and understand the constitution of the patient accordingly derive the plan of treatment and management.
Acc to constitutional,find the cause first. Gv viburnum opu Q 15 dr 3 tds ..
Genetic or chromosomal abnormality are the main cause of early miscarriage
Sabina 30 TDs Viburnum opu Q 10 drops BD
Agree with Dr Twara ma'am
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Health Benefits of Alfalfa Grass ............................................................... Alfalfa grass is a flowering plant that is very common and the alfalfa grass health benefits are plentiful. The following will uncover 5 surprising health benefits of alfalfa grass… It is a perennial plant, which means that it grows and blooms over the spring and summer. During the fall and winter, the plants die back. In the spring, they return from the rootstock. The basic benefit of alfalfa is that it is very nutritious when it is consumed. This plant is high in chlorophyll, micronutrients, and vitamins A, B1, B6, C, E, and K. It also contains calcium, iron, zinc, and potassium. Finally, it contains more protein than most plants. What Are the Health Benefits of Alfalfa Grass? Other than the nutritional value, alfalfa has several health benefits. These include: Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An alfalfa study was published in the July 2009 issue of Journal of Biomedical Science. The study was performed on animals that were injected with compounds that contained inflammation. The animals that were not fed alfalfa sprouts had increased inflammation compared to those who were fed alfalfa sprouts. Bolsters Immune System: A study was performed and published in the March 2009 issue of “Lupus”. During this study, animals were injected with alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract. The scientists doing this study wanted to see if alfalfa sprouts could be beneficial for people who suffer from autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. The animals that were given alfalfa had lower T-cell counts at the end of the study. Antioxidant Effects and Radiation Protection: A study was conducted in Turkey, and the results were published in the February 2008 issue of Photocheistry and Photobiology. According to the study, alfalfa can protect the cells from damage from x-rays, due to its antioxidant properties. The animals that were given alfalfa before having an x-ray had less free radicals and cell damage than those who were not given alfalfa. Lower Cholesterol: High cholesterol can lead to stroke and heart disease. A study was performed and published in the May 1087 issue of Atherosclerosis. According to the study, patients with high cholesterol were given alfalfa for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, their LDL, also known as bad cholesterol, dropped by 30 percent. After the study, the patients stopped eating alfalfa, and their cholesterol returned to the previous levels before the study was conducted. The study indicated that regular consumption of alfalfa could successfully reduce cholesterol. Improves Certain Medical Conditions: Alfalfa has been used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including kidney, bladder, and prostate conditions. It can also increase urine flow. Patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, upset stomach, and asthma can benefit from alfalfa. Side Effects of Alfalfa Grass Alfalfa is relatively safe for adults. However, if you take large amounts of alfalfa for a long period of time, the seeds can cause a reaction that is similar to lupus. Also, alfalfa can make the skin more sensitive to the sun. It is important for light skinned people to wear sunblock when going outdoors. Patients who are pregnant should avoid alfalfa. There is evidence that alfalfa can act like estrogen, which can have a negative effect on the pregnancy. Its estrogen effect can also be harmful for patients who suffer from breast cancer, uterine cancer, and ovarian cancer. If you have diabetes, you should check your blood sugar levels often, as alfalfa can lower your blood sugar. You may think that you are eating right, and your blood sugar levels are fine, but the alfalfa can have an effect on it. Patients who have had a kidney transplant should avoid consuming anything with alfalfa. There has been one reported case of a patient who had a transplant and rejected it due to their consumption of alfalfa. Because alfalfa boosts the immune system, it can make the anti-drugs that are given after the surgery, less effective. How to Take Alfalfa Grass The most common way to ingest alfalfa is to add alfalfa sprouts to a salad. You can also purchase alfalfa supplements and take them with your daily multivitamin. Alfalfa Grass in Green Powder Drinks If salad is not your favorite thing to eat, and you would rather not take a daily supplement, you can purchase green powder drinks that contain the right amount of alfalfa that is healthy for your diet. Green powder drinks such as Total Living Drink Greens contain numerous ingredients, including alfalfa grass, which are rich in vitamins and nutrients. Just having a drink or two a day can greatly improve your health. Alfalfa grass grows all over the world, and is very plentiful. For years, many people did not know the many health benefits of alfalfa grass. As studies were conducted on this grass, more and more people began putting alfalfa sprouts in their salad, and even eating them on their own. As the health food industry began seeing the importance of this grass, many companies began using alfalfa in their green drink powders.Dr. Sanjay Kumar Mallick5 Likes21 Answers
