Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of genetic material on chromosome p4. It’s incidence is 1 in 50,000 individuals. It usually effects children and symptoms are as follows developmental disorders, poor intellectually ability, muscle weaknesses and seizures. Muscle weakness may cause fatigue and cause severe chest infections which could be fatal also associated with uncontrollable seizures.
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a condition that affects many parts of the body. The major features of this disorder include a characteristic facial appearance, delayed growth and development, intellectual disability, and seizures. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is caused by a deletion of genetic material near the end of the short (p) arm of chromosome 4. This chromosomal change is sometimes written as 4p...
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a genetic disorderthat affects many parts of the body. The major features include a characteristic facial appearance, delayed growth and development, intellectual disability , low muscle tone ( hypotonia ), and seizures .
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LEAD POISONING- A SERIOUS THREAT TO HEALTH Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.The brain is the most sensitive.Symptoms may include abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems, inability to have children, and tingling in the hands and feet. It causes almost 10% of intellectual disability of otherwise unknown cause and can result in behavioral problems. Some of the effects are permanent. In severe cases anemia, seizures, coma, or deathmay occur. Lead poisoning Synonyms Plumbism, colica pictorum, saturnism, Devon colic, painter's colic An X ray demonstrating the characteristic finding of lead poisoning in humans—dense metaphyseal lines. Specialty Toxicology Symptoms Intellectual disability, abdominal pain, constipation, headaches, irritability, memory problems, inability to have children, tingling in the hands and feet Complications Anemia, seizures, coma Causes Exposure to lead via contaminated air, water, dust, food, consumer products Risk factors Being a child Diagnostic method Blood lead level Differential diagnosis Iron deficiency anemia, malabsorption, anxiety disorder, polyneuropathy Prevention Removing lead from the home, improved monitoring in the workplace, laws that ban lead in products Treatment Chelation therapy Medication Dimercaprol, edetate calcium disodium, succimer Deaths 853,000 (2013) Exposure to lead can occur by contaminated air, water, dust, food, or consumer products. Children are at greater risk as they are more likely to put objects in their mouth such as those that contain lead paint and absorb a greater proportion of the lead that they eat. Exposure at work is a common cause of lead poisoning in adults with certain occupations at particular risk.Diagnosis is typically by measurement of the blood lead level. The Centers for Disease Control (US) has set the upper limit for blood lead for adults at 10 µg/dl (10 µg/100 g) and for children at 5 µg/dl. Elevated lead may also be detected by changes in red blood cellsor dense lines in the bones of children as seen on X-ray. Lead poisoning is preventable. This includes by individual efforts such as removing lead-containing items from the home, workplace efforts such as improved ventilation and monitoring,and nationwide policies such as laws that ban lead in products such as paint and gasoline, reduce allowable levels in water or soil, and provide for cleanup of contaminated soil. The major treatments are removal of the source of lead and the use of medications that bind lead so it can be eliminated from the body, known as chelation therapy.Chelation therapy in children is recommended when blood levels are greater than 40–45 µg/dl.Medications used include dimercaprol, edetate calcium disodium, and succimer. In 2013 lead is believed to have resulted in 853,000 deaths. It occurs most commonly in the developing world.Those who are poor are at greater risk.Lead is believed to result in 0.6% of the world's disease burden. People have been mining and using lead for thousands of years. Descriptions of lead poisoning date to at least 2000 BC, while efforts to limit lead's use date back to at least the 16th century.Concerns for low levels of exposure begin in the 1970s with there being no safe threshold for lead exposure. Classification Classically, "lead poisoning" or "lead intoxication" has been defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects. Poisoning is a pattern of symptoms that occur with toxic effects from mid to high levels of exposure; toxicity is a wider spectrum of effects, including subclinical ones (those that do not cause symptoms). However, professionals often use "lead poisoning" and "lead toxicity" interchangeably, and official sources do not always restrict the use of "lead poisoning" to refer only to symptomatic effects of lead. The amount of lead in the blood and tissues, as well as the time course of exposure, determine toxicity. Lead poisoning may be acute (from intense exposure of short duration) or chronic (from repeat low-level exposure over a prolonged period), but the latter is much more common. Diagnosis and treatment of lead exposure are based on blood lead level (the amount of lead in the blood), measured in micrograms of lead per deciliter of blood (μg/dL). Urine lead levels may be used as well, though less commonly. In cases of chronic exposure lead often sequesters in the highest concentrations first in the bones, then in the kidneys. If a provider is performing a provocative excretion test, or "chelation challenge", a measurement obtained from urine rather than blood is likely to provide a more accurate representation of total lead burden to a skilled interpreter. