DENGUE FEVER & COMPLICATIONS, DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT.

Good evening Curofians, At present, Dengue epidemics (Mostly by DEN -2) are going on in different parts of India. Sometimes it causes panic among doctors and patient party as well, while platelets count are falling at 1st week of disease , when NS1 is positive and IgM class of immunoglobulin is still negative by MAC ELISA test. Here are few points, that may be helpful while treating Dengue fever / DHF / DSS cases. **Platelet deficiency is not the cause of death in people suffering from Dengue According to International guidelines, unless a patient’s platelet count is below 10,000, and there is spontaneous, active bleeding, no platelet transfusion is required. The outbreak of dengue in the City and Hospital beds are full and families are seen running around in search of platelets for transfusion. However what most people do not realize is that the first line of treatment for dengue is not platelet transfusion. It, in fact, does more harm than good if used in a patient whose counts are over 10,000. The primary cause of death in patients suffering from dengue is capillary leakage, which causes blood deficiency in the intravascular compartment, leading to multi-organ failure. At the first instance of plasma leakage from the intravascular compartment to the extravascular compartment, fluid replacement amounting to 20 ml per kg body weight per hour must be administered. This must be continued till the difference between the upper and lower blood pressure is over 40 mmHg, or the patient passes adequate urine. This is all that is required to treat the patient. Giving unnecessary platelet transfusion can make the patient more unwell. **“While treating dengue patients, physicians should remember the ‘Formula of 20' i.e. rise in pulse by more than 20; fall of BP by more than 20; difference between lower and upper BP of less than 20 and presence of more than 20 hemorrhagic spots on the arm after a tourniquet test suggest a high-risk situation and the person needs immediate medical attention.” Dengue fever is a painful mosquito-borne disease. It is caused by any one of four types of dengue virus, which is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Aedes aegypti mosquito. Common symptoms of dengue include high fever, runny nose, a mild skin rash, cough, and pain behind the eyes and in the joints. However, some people may develop a red and white patchy skin rash followed by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, etc. Patients suffering from dengue should seek medical advice, rest and drink plenty of fluids. Paracetamol can be taken to bring down fever and reduce joint pains. **However, aspirin or ibuprofen should not be taken since they can increase the risk of bleeding. The risk of complications is in less than 1% of dengue cases and, if warning signals are known to the public, all deaths from dengue can be avoided. DENGUE NS1-Best test is NS1 ELISA Cannot be false +ve Is + from day 1 to 7 ideally. If on day 1 is -ve, repeat it next day. **Always ask for ELISA based NS1 tests as card tests are misleading. **Value of IgG & IgM dengue :-- In a pt with reduced platelets and looking "sick" on day 3 or 4 of illness, a very high titre of IgG with borderline rise in IgM signifies secondary dengue. These pts are more prone to complications. **In primary dengue IgG becomes + at end of 7 days, while IgM is + after day 4. **Immature Platelet fraction/IPF A very useful test in Dengue for pts with thrombocytopenia. If IPF in such a pt is > 10%, despite a pl count of 20, 000 he is out of danger & platelets will rise in 24 hrs If its 6%, repeat the same next day. Now if IPF has increased to 8% his platelets will certainly increase within 48 hrs. **If its less then 5%, then his bone marrow will not respond for 3-4 days & may be a likely candidate for pl transfusion. **Better to do an IPF even with borderline low platelet count. **A low Mean Platelet volume or MPV means platelets are functionally inefficient and such pts need more attention. Thank you everyone.

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while it's very important to push IV fluids in Dengue patients who are in compensated shock of have hypotensed one must also be alert as to when to stop pushing fluids as the critical phase lasts approx 48 hrs and subsequently plasma reabsorption starts. This is when you have be alert for fluid overload and LVF
Very important input Dr. Samarjit Chowdhry.
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Thanks sir posting such a nice and useful information . sir,Can you plz explain the correct procedure for tourniquet test.
Yeah Dr. Geetanjali kumari. Tourniquet test is part of the new WHO case definition for dengue. The test is a marker of capillary fragility and it can be used as a triage tool to differentiate patients with acute gastroenteritis, for example, from those with dengue. Even if a tourniquet test was previously done, it should be repeated if :- It was previously negative There is no bleeding manifestation How to do a Tourniquet Test :- 1.Take the patient's blood pressure and record it, for example, 100/70. 2.Inflate the cuff to a point midway between SBP and DBP and maintain for 5 minutes. (100 + 70) 2 = 85 mm Hg 3.Reduce and wait 2 minutes. 4.Count petechiae below antecubital fossa. A positive test is 10 or more petechiae per 1 square inch.
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very nice info. sir.Thanks. can u please justify role of Cap Carrypill.Papaya extract.
Thank you doctor
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thank you so much ,,, very informative ,, ipf is the new thing which learnt
Thank you doctor
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nice... IPF should made available easily so that dengue panic will reduce
That's a good input dear Dr. Dube.
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Very informative, specifically IPF part and igG fraction
Thank you doctor
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Dear Dr Saha Thanks for fine information sir
Thank you. You are most welcome, Sir.
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very pertinent & useful information.
Thanks u for fine information
thanks for sharing this info
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