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20 yr old male, h/o itching scalp and hairfall. No itching now. Acute hair fall of about 50per day since a week on changing shampoo. What advice to be given?Kavya Chikkanna7 Likes13 Answers
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HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES FOR HAIR LOSS AND BALDNESS ￼ Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone — men, women and children — can experience hair loss. Baldness typically refers to excessive hair loss from your scalp. Hereditary hair loss with age is the most common cause of baldness. Some people prefer to let their baldness run its course untreated and unhidden. Others may cover it up with hairstyles, makeup, hats or scarves. And still others choose one of the treatments available to prevent further hair loss and to restore growth. Causes--Most people normally shed 50 to 100 hairs a day. This usually doesn't cause noticeable thinning of scalp hair because new hair is growing in at the same time. Hair loss occurs when this cycle of hair growth and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle is destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. The exact cause of hair loss may not be fully understood, but it's usually related to one or more of the following factors: · Family history (heredity) · Hormonal changes · Medical conditions · Medications Family history (heredity) The most common cause of hair loss is a hereditary condition called male-pattern baldness or female-pattern baldness. It usually occurs gradually and in predictable patterns — a receding hairline and bald spots in men and thinning hair in women. Heredity also affects the age at which you begin to lose hair, the rate of hair loss and the extent of baldness. Pattern baldness is most common in men and can begin as early as puberty. This type of hair loss may involve both hair thinning and miniaturization (hair becomes soft, fine and short). Hormonal changes and medical conditions A variety of conditions can cause hair loss, including: Hormonal changes. Hormonal changes and imbalances can cause temporary hair loss. This could be due to pregnancy, childbirth or the onset of menopause. Hormone levels are also affected by the thyroid gland, so thyroid problems may cause hair loss. Patchy hair loss. This type of nonscarring hair loss is called alopecia areata (al-o-PEE-she-uh ar-e-A-tuh). It occurs when the body's immune system attacks hair follicles — causing sudden hair loss that leaves smooth, roundish bald patches on the skin. Scalp infections. Infections, such as ringworm, can invade the hair and skin of your scalp, leading to scaly patches and hair loss. Once infections are treated, hair generally grows back. Other skin disorders. Diseases that cause scarring alopecia may result in permanent loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair-pulling disorder. This condition, also called trichotillomania , causes people to have an irresistible urge to pull out their hair, whether it's from the scalp, the eyebrows or other areas of the body. Medications Hair loss can be caused by drugs used for cancer, arthritis, depression, heart problems, high blood pressure and birth control. Intake of too much vitamin A may cause hair loss as well. Other causes of hair loss Hair loss can also result from: Radiation therapy to the head. The hair may not grow back the same as it was before. A trigger event. Many people experience a general thinning of hair several months after a physical or emotional shock. This type of hair loss is temporary. Examples of trigger events include sudden or excessive weight loss, a high fever, surgery, or a death in the family. Certain hairstyles and treatments. Excessive hairstyling or hairstyles that pull your hair tight, such as pigtails or cornrows, can cause traction alopecia. Hot oil hair treatments and permanents can cause inflammation of hair follicles that leads to hair loss. If scarring occurs, hair loss could be permanent. Symptoms-Hair loss can appear in many different ways, depending on what's causing it. It can come on suddenly or gradually and affect just your scalp or your whole body. Some types of hair loss are temporary, and others are permanent. Signs and symptoms of hair loss may include: Gradual thinning on top of head. This is the most common type of hair loss, affecting both men and women as they age. In men, hair often begins to recede from the forehead in a line that resembles the letter M. Women typically retain the hairline on the forehead but have a broadening of the part in their hair. Circular or patchy bald spots. Some people experience smooth, coin-sized bald spots. This type of hair loss usually affects just the scalp, but it sometimes also occurs in beards or eyebrows. In some cases, your skin may become itchy or painful before the hair falls out. Sudden loosening of hair. A physical or emotional shock can cause hair to loosen. Handfuls of hair may come out when combing or washing your hair or even after gentle tugging. This type of hair loss usually causes overall hair thinning and not bald patches. Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as chemotherapy for cancer, can result in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back. Patches of scaling that spread over the scalp. This is a sign of ringworm. It may be accompanied by broken hair, redness, swelling and, at times, oozing. ￼Risk factors--A number of factors can increase your risk of hair loss, including: · Family history · Age · Poor nutrition · Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and lupus · Stress HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES Homoeopathic remedies are very effective for baldness and that can promote hair growth. Some of the main remedies are given below. BARYTA CARBONICA 30-Baldness in young people. The patients requiring this medicine are very timid and dull in nature and have very poor memory. The patients of baldness who have a history of throat complaints like tonsilitis (from suppression of foot sweat or from exposure to cold air) can be given this medicine. FLUORIC ACID 30- Baldness of old age or prematurely aged due to syphilis . Falling of hair in patches SULPHUR 200- Sulphur is another remedy that can be prescribed to those patients suffering from baldness who are extremely hot blooded and complain of excessive heat in body especially in the head, palms and soles. Another symptom that guides towards the use of sulphur in baldness cases is that the patient requiring this medicine have an aversion to bathing and are generally filthy – thus inviting plenty of long standing skin diseases. The patients requiring Sulphur show extra craving for sweets in food. LYOPODIUM CLAVATUM 200-Lycopodium clavatum, is also an excellent medicine used to treat baldness cases occurring prematurely and can be given to those patients who complain of some sort of gastric trouble like flatulence, constipation or liver problems along with baldness. The patients requiring Lycopodiumclavatum usually crave hot drinks, hot food and sweet things MANCINELLA 200- Baldness after severe acute diseases or at the scar of healed wound SILICEA 200-Silicea, is mainly given to those patients who suffer from baldness and complain of pain in head usually at the right side along with hair loss. The patients requiring this medicine are very sensitive to cold air and usually have very offensive sweat on the feet. Mentally the patients requiring this medicine are very headstrong and obstinate in nature PSORINUM 200-Psorinum is highly useful in treating the hair loss that has occurred due to eczematous skin lesions on scalp that discharge sticky and very offensive fluid. These kinds of discharges make the hair to stick together, which further leads to the hair getting tangled and ultimately destroyed. The patient requiring Psorinum feels excessive chill and desires to be warmly covered even in summers NITIC ACID 30- Falling of pubic hair due to syphilis or gonorrhoea MEZEREUM 30- Mezereum, is equally good for treating hair loss in cases where the hair is destroyed due to eczematous skin lesions of scalp. The patients requiring Mezereum will complain of thick crusty eruptions on scalp, along with a discharge of thick offensive pus resulting in matting of hair, breeding of vermin in them and eventually the eating away of the hair by discharges leading to hair loss. MERCURIOUS SOL 30-Mercurius Solubilis is yet another homeopathic medicine which plays a wonderful role in treating the hair loss due to eruptions on scalp where the discharge from eruptions is fetid and accompanied by burning type of pains in scalp. This medicine can be employed in those patients in whom profuse perspiration is present along with excessive salivation from mouth and an increased thirst for water. SELENIUM MET 30- Falling of pubic hair THUJA OCCI 200- Falling of hair due to dandruff. Here the dandruff is white in color KALI SULPHURICUM 30- It is also used for falling of hair due to dandruff. But here the dandruff is yellow in colour KALI CARB 30- Falling of hair due to dryness of scalp and dandruff NATRUM MURIATICUM 200-Hair loss after child birth.Natrummuriaticum can be given to those women who suffer from anemia and hair loss on even a slight touch of the hair, along with severe headache after the delivery of a child. The women requiring this medicine complain that the headache is worse in the heat of sun. The patient may show an inordinate craving for salty things.. PHOSPHORIC ACID 30-Phosphoric acid is prescribed when falling of hair occurs after an exhausting disease . Hair falls out from head, eye brows , eyelashes etc. PULSATILLA NIG. 30-Pulsatilla can be used by those women who suffer from excessive hair fall after delivery. The guiding factor for recommending this medicine is a complete absence of thirst for water and desire for fresh open air. The mental symptoms that are to be considered for its use are weeping tendencies on the slightest cause, and relief when someone gives consolation. Another marked symptom that guides its use in women suffering from hair loss is that such women cannot digest fatty foods SEPIA 200-Hair loss in the menopausal period.. The women requiring this medicine for hair fall have a history of long standing headaches. The women complaining of hot flushes followed by chills and perspiration and bearing down pains in the uterus at menopause along with hair loss can be given this medicine. The mental symptoms that significantly indicate the usage of this medicine by women suffering from hair loss at menopause are irritability of the utmost degree and indifferent behavior towards family members. BORAX 30- Hair loss in anemic patients.Borax can be given to those patients who complain of hair loss and are anemic. A frequent complain in such cases is that the hair is very thin and gets stuck together and form bunches, thereby making it difficult for them to be untangled and combed smooth and they are to be cut off. But as soon as these bunches are cut another group of bunches form. CINCHONA OFF.30-off.Cinchona officinalis can be given to those patients in whom hair loss is accompanied with anemia. People who suffer from hair loss due to Loss of blood in any form like bleeding from nose or excessive bleeding during menstruation or loss of blood after an injury due to accident leading to anemia can be given this medicine. The patients requiring this medicine usually complain of a weak digestion along with excessive flatulence. CALCAREA PHOS 30--Clacareaphosphorica