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization state that a blood lead level of 10 μg/dL or above is a cause for concern; however, lead may impair development and have harmful health effects even at lower levels, and there is no known safe exposure level.Authorities such as the American Academy of Pediatrics define lead poisoning as blood lead levels higher than 10 μg/dL. Lead forms a variety of compounds and exists in the environment in various forms. Features of poisoning differ depending on whether the agent is an organic compound (one that contains carbon), or an inorganic one. Organic lead poisoning is now very rare, because countries across the world have phased out the use of organic lead compounds as gasoline additives, but such compounds are still used in industrial settings. Organic lead compounds, which cross the skin and respiratory tract easily, affect the central nervous system predominantly. Signs and symptoms Symptoms of lead poisoning. Lead poisoning can cause a variety of symptoms and signs which vary depending on the individual and the duration of lead exposure.Symptoms are nonspecific and may be subtle, and someone with elevated lead levels may have no symptoms.Symptoms usually develop over weeks to months as lead builds up in the body during a chronic exposure, but acute symptoms from brief, intense exposures also occur. Symptoms from exposure to organic lead, which is probably more toxic than inorganic lead due to its lipid solubility, occur rapidly. Poisoning by organic lead compounds has symptoms predominantly in the central nervous system, such as insomnia, delirium, cognitive deficits, tremor, hallucinations, and convulsions. Symptoms may be different in adults and children; the main symptoms in adults are headache, abdominal pain, memory loss, kidney failure, male reproductive problems, and weakness, pain, or tingling in the extremities. Early symptoms of lead poisoning in adults are commonly nonspecific and include depression, loss of appetite, intermittent abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, and muscle pain. Other early signs in adults include malaise, fatigue, decreased libido, and problems with sleep. An unusual taste in the mouth and personality changes are also early signs. In adults, symptoms can occur at levels above 40 μg/dL, but are more likely to occur only above 50–60 μg/dL.Symptoms begin to appear in children generally at around 60 μg/dL.However, the lead levels at which symptoms appear vary widely depending on unknown characteristics of each individual. At blood lead levels between 25 and 60 μg/dL, neuropsychiatric effects such as delayed reaction times, irritability, and difficulty concentrating, as well as slowed motor nerve conduction and headache can occur. Anemia may appear at blood lead levels higher than 50 μg/dL. In adults, abdominal colic, involving paroxysms of pain, may appear at blood lead levels greater than 80 μg/dL. Signs that occur in adults at blood lead levels exceeding 100 μg/dL include wrist drop and foot drop, and signs of encephalopathy (a condition characterized by brain swelling), such as those that accompany increased pressure within the skull, delirium, coma, seizures, and headache. In children, signs of encephalopathy such as bizarre behavior, discoordination, and apathy occur at lead levels exceeding 70 μg/dL. For both adults and children, it is rare to be asymptomatic if blood lead levels exceed 100 μg/dL. Acute poisoning In acute poisoning, typical neurological signs are pain, muscle weakness, numbness and tingling, and, rarely, symptoms associated with inflammation of the brain. Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation are other acute symptoms. Lead's effects on the mouth include astringency and a metallic taste.Gastrointestinal problems, such as constipation, diarrhea, poor appetite, or weight loss, are common in acute poisoning. Absorption of large amounts of lead over a short time can cause shock (insufficient fluid in the circulatory system) due to loss of water from the gastrointestinal tract. Hemolysis (the rupture of red blood cells) due to acute poisoning can cause anemia and hemoglobin in the urine. Damage to kidneys can cause changes in urination such as decreased urine output.People who survive acute poisoning often go on to display symptoms of chronic poisoning. Chronic poisoning Chronic poisoning usually presents with symptoms affecting multiple systems, but is associated with three main types of symptoms: gastrointestinal, neuromuscular, and neurological.Central nervous system and neuromuscular symptoms usually result from intense exposure, while gastrointestinal symptoms usually result from exposure over longer periods.Signs of chronic exposure include loss of short-term memory or concentration, depression, nausea, abdominal pain, loss of coordination, and numbness and tingling in the extremities.