Dear Dr Rummana Sukriya thanks for useful information
Dear Dr Rummana very nice information share Thank
Dear Dr Rummana Thanks for fine information
Fantastic information. Thanks.
really useful thank you
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Really useful update dr Rummana.
Nice post Dr thanks
Thnk q mam
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IMPORTANCE OF FOLIC ACID IN PREGANCY:--Pregnancy lasts for nine months, but it should be considered a one year period with the first three months spent in preparing your body for pregnancy. Your health at the time of conception determines the healthiness of your pregnancy.And your diet has a big impact on your health. Your shopping list should especially contain fortified cereal, beans, peas, and spinach. Why? These foods are natural sources of folate (folic acid), an important vitamin B that prevents birth defects. Here is how folic acid helps during pregnancy: What is folic acid? Folic acid (also known as folate) is a vitamin which helps grow and protect cells in your body. It is found in some foods and in multivitamin supplements. Who should take folic acid? All women should take folic acid. Folic acid is essential to prevent neural tube defects in the baby when taken before pregnancy and during pregnancy. Why is folic acid important before conception and during pregnancy? Cells grow and divide very quickly during pregnancy. Uterus grows in size, the placenta develops, blood volume of body increases and the fetus grows. All these make folic acid important for a healthy pregnancy.The baby also grows quickly along with the mother's body. Healthy eating and normal levels of vitamins and minerals before getting pregnant and during pregnancy are important to reduce the risk of birth defects. Folic acid lowers the risk of birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTDs), limbs and heart defects, anomalies of stomach, urinary tract and cleft lip and cleft palate. How can I get enough folic acid? Some flour, breads, cereals and pasta have folic acid added to them. They are marked as 'fortified with folic acid' and other nutrients on the pack. Prenatal multivitamins are must, in addition to food.Folic acid can also be obtained from some fruits and vegetables. Folate is the natural form of folic acid in foods. Sources include: Beans, green leafy vegetables like spinach, broccoli, peanuts, oranges.If you want a readymade solution for folic acid you can go for pills. Most multivitamins contain folic acid. Take doctor's advice and buy the medicines only with prescription.Folic acid requirement before pregnancy is 400 micrograms daily.During pregnancy this rises to about 600 micrograms daily. If you were unaware of folic acid and its benefits, it's never too late to make a fresh start. Start consuming folate from now on to ensure your and your baby's good health.Dr. Raj Pandey Mishra6 Likes7 Answers
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A birth defect *A birth defect* is a problem that occurs when a baby is developing in utero (in the womb). Birth defects are structural changes present at birth that can affect almost any part or parts of the body (e.g., heart, brain, foot). They may affect how the body looks, works, or both. Birth defects can vary from mild to severe. ￼ The well-being of each child affected by a birth defect depends mostly on which organ or body part is involved and how much it is affected. Depending on the severity of the defect and what body part is affected, the expected lifespan of a person with a birth defect may or may not be affected. Types A baby may be born with a birth defect caused by a problem in his or her chromosomes, metabolism, the formation of external body parts (such as limbs) or internal organs, or all three. Chromosomal Defects Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) Oral-Facial Clefts Cleft Lip (with or without cleft palate) Cleft Palate (without cleft lip) Neural Tube Defects Anencephaly Spina Bifida ￼ Reproductive System Hypospadias Heart Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Tetralogy of Fallot Transposition of the Great Arteries (Vessels) Intestines Gastroschisis Limbs Upper Limb Deficiencies Lower Limb Deficiencies Causes The exact causes of certain birth defects are often unknown. Birth defects can be a result of: GeneticsLifestyle choices and behaviorsExposure to certain medications and chemicalsInfections during pregnancyA combination of these factors Risk factors All pregnant women have some risk of delivering a child with a birth defect. Risk increases under any of the following conditions: A family history of birth defects or other genetic disordersDrug use, alcohol consumption, or smoking during pregnancyMaternal age of 35 years or olderInadequate prenatal careUntreated viral or bacterial infections, including sexually transmitted infectionsUse of certain high-risk medications, such as isotretinoin and lithium Complications An abnormal heart rate in the babyLabor that fails to progressAsphyxia, or lack of oxygen to the babyExcessive bleeding.Social dystocia which can cause nerve damage when the baby’s shoulder gets stuck in the birth canal and the neck stretches abnormally.Brachial plexus injuries and Erb’s palsy.Problems with the umbilical cordPremature labor, or abnormal positioning of the baby, like the breech position in which the baby’s feet are emerging from the womb first.Cerebral palsy affects muscles and movements and is not curable. The symptoms of common birth defects Congenital Heart Defects Persistently rapid heartbeatDifficulty in drawing breathsPoor feeding and breathlessness during feeds, consequently