is a useful medicine that can be used to treat hair loss in anemic patients – usually in anemic girls who grow too rapidly at puberty and suffer from hair loss and extreme headache along with acidity in stomach. FERRUM PHOS 30- Hair falls from the head due to anemia FLUORICUM ACIDUM 30-Fluoricumacidum is mainly used for hair loss in spots in a person of hot temperament, who is worse in any warm environment and constantly desires cold environment . Hair loss in bunches occurring during typhoid fever can be treated with this medicine. PHOSPHORUS 30-Hair loss during typhoid fever.The symptoms that guides towards its usage are patches of hair loss on scalp along with unusual craving for salty things, chicken, cold drinks and ice creams. The patients requiring Phosphorus are tall, thin and slender in physical appearance. CALCAREA CARBONICA 30- Calcreacarbonica is a great homeopathic remedy for hair loss .It can be prescribed to patients in whom the hair is lost in well defined patches, and constitutionally who are fair, fat and flabby in built. The other symptoms that stand out dominant to use this medicine are excessive chilliness with intolerance to slight draft of air, excessive perspiration on the scalp and unusual craving for boiled eggs. VINCA MINOR 30-Vinca minor can be used for the hair loss in spots whereby the white coloured hair grows back in the spots of hair loss. PIX LIQUIDA 30- Baldness due to diseases of the scalp. Scalp itches intolerably and bleeds on scratching SANICULA AQUA 200- Baldness which is chronic due to dandruffs and lots of itching THALLIUM 30-Thallium is effective for falling of hair after an acute , exhausting disease . It is prescribed when alopecia with profuse perspiration on the head is present. It is also useful loss of hair as an after effect of an atom bomb explosion. WEISBADEN 200- By the use of this remedy the hair will grow more rapidly than usual and becomes darker . New hair take place of the fallen hair rapidlyDr. Arpit Gupta9 Likes13 Answers
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Friends today I am discussing about Nail Abnormalities. What are nail abnormalities? Healthy nails appear smooth and have consistent coloring. As you age, you may develop vertical ridges, or your nails may be a bit more brittle. This is harmless. Spots due to injury should grow out with the nail. Abnormalities — such as spots, discoloration, and nail separation — can result from injuries to the fingers and hands, viral warts (periungual warts), infections (onychomycosis), and some medications, such as those used for chemotherapy. Certain medical conditions can also change the appearance of your fingernails. However, these changes can be difficult to interpret. Your fingernails’ appearance alone isn’t enough to diagnose a specific illness. A doctor will use this information, along with your other symptoms and a physical exam, to make a diagnosis. Abnormalities of the fingernail Some changes in your nails are due to medical conditions that need attention. See your doctor if you have any of these symptoms: discoloration (dark streaks, white streaks, or changes in nail color) changes in nail shape (curling or clubbing) changes in nail thickness (thickening or thinning) nails that become brittle nails that are pitted bleeding around nails swelling or redness around nails pain around nails a nail separating from the skin These nail changes can be caused by a variety of different conditions, including ones we describe below. Beau’s lines Depressions that run across your fingernail are called Beau’s lines. These can be a sign of malnourishment. Other conditions that cause Beau’s lines are: diseases that cause a high fever such as measles, mumps, and scarlet fever peripheral vascular disease pneumonia uncontrolled diabetes zinc deficiency Clubbing Clubbing is when your nails thicken and curve around your fingertips, a process that generally takes years. This can be the result of low oxygen in the blood and is associated with: cardiovascular diseases inflammatory bowel disease liver diseases pulmonary diseases AIDS Koilonychia (spooning) Koilonychia is when your fingernails have raised ridges and scoop outward, like spoons. It’s also called “spooning.” Sometimes the nail is curved enough to hold a drop of liquid. Spooning can be a sign that you have: iron deficiency anemia heart disease hemochromatosis, a liver disorder that causes too much iron to be absorbed from food lupus erythematosus, an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation hypothyroidism Raynaud’s disease, a condition that limits your blood circulation Leukonychia (white spots) Nonuniform white spots or lines on the nail are called leukonychia. They’re usually the result of a minor trauma and are harmless in healthy individuals. Sometimes leukonychia is associated with poor health or nutritional deficiencies. Factors can include infectious, metabolic, or systemic diseases as well as certain drugs. Mees’ lines Mees’ lines are transverse white lines. This can be a sign of arsenic poisoning. If you have this symptom, your doctor will take hair or tissue samples to check for arsenic in your body. Onycholysis When the nail plate separates from the nail bed, it causes a white discoloration. This is called onycholysis. This can be due to infection, trauma, or products used on the nails. Other causes for onycholysis include: psoriasis thyroid disease Pitting Pitting refers to small depressions, or little pits, in the nail. It’s common in people who have psoriasis, a skin condition that causes the skin to be dry, red, and irritated. Some systemic diseases can also cause pitting. Terry’s nails When the tip of each nail has a dark band, it’s called Terry’s