[unreliable medical source?] Fatigue, problems with sleep, headaches, stupor, slurred speech, and anemia are also found in chronic lead poisoning. A "lead hue" of the skin with pallor and/or lividity is another feature. A blue line along the gum with bluish black edging to the teeth, known as a Burton line, is another indication of chronic lead poisoning.Children with chronic poisoning may refuse to play or may have hyperkineticor aggressive behavior disorders.Visual disturbance may present with gradually progressing blurred vision as a result of central scotoma, caused by toxic optic neuritis. Effects on children As lead safety standards become more stringent, fewer children in the US are found to have elevated lead levels. A woman who has elevated blood lead levels during pregnancy is at greater risk of a prematurely birth or with a low birth weight. Children are more at risk for lead poisoning because their smaller bodies are in a continuous state of growth and development. Lead is absorbed at a faster rate compared to adults, which causes more physical harm than to older people. Furthermore, children, especially as they are learning to crawl and walk, are constantly on the floor and therefore more prone to ingesting and inhaling dust that is contaminated with lead. The classic signs and symptoms in children are loss of appetite, abdominal pain, vomiting, weight loss, constipation, anemia, kidney failure, irritability, lethargy, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems. Slow development of normal childhood behaviors, such as talking and use of words, and permanent intellectual disability are both commonly seen. Although less common, it is possible for fingernails to develop leukonychia striata if exposed to abnormally high lead concentrations. By organ system Lead affects every one of the body's organ systems, especially the nervous system, but also the bones and teeth, the kidneys, and the cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive systems.Hearing loss and tooth decay have been linked to lead exposure, as have cataracts. Intrauterine and neonatal lead exposure promote tooth decay. Aside from the developmental effects unique to young children, the health effects experienced by adults are similar to those in children, although the thresholds are generally higher. Kidneys Kidney damage occurs with exposure to high levels of lead, and evidence suggests that lower levels can damage kidneys as well. The toxic effect of lead causes nephropathy and may cause Fanconi syndrome, in which the proximal tubular function of the kidney is impaired. Long-term exposure at levels lower than those that cause lead nephropathy have also been reported as nephrotoxic in patients from developed countries that had chronic kidney disease or were at risk because of hypertension or diabetes mellitus.Lead poisoning inhibits excretion of the waste product urate and causes a predispositDr. Yogesh Deshpande2 Likes1 Answer
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According to the World Health Organization , waterborne diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY (disability- adjusted life year) global burden of disease , and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842,000 deaths per year, is attributable to a lack of safe drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene (summarized as WASH ).  Overview The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer to diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors . Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria , many of which are intestinal parasites , or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses . (In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as " organisms ", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection.) Yet other important classes of water- borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites. Typical examples include certain Nematoda , that is to say "roundworms". As an example of water-borne Nematode infections, one important waterborne nematodal disease is Dracunculiasis . It is acquired by swallowing water in which certain copepoda occur that act as vectors for the Nematoda. Anyone swallowing a copepod that happens to be infected with Nematode larvae in the genus Dracunculus , becomes liable to infection. The larvae cause guinea worm disease .  Another class of waterbornemetazoan pathogens are certain members of the Schistosomatidae , a family of blood flukes . They usually infect victims that make skin contact with the water.  Blood flukes are pathogens that cause Schistosomiasis of various forms, more or less seriously affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide.  Long before modern studies had established the germ theory of disease , or any advanced understanding of the nature of water as a vehicle for transmitting disease, traditional beliefs had cautioned against the consumption of water, rather favouring processed beverages such as beer , wine and tea . For example, in the camel caravans that crossed Central Asia along the Silk Road , the explorer Owen Lattimore noted, "The reason we drank so much tea was because of the bad water. Water alone, unboiled, is never drunk. There is a superstition that it causes blisters on the feet."  