ANEMIA DEFINITION : Anemia is defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells /reduced hemoglobin in the blood /lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. TYPES : There are three types of anemia. * due to blood loss. * due to decreased RBC production. * due to increased RBC breakdown. SYMPTOMS : Symptoms are related to anemia /underlying cause. *weakness, fatigue, malaise. *palpitations, dyspnoea. SIGNS : *pallor of skin, mucosa, conjunctiva, nails. * koilonychia in iron deficiency. * Jaundice in hemolytic anemia. * Bone deformities in thalassemia. * leg ulcers in sickle cell disease. *tachycardia, flow murmurs, ventricular hypertrophy. CAUSES : IMPAIRED PRODUCTION *DISTURBANCE OF PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF STEM CELLS : -Pure red cell aplasia. -aplastic anemia. -anemia of renal failure due to insufficient erythropoietin production. -anemia of endocrine disorders. *DISTURBANCE OF PROLIFERATION AND MATURATION OF ERYTHROBLASTS. -Pernicious anemia /megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B 12 deficiency. -anemia of folic acid deficiency. -iron deficiency anemia. -thalassemia due to deficient globin synthesis. -congenital dyserythropoietic anemia. -myelophthisic anemia. -myelodysplastic syndrome. -anemia of chronic inflammation. HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA: * INTRA CORPUSCULAR ABNORMALITIES : -heriditary spherocytosis. -heriditary elliptocytosis. -abetalipoproteinemia. -G6PD deficiency. -pyruvate kinase deficiency. hexokinase deficiency. -paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. * EXTRA CORPUSCULAR ABNORMALITIES. -warm auto immune hemolytic anemia. -cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia. -micro angiopathic hemolytic anemia. -infection -malaria. *BLOOD LOSS : -trauma /surgery. -GIT lesions. -menorrhagia. -infection - hookworm. DIAGNOSIS : -cbp, esr, mch,mchc,mcv. - s.ferritin, s.iron,transferin, RBC folate level,s.vit B 12 -hemoglobin electrophoresis. ,RFT. -bone marrow examination. TREATMENT : depends on the cause. -oral iron for mild -moderate anemia. -injectable iron & erythropoietin. -blood Transfusion.

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very... nice mam....

Thank you Mam for such a lovely simplified presentation on one of the most common frequently encountered prob in our society

Thanks mam very nice explanation

very nice information Thanks mam

Amazing post Mam.. Keep enlightening us with your knowledge.

nice and simplified presentation mam thanks for sharing

thank you, doctor
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Iron deficiency anemia

Nice idea of presentation for curofy community. Thank you.

thanks mam.its very common and day to day practice subject. most common in Indian women's.short but imp.presentation.

welcome doctor
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