nails. This is often due to aging, but it can also be caused by: congestive heart failure diabetes liver disease Yellow nail syndrome Yellow nail syndrome is when the nails get thicker and don’t grow as fast as normal. Sometimes the nail lacks a cuticle and may even pull away from the nail bed. This can be the result of: internal malignancies lymphedema, swelling of the hands pleural effusions, fluid buildup between the lungs and chest cavity respiratory illnesses such as chronic bronchitis or sinusitis rheumatoid arthritis These are just some of the signs of abnormal fingernails. Having any of these signs isn’t proof of any medical condition. You’ll need to visit your doctor to determine if your condition is serious. In many cases, proper care of your nails is enough to correct their appearance. How to care for your nails You can prevent many nail abnormalities by taking good care of your nails. Follow these general guidelines to keep your nails healthy: Tips Don’t bite or tear at your nails, or pull on hangnails. Always use nails clippers and trim them after you bathe, when nails are still soft. Keep your nails dry and clean. Using sharp manicure scissors, trim your nails straight across, rounding the tips gently. If you have a problem with brittle or weak nails, keep them short to avoid breakage. Use lotion on your nails and cuticles to keep the nail and nail beds moisturized. Homoeopathic medicines for nail abnormalities Medicines according to Cause1 Cause Medicines From a hurt Ledum pal. Prick with a needle under the nail Allium cepa, Bovista, Sulphur; Hard work Rhus tox, Sepia; Prick near the nail Iodum; Splinters Baryta carb., Hepar sulph., Iodum, Lachesis, Nitricum acidum, Petroleum, Silicea, Sulphur; Splits of the skin adhering to the nails Allium cepa, Natrum mur. TABLE 2 Medicines according to the Sensation Sensations Medicines Irritable feeling under finger nails, relieved by biting them Ammonium brom. Itching-about roof of Upas tiente Pains-Burning under Sarsarparilla Pains, gnawing, beneath finger nails Alumina; Sarsaparilla.; Sepia Pains, neuralgic, beneath finger nails Berberis vulgaris Pains, neuralgic Alumina; Allium cepa; Colchicum Pains, smarting at roots Sulphur Pains, splinter-like, beneath toe nails Fluoric acidum Pains, ulcerative, beneath toe nails Antimonium crudum; Graphites; Teucrium Medicines according to Location1 Fig. Medicines according to location pastedGraphic.png TABLE 3 Medicines according to Pathology Pathology Medicines Atrophy Silicea Blueness Digitalis; Oxalicum Acidum Deformed-brittle, thickened (onchogryposis) Alumina; Anatherium; Antimonium crudum; Arsenicum album; Causticum; Dioscorea; Fluoricum acidum; Graphites; Merc. Sol.; Natrum muriaticum; Sabadilla; Secal cor..; Senecio aureus; Sepia; Silicea; Thuja.; X-ray. Falling off Brassica napus; Butyric acid; Helleborus faetidus; Helleborus Hangnails Lycopodium; Natrum muriaticum; Sulphur; Upas tiente Hypertrophy (onychauxis) Graphites Inflammation of pulp (onychia) Arnica; Calendula; Fluoricum acidum.; Graphites; Phosphorus; Psorinum; Sarsaparilla; Silicea; Upas tiente Inflammation, under toe nails Sabadilla Ingrowing toe nails Causticum; Magnetis polus austral.; Nitricum acidum; Silicea; Staphysagria; Teucrium; Tetrodymite Softening Plumbum met; Thuja Spots, white on Alumina; Nitricum acidum Trophic changes Radium brom Ulceration Alumina; Garphites; Merc. Sol.; Phosphorus; Sanguinaria; Sarsaparilla; Silicea; Teucrium; Tetrodymite Yellow color Conium maculatumDr. Rajesh Gupta5 Likes7 Answers
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Lupus is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks normal, healthy tissue. This results in symptoms such as inflammation, swelling, and damage to joints, skin, kidneys, blood, the heart, and lungs. Under normal function, the immune system makes proteins called antibodies in order to protect and fight against antigens such as viruses and bacteria. Lupus makes the immune system unable to differentiate between antigens (a substance capable of inducing a specific immune response) and healthy tissue. This leads the immune system to direct antibodies against the healthy tissue – not just antigens – causing swelling, pain, and tissue damage. History The history of lupus can be divided into three periods: classical, neoclassical, and modern. This article concentrates on developments in the present century which have greatly expanded our knowledge about the pathophysiology, clinical-laboratory features, and treatment of this disorder. Lupus in the classical period (1230-1856) The history of lupus during the classical period was reviewed by Smith and Cyr in 1988. Of note are the derivation of the term lupus and the clinical descriptions of the cutaneous lesions of lupus vulgaris, lupus profundus, discoid lupus, and the photosensitive nature of the malar or butterfly rash. The word ‘lupus’ (Latin for ‘wolf’) is attributed to the thirteenth century physician Rogerius who used it to describe erosive facial lesions that were reminiscent of a wolf’s bite. Classical descriptions of the various dermatologic features of lupus were made by Thomas Bateman, a student of the British dermatologist Robert William, in the early nineteenth century; Cazenave, a student of the French dermatologist Laurent Biett, in the mid-nineteenth century; and Moriz Kaposi (born Moriz Kohn), student and son-in-law of the Austrian dermatologist Ferdinand von Hebra, in the late nineteenth century. The lesions now referred to as discoid lupus were described in 1833 by Cazenave under the term “erythema centrifugum,” while the butterfly distribution of the facial rash was noted by von Hebra in 1846. The first published illustrations of lupus erythematosus were