Socioeconomic impact Waterborne diseases can have a significant impact on the economy, locally as well as internationally. People who are infected by a waterborne disease are usually confronted with related costs and not seldom with a huge financial burden. This is especially the case in less developed countries. The financial losses are mostly caused by e.g. costs for medical treatment and medication, costs for transport, special food, and by the loss of manpower. Many families must even sell their land to pay for treatment in a proper hospital. On average, a family spends about 10% of the monthly households income per person infected.  Infections by type of pathogen Protozoan Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Amoebiasis (hand-to-mouth) Protozoan ( Entamoeba histolytica ) (Cyst-like appearance) Sewage , non- treated drinking water , flies in water supply, saliva transfer (if the other person has the disease) Abdominal discomfort, fatigue , weight loss, diarrhea , bloating , fever Cryptosporidiosis (oral) Protozoan ( Cryptosporidium parvum ) Collects on water filters and membranes that cannot be disinfected , animal manure , seasonalrunoff of water. Flu-like symptoms , watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, substantial loss of weight, bloating , increased gas, nausea Cyclosporiasis Protozoan parasite ( Cyclospora cayetanensis ) Sewage , non- treated drinking water cramps , nausea, vomiting , muscle aches, fever, and fatigue Giardiasis (fecal- oral) (hand-to- mouth) Protozoan ( Giardia lamblia ) Most common intestinal parasite Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks, leaks, groundwater contamination, campgrounds where humans and wildlife use same source of water. Beavers and muskrats createponds that act as reservoirsfor Giardia. Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating , and flatulence Microsporidiosis Protozoan phylum ( Microsporidia ), but closely related to fungi Encephalitozoon intestinalis has been detected in groundwater , the origin of drinking water  Diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals. Bacterial Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Botulism Clostridium botulinum Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision , difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea . Death is usually caused by respiratory failure . Campylobacteriosis Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni Drinking water contaminated with feces Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever . Usually lasts 2–10 days. Cholera Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea , cramps , nosebleed , rapid pulse , vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours. E. coli Infection Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli ) Water contaminated with the bacteria Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness. M. marinum infection Mycobacterium marinum Naturally occurs in water, most cases from exposure in swimming poolsor more frequently aquariums ; rare infection since it mostly infects immunocompromised individuals Symptoms include lesions typically located on the elbows, knees, and feet (from swimming pools ) or lesions on the hands ( aquariums ). Lesions may be painless or painful. Dysentery Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonella with the most common being Shigella dysenteriae Water contaminated with the bacterium Frequent passage of feces with blood and/ or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood. Legionellosis(two distinct forms: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever) Caused by bacteria belonging to genus Legionella (90% of cases caused by Legionella pneumophila ) Legionella is a very common organism that reproduces to high numbers in warm water;  but only causes severe disease when aerosolized.  Pontiac fever produces milder symptoms resembling acute influenza without pneumonia . Legionnaires' disease has severe symptoms such as fever , chills , pneumonia (with cough that sometimes produces sputum ), ataxia , anorexia , muscle aches, malaiseand occasionally diarrhea and vomiting Leptospirosis Caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira Water contaminated by the animal urine carrying the bacteria Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The second phase then occurs involving meningitis , liver damage (causes jaundice ), and renal failure Otitis Externa (swimmer's ear) Caused by a number of bacterial and fungal species. Swimming in water contaminated by the responsible pathogens Ear canal swells, causing pain and tenderness to the touch Salmonellosis Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness . Symptoms include diarrhea , fever , vomiting, and abdominal cramps Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Ingestion of water contaminated with feces of an infected person Characterized by sustained fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), profusesweating ; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium , and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots", small red spots on the abdomen and chest. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio alginolyticus , and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Can enter wounds from contaminated water. Also acquired by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters . Symptoms include abdominal tenderness, agitation, bloody stools, chills, confusion, difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), delirium, fluctuating mood, hallucination, nosebleeds, severe fatigue, slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.  