leading to poor weight gainExcessive sweatingTirednessBluish or pale grey skin tone Cleft Lip or Palate Feeding may be difficult as they cannot close around the nippleThey are more vulnerable to ear infectionsAs they grow, their teeth don’t develop normallyIf uncorrected, a cleft lip or palate may cause speech defects ￼ Clubfoot The top of the foot is usually twisted downward and inward, increasing the arch and turning the heel inward.The foot may be turned so severely that it actually looks as if it’s upside down.The calf muscles in the affected leg are usually underdeveloped.The affected foot may be up to 1/2 inch (about 1 centimeter) shorter than the other foot. ￼ Diagnosis and Test i) First Trimester Screening Maternal Blood Screen: It measures the levels of two proteins, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A). If the protein levels are abnormally high or low, there could be a chromosomal disorder in the baby.Prenatal ultrasounds: An ultrasound creates pictures of the baby. The ultrasound for the first-trimester screen looks for extra fluid behind the baby’s neck. If there is increased fluid found on the ultrasound, there could be a chromosomal disorder or heart defect in the baby. ii) Second Trimester Screening Amniocentesis: An amniocentesis is a test where the doctor collects a small amount of amniotic fluid from the area surrounding the baby. The fluid is then tested to measure the levels of baby’s protein such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which are produced in the unborn babies. These proteins may indicate the presence of birth defects.Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS): CVS is a test where the doctor collects a tiny piece of the placenta, called chorionic villus, which is then tested to check for chromosomal or genetic disorders in the baby. Treatment and medications Medications: Medications may be used to treat some birth defects or to lower the risk of complications from certain defects. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to the mother to help correct an abnormality before birth.Surgeries: Surgery can fix certain defects or ease harmful symptoms. Some people with physical birth defects, such as cleft lip, may undergo plastic surgery for either health or cosmetic benefits. Many babies with heart defects will need surgery, as well.Home care: Parents may be instructed to follow specific instructions for feeding, bathing, and monitoring an infant with a birth defect. Prevention Many birth defects can’t be prevented, but a woman can do some things before and during pregnancy to help lower the chances of having a baby with a birth defect. Before pregnancy, women should follow: Make sure their vaccinations are up to dateMake sure they don’t have any sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)Get the daily recommended dose of folic acid before trying to conceiveAvoid unnecessary medicines and talk to their doctor about medicines they are takingIf there’s a family history of birth defects or a woman is part of a high-risk group, she should consider meeting with a genetic counselor to determine her baby’s risk During pregnancy, it’s important to take diet with rich vitamins and minerals. In addition, the following precautions should be followed: Don’t smoke and avoid second-hand smokeDon’t take alcoholAvoid all illicit drugsGet exercise and have plenty of restGet prenatal care very early and regularly.Dr. Shailendra Kawtikwar2 Likes5 Answers
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20 days male baby..........DIAGNOSIS and treatment pleaseDr. Reyaz Malla0 Like18 Answers
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RARE BIRTH DEFECTS: A birth defect is a health condition that is present at birth. Birth defects may change the shape or function of one or more parts of the body. They can cause problems in overall health, how the body develops, or how the body works. One in 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect. We don’t know the cause of all birth defects. Some may be caused by the genes we inherit from our parents. Others may be caused by environmental factors, like exposure to harmful chemicals. Some may be caused by a combination of genes and environment. In most cases, the causes are unknown. What are rare birth defects? There are thousands of different birth defects. The most common are heart defects, cleft lip and palate, Down syndrome and spina bifida. Others, such as the ones listed below, are rare and less well known. Use the links to find out more information about these birth defects. Or visit the Office of Rare Disease Research or Genetics Home Reference. Rare birth defects include: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge Syndrome and Velocardiofacial syndrome)Albinism, ocularAlbinism, oculocutaneousAnencephaly (a neural tube defect)Arnold-Chiari malformation (chiari malformation)CHARGE syndromeCongenital adrenal hyperplasiaCongenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)Congenital hydrocephalusCraniosynostosisDandy Walker malformationEhlers Danlos syndromeEpidermolysis bullosaGorham's diseaseHashimoto's syndrome (autoimmune thyroiditis)Hydrops fetalis (immune and nonimmune)HypotoniaKlippel-Feil syndromeMuscular dystrophyOsteogenesis imperfectaProgeriaSmith Lemli Opitz syndromeSpinal muscular atrophyTuberous sclerosisTurner syndromeX-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (Duncan disease)Dr. Vasundhara Nanavaty11 Likes16 Answers
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Delivered this baby but couldn't diagnose the abnormality. I request the curofians to answer.Dr. Suvarchala Pratap0 Like20 Answers