included in von Hebra’s text, Atlas of Skin Diseases, published in 1856. Lupus in the neoclassical period (1872- 1948) The Neoclassical era of the history of lupus began in 1872 when Kaposi first described the systemic nature of the disorder: “…experience has shown that lupus erythematosus … may be attended by altogether more severe pathological changes, and even dangerous constitutional symptoms may be intimately associated with the process in question, and that death may result from conditions which must be considered to arise from the local malady.” Kaposi proposed that there were two types of lupus erythematosus; the discoid form and a disseminated (systemic) form. Furthermore, he enumerated various signs and symptoms which characterized the systemic form, including: subcutaneous nodules arthritis with synovial hypertrophy of both small and large joints lymphadenopathy fever weight loss anemia central nervous system involvement The existence of a systemic form of lupus was firmly established in 1904 by the work of Osler in Baltimore and Jadassohn in Vienna. Over the next thirty years, pathologic studies documented the existence of nonbacterial verrucous endocarditis (Libman-Sacks disease) and wire-loop lesions in individuals with glomerulonephritis; such observations at the autopsy table led to the construct of collagen disease proposed by Kemperer and colleagues in 1941. This terminology, ‘collagen vascular disease,’ persists in usage more than seventy years after its introduction. Lupus in the modern era (1948-present) The sentinel event which heralded the modern era was the discovery of the LE cell by Hargraves and colleagues in 1948. The investigators observed these cells in the bone marrow of individuals with acute disseminated lupus erythematosus and postulated that the cell “…is the result of…phagocytosis of free nuclear material with a resulting round vacuole containing this partially digested and lysed nuclear material…”. This discovery ushered in the present era of the application of immunology to the study of lupus erythematosus; it also allowed the diagnosis of individuals with much milder forms of the disease. This possibility, coupled with the discovery of cortisone as a treatment, changed the natural history of lupus as it was known prior to that time. Two other immunologic markers were recognized in the 1950s as being associated with lupus: the biologic false-positive test for syphilis and the immunofluorescent test for antinuclear antibodies. Moore, working in Baltimore, demonstrated that systemic lupus developed in 7 percent of 148 individuals with chronic false-positive tests for syphilis and that a further 30 percent had symptoms consistent with collagen disease. Friou applied the technique of indirect immunofluorescence to demonstrate the presence of antinuclear antibodies in the blood of individuals with systemic lupus. Subsequently, there was the recognition of antibodies to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the description of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (nuclear ribonucleoprotein [nRNP], Sm, Ro, La), and anticardiolipin antibodies; these autoantibodies are useful in describing clinical subsets and understanding the etiopathogenesis of lupus. The Lupus Erythematosus cell is discovered. This discovery ushered in the present era of the application of immunology to the study of lupus erythematosus; it also allowed the diagnosis of individuals with much milder forms of the disease. This possibility, coupled with the discovery of cortisone as a treatment, changed the natural history of lupus as it was known prior to that time. Two other immunologic markers were recognized in the 1950s as being associated with lupus: the biologic false-positive test for syphilis and the immunofluorescent test for antinuclear antibodies. Moore, working in Baltimore, demonstrated that systemic lupus developed in 7 percent of 148 individuals with chronic false-positive tests for syphilis and that a further 30 percent had symptoms consistent with collagen disease. Friou applied the technique of indirect immunofluorescence to demonstrate the presence of antinuclear antibodies in the blood of individuals with systemic lupus. Subsequently, there was the recognition of antibodies to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and the description of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (nuclear ribonucleoprotein [nRNP], Sm, Ro, La), and anticardiolipin antibodies; these autoantibodies are useful in describing clinical subsets and understanding the etiopathogenesis of lupus. Genetic component recognized The familial occurrence of systemic lupus was first noted by Leonhardt in 1954 and later studies by Arnett and Shulman at Johns Hopkins. Subsequently, familial aggregation of lupus, the concordance of lupus in monozygotic twin pairs, and the association of genetic markers with lupus have been described over the past twenty years. Molecular biology techniques have been applied to the study of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) Class II genes to determine specific amino acid sequences in these cell surface molecules that are involved in antigen presentation to T-helper cells in individuals with lupus. These studies have resulted in the identification of genetic-serologic subsets of systemic lupus that complement the clinico-serologic subsets noted earlier. It is hoped by investigators working in this field that these studies will lead to the identification of etiologic factors (e.g., viral antigens/proteins) in lupus. Over the last decade or so, we have witnessed significant advances in the understanding of the genetic basis of lupus, and of the immunological derangements which