Viral Disease and Transmission Viral Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus Manifests itself in improperly treated water Symptoms include fever , myalgia , lethargy , gastrointestinal symptoms , cough , and sore throat Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Can manifest itself in water (and food) Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue , fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression . Poliomyelitis (Polio) Poliovirus Enters water through the feces of infected individuals 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with delirium , headache , fever , and occasional seizures , and spastic paralysis , 1% have symptoms of non- paralytic aseptic meningitis . The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysisor death Polyomavirus infection Two of Polyomavirus : JC virus and BK virus Very widespread, can manifest itself in water, ~80% of the population has antibodies to Polyomavirus BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplantpatients. JC virus infects the respiratory system , kidneys or can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain (which is fatal).  Algal Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Desmodesmus infection desmodesmusDr. Tapan Kumar Sau10 Likes14 Answers
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UPDATE OF A PREVIOUS CASE. 50yr old lady having 1wk history of frequent seizure and altered sensorium. Sturge Weber syndrome. Surgery - Hemispherectomy CT IMAGE ENCLOSED.INTERPRET CTB PLEASE??Dr. Prashant Ved0 Like6 Answers
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Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces the high level of the hormone thyroxine. In other words, it can be called as overreactive thyroid. The thyroid gland is an organ located in the front of your neck and releases hormones that control your metabolism (the way your body uses energy), breathing, heart rate, nervous system, weight, body temperature, and many other functions in the body. When the thyroid gland is overactive (hyperthyroidism) the body’s processes speed up and you may experience nervousness, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, hand tremor, excessive sweating, weight loss, and sleep problems, among other symptoms. Pathophysiology In hyperthyroidism, serum T3 usually increases more than does T4, probably because of increased secretion of T3 as well as the conversion of T4 to T3 in peripheral tissues. In some patients, only T3 is elevated (T3 toxicosis). T3 toxicosis may occur in any of the usual disorders that cause hyperthyroidism, including Graves’ disease, multinodular goitre, and the autonomously functioning solitary thyroid nodule. If T3 toxicosis is untreated, the patient usually also develops laboratory abnormalities typical of hyperthyroidism (ie, elevated T4 and 123I uptake). The various forms of thyroiditis commonly have a hyperthyroid phase followed by a hypothyroid phase. Causes A variety of conditions can cause hyperthyroidism. Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It causes antibodies to stimulate the thyroid to secrete too much hormone. Other causes of hyperthyroidism include: Excess iodine, a key ingredient in T4 and T3 Thyroiditis, or inflammation of the thyroid, which causes T4 and T3 to leak out of the gland Tumours of the ovaries or testes Benign tumours of the thyroid or pituitary gland Large amounts of tetraiodothyronine taken through dietary supplements or medication Risk factors Have a family history of thyroid disease Have other health problems, including Pernicious anaemia, a condition caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency Type 1 diabetes Primary adrenal insufficiency, a hormonal disorder Eating large amounts of food containing iodine, such as kelp, or use medicines that contain iodine, such as amiodarone, a heart medicine Older than age 60, especially if you are a woman Pregnant within the past 6 months Clinical manifestations The symptoms of hyperthyroidism include the following: An enlarged thyroid gland (goitre), which may appear as a swelling at the base of your neck Fatigue or muscle weakness Light periods or skipping periods. Weight loss Hand tremors Mood swings Rapid heartbeat Nervousness or anxiety Trouble sleeping Protruded eyeballs Skin dryness fine, brittle hair Heart palpitations or irregular heartbeat Increased frequency of bowel movements Breast development in men Complications Heart problems include atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure An irregular heartbeat that can lead to blood clots, stroke, Brittle bones like osteoporosis Graves’s ophthalmology may exhibit eye problems including bulging, red or swollen eyes, sensitivity to light, and blurring or double vision. Red, swollen skin. Thyrotoxic crisis. Diagnosis and Test Thyroid function blood test Thyroid function test is performed using a sample of blood obtained from the patient with hyperthyroidism. It is used to check the levels of: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) – a hormone produced by the pituitary gland (a gland at the base of the brain) that controls the production of thyroid hormones Triiodothyronine (T3) – one of the main thyroid hormones Thyroxine (T4) – another of the main thyroid hormones Your levels will be compared to what’s normal for a healthy person. A low level of TSH and high levels of T3 and/or T4 usually means you have an overactive thyroid. Radioactive Iodine Uptake Test To detect the way thyroid gland takes in and absorbs the orally given iodine dose and uses it to produce thyroid hormones. Conclusions are drawn based on the results obtained in this test. Thyroid scan A dye-injection or oral iodine dose test that enables visualization of the thyroid gland, which is seen on a computer. It helps to detect whether a region of the thyroid gland or the entire gland is affected. Ultrasound Scan – To detect the enlargement of the thyroid gland and surrounding structures. CT or MRI Scan – Scanning specified region if a tumour is suspected. Treatment and Medications No single treatment is best for all patients with hyperthyroidism. The appropriate choice of treatment will be influenced by your age, the type of hyperthyroidism that you have, the severity of your hyperthyroidism, other medical conditions that may be affecting your health, and your own preference. Antithyroid Drugs: Drugs known as antithyroid agents-methimazole (Tapazole®) or in rare instances propylthiouracil (PTU)-may be prescribed to treat the hyperthyroidism by blocking the thyroid glands to secrete thyroid hormones. Methimazole is preferred due to less severe side-effects. These drugs work well to control the overactive thyroid, and do not cause permanent damage to the thyroid gland. Radioactive Iodine: Another way to treat hyperthyroidism is to damage or destroy the thyroid cells that make thyroid hormone. Because these cells need iodine to make thyroid hormone, they will take up any form of iodine in your bloodstream, whether it is radioactive or not. The radioactive iodine used in this treatment is administered by mouth, usually in a small capsule that is taken just once. Once swallowed, the radioactive iodine gets into the bloodstream and rapidly it is taken up by the overactive thyroid cells. The radioactive iodine that is not taken up by the thyroid cells disappears from the body within days over a period of several weeks to several months (during which time drug treatment may be used to control hyperthyroid symptoms), radioactive iodine destroys the cells that have taken it up. The result is that the thyroid or thyroid nodules shrink in size, and the level of thyroid hormone in the blood returns to normal. Thyroid surgery: Hyperthyroidism can be permanently cured by surgical removal of all or most of the thyroid gland. This procedure is best performed by a surgeon who has experience in thyroid surgery. An operation could be risky unless the hyperthyroidism is first controlled by an anti-thyroid drug or a beta-blocking drug, usually for few days before surgery, a surgeon may prescribe to take drops of nonradioactive iodine-either Lugol’s iodine or supersaturated potassium iodide (SSKI). This extra iodine reduces the blood supply to the thyroid gland and thus makes the surgery easier and safer. Beta-Blockers: Beta blockers do not stop thyroid hormone production but can reduce symptoms until other treatments take effect. Beta blockers act quickly to relieve many of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as tremors, rapid heartbeat, and nervousness. Most people feel better within hours of taking beta blockers. Propranolol (Inderal®) was the first of these drugs to be developed. Some physicians now prefer related, but longer-acting beta-blocking drugs such as atenolol (Tenormin®), metoprolol (Lopressor®), nadolol (Corgard®), and Inderal-LA® because of their more convenient once- or twice-a-day dosage. Prevention and Cure Patients being treated for hyperthyroidism need to follow-up with the physician for regular monitoring. For weight loss, fatigue and other complaints a proper nutritional plan is essential. To prevent further weakness, bone thinning and to maintain good health, it is necessary to follow a proper diet plan and healthy routine as advised by the physician. Taking calcium and vitamin D supplements may be considered with medical advice. Regular exercise can help to improve bone and heart health. For those suffering from eye disturbances or Grave’s ophthalmology, special care of the eyes can help. Some measures include wearing sunglasses, applying cool eye compresses, using lubricating eye drops and raising the head while sleeping to relieve pressure on the eyes.Dr. Shailendra Kawtikwar10 Likes20 Answers
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A 33 Year Old Male Suffering From Extreme Weakness And Burning Sensation Epigastrium Since Last 3 Years......He worked at multinational corporate company and lately started feeling debilitating weakness which forced him to quit his job too.....Now patient lies in bed whole day.....Blood picture Normal, BP always Normal, Blood Glucose Normal.....No signs of depression but after suffering from disease for so long, it made him feel low......Once Got RUT positive so been treated for H.pylori....Been to 12 big name hospitals and once was diagnosed with Myasthenia Gravis but later Antibody test was negative.....Constant diagnosis given was Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.....In 3 years he has taken Zolpidem, Fluoxetine, Clonazepam, Alprazolam, Multivitamins, Calcium everything but condition never got better.....Currently He is only taking CoQ10, Rabeprazole, Calcirol....Suggest an approach to manage this patientDr. S Singh5 Likes24 Answers