lead to the clinical manifestations of the disease. Advances have been made in the assessment of the impact of the disease in general, and in minority population groups, in particular and efforts are being made towards defining lupus biomarkers which may help both to predict disease outcome and to guide treatments. Prevalence and incidence Lupus appears to be a relatively uncommon disease. The prevalence has been estimated in several different countries mostly, however, in the developed world, using different techniques of case ascertainment. The authors of one metaanalysis (including those studies in Europe and North America) suggested an overall weighted mean prevalence of 24/100,000 population.Three English studies have produced prevalence estimates of: 12/100,000, 25/100,000 and 28/100,000 and the only study in N Ireland estimated a rate of 254/100,000. Studies in countries which include predominantly white populations have resulted in lower prevalence estimates (e.g. England) when compared with studies among populations with a significant proportion of Afro-Caribbeans, Asians and Hispanics. It is more difficult to estimate incidence for a rare disease but studies in both North America and Europe have produced estimates that are similar (approximately 1 – 8 cases per 100,000 persons per year).The lowest rates of incidence were seen among Caucasian Americans, Canadians and Spaniards and the highest rates among Asian (10.0 cases /100,000) and Afro-Caribbean (21.9 cases /100,000) residents of the UK. In an average UK practice list of 3000 patients, therefore, a GP would not expect to see a new case of lupus more often than every 7-10 years. Types There are three main types of lupus: Systemic lupus erythematosus (eh-RITH-eh-muh-TOE-sus) is the most common form. It’s sometimes called SLE, or just lupus. The word “systemic” means that the disease can involve many parts of the body such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. SLE symptoms can be mild or serious. Systemic lupus Discoid lupus erythematosus mainly affects the skin. A red rash may appear, or the skin on the face, scalp, or elsewhere may change color. Discoid lupus Drug-induced lupus is triggered by a few medicines. It’s like SLE, but symptoms are usually milder. Most of the time, the disease goes away when the medicine is stopped. More men develop drug-induced lupus because the drugs that cause it, hydralazine and procainamide, are used to treat heart conditions that are more common in men. Risk factors Risk factors for developing lupus include: Gender – more than 90% of people with lupus are women. Before puberty, boys and girls are equally likely to develop the condition Age – symptoms and diagnosis of lupus often occur between the ages of 15-45. Around 15% of people who are later diagnosed with lupus, experienced symptoms before the age of 18 Race – in the US, lupus is more common, more severe and develops earlier in African-Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Asian-Americans, Native Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders than in the white population Family history – first-degree or second-degree relatives of a person with lupus have a 4-8% risk of developing lupus. One study suggests that sisters of lupus patients have as high as a 10% chance of developing lupus. In another 10-year prospective study, researchers observed a 7% incidence of lupus in first-degree relatives of lupus patients. Causes Many (but not all) scientists believe that lupus develops in response to a combination of factors both inside and outside the body, including hormones, genetics, and environment. Hormones Hormones are the body’s messengers. They regulate many of the body’s functions. Because nine of every 10 occurrences of lupus are in females, researchers have looked at the relationship between estrogen and lupus. While men and women both produce estrogen, its production is much greater in females. Many women have more lupus symptoms before menstrual periods and/or during pregnancy when estrogen production is high. This may indicate that estrogen somehow regulates the severity of lupus. However, no causal effect has been proven between estrogen, or any other hormone, and lupus. And, studies of women with lupus taking estrogen in either birth control pills or as postmenopausal therapy have shown no increase in significant disease activity. Researchers are now focusing on differences between men and women, beyond hormone levels, which may account for why women are more prone to lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Genetics Researchers have now identified more than 50 genes which they associate with lupus. These genes are more commonly seen in people with lupus than in those without the disease, and while most of these genes have not been shown to directly cause lupus, they are believed to contribute to it. In most cases, genes are not enough. This is especially evident with twins who are raised in the same environment and have the same inherited features yet only one develops lupus. Although, when one of two identical twins has lupus, there is an increased chance that the other twin will also develop the disease (30% percent chance for identical twins; 5-10% percent chance for fraternal twins). Lupus can develop in people with no family history of it, but there are likely to be other autoimmune diseases in some family members. Certain ethnic groups (people of African, Asian, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Island descent) have a greater risk of developing lupus, which may be related to genes they have in common. Environment Most researchers today think that an environmental agent, such as a virus or possibly a chemical, randomly encountered by a genetically susceptible individual, acts to trigger the disease. Researchers have not identified a specific environmental agent as yet but the hypothesis remains likely. While the environmental elements that can trigger lupus and cause flares aren’t fully known, the most commonly cited are ultraviolet light (UVA and UVB); infections (including the effects of the Epstein-Barr virus), and exposure to silica dust in agricultural or industrial settings. Symptoms Lupus can have many symptoms, and they differ from person to person. Some of the more common ones are Pain or swelling in joints Muscle pain Fever with no known cause Red rashes, most often on the face (also called the “butterfly rash”) Chest pain when taking a deep breath Hair loss Pale or purple fingers or toes Sensitivity to the sun Swelling in legs or around eyes Mouth ulcers Swollen glands Feeling very tired Symptoms may come and go. When you are having symptoms, it is called a flare. Flares can range from mild to severe. New symptoms may appear at any time. Diagnosis and test Diagnosing lupus is difficult because signs and symptoms vary considerably from person to person. Signs and symptoms of lupus may vary over time and overlap with those of many other disorders. No one test can diagnose lupus. The combination of blood and urine tests, signs and symptoms, and physical examination findings leads to the diagnosis. Laboratory tests Blood and urine tests may include: Complete blood count: This test measures the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets as well as the amount of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells. Results may indicate you have anemia, which commonly occurs in lupus. A low white blood cell or platelet count may occur in lupus as well. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate: This blood test determines the rate at which red blood cells settle to the bottom of a tube in an hour. A faster than normal rate may indicate a systemic disease, such as lupus. The sedimentation rate isn’t specific for any one disease. It may be elevated if you have lupus, another inflammatory condition, cancer or an infection. Kidney and liver assessment: Blood tests can assess how well your kidneys and liver are functioning. Lupus can affect these organs. Urinalysis. An examination of a sample of your urine may show an increased protein level or red blood cells in the urine, which may occur if lupus has affected your kidneys. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) test. A positive test for the presence of these antibodies — produced by your immune system — indicates a stimulated immune system. While most people with lupus have a positive ANA test, most people with a positive ANA do not have lupus. If you test positive for ANA, your doctor may advise more-specific antibody testing. Imaging tests If your doctor suspects that lupus is affecting your lungs or heart, he or she may suggest: Chest X-ray. An image of your chest may reveal abnormal shadows that suggest fluid or inflammation in your lungs. Echocardiogram. This test uses sound waves to produce real-time images of your beating heart. It can check for problems with your valves and other portions of your heart. Biopsy Lupus can harm your kidneys in many different ways, and treatments can vary, depending on the type of damage that occurs. In some cases, it’s necessary to test a small sample of kidney tissue to determine what the best treatment might be. The sample can be obtained with a needle or through a small incision. Treatment and medications Treatment for lupus depends on your signs and symptoms. Determining whether your signs and symptoms should be treated and what medications to use requires a careful discussion of the benefits and risks with your doctor. As your signs and symptoms flare and subside, you and your doctor may find that you’ll need to change medications or dosages. The medications most commonly used to control lupus include: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Over-the-counter NSAIDs, such as naproxen sodium (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), may be used to treat pain, swelling and fever associated with lupus. Stronger NSAIDs are available by prescription. Side effects of NSAIDs include stomach bleeding, kidney problems and an increased risk of heart problems. Antimalarial drugs: Medications commonly used to treat malaria, such as hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), also can help control lupus. Side effects can include stomach upset and, very rarely, damage to the retina of the eye. Corticosteroids: Prednisone and other types of corticosteroids can counter the inflammation of lupus but often produce long-term side effects including weight gain, easy bruising, thinning bones (osteoporosis), high blood pressure, diabetes and increased risk of infection. The risk of side effects increases with higher doses and longer term therapy. Immunosuppressants: Drugs that suppress the immune system may be helpful in serious cases of lupus. Examples include azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan), mycophenolate (CellCept), leflunomide (Arava) and methotrexate (Trexall). Potential side effects may include an increased risk of infection, liver damage, decreased fertility and an increased risk of cancer. A newer medication, belimumab (Benlysta), also reduces lupus symptoms in some people. Side effects include nausea, diarrhea and fever. Prevention There is no known way to prevent Lupus since there is no known cause as yet. You can help manage flare-ups though: Avoid known triggers such as sunlight, stress, and lack of sleep Manage your diet Get adequate exerciseDr. Nitin Kanholkar1 Like6 Answers