SUGGESTIVE. OF. SEPSIS WITH BRAIN. ABSCESS... SECONDARY. TO THROAT. AND ... RT. EAR. INFECTION... NEEDS IMMEDIATE. I C U. MANAGEMENT 1. C T. SCAN.... TO. LOCATE ..BRAIN. ABSCESS.. 2. C T. GUIDED.... STEREOTACTIC. .. ASPIRATION..... BEFORE. IT. GETS. ...ENCAPSULATED... 3. INFUSION.... .. TAZOBACTUM. +. PIPERACILLIN 4 LINEZOLID 6. CULTURE. AND. SENSITIVITY. TESTS
? BRAIN ABSCESS .. MANAGEMENT .. HOSPITALIZATION IN HIGHER CENTERS.. CTCE STUDY BRAIN .. PUS .. C AND S..EXAMINATION.. HEMOGRAM.. URINE ROUTINE.. IV..FLUIDS.. ANTIBIOTICS INFECTIONS..
The abscess has to be drained out and specific antibiotics after C/S of pus should be administered till then Inj Ceftrioxone & Inj Amikacin should be given by I v route
Post the MRI film. What about the CBC,ESR ,CRP,Blood culture??
adv to neurosurgeon opinion and need further procedure and medication
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According to the World Health Organization , waterborne diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY (disability- adjusted life year) global burden of disease , and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842,000 deaths per year, is attributable to a lack of safe drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene (summarized as WASH ).  Overview The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer to diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors . Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria , many of which are intestinal parasites , or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses . (In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as " organisms ", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection.) Yet other important classes of water- borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites. Typical examples include certain Nematoda , that is to say "roundworms". As an example of water-borne Nematode infections, one important waterborne nematodal disease is Dracunculiasis . It is acquired by swallowing water in which certain copepoda occur that act as vectors for the Nematoda. Anyone swallowing a copepod that happens to be infected with Nematode larvae in the genus Dracunculus , becomes liable to infection. The larvae cause guinea worm disease .  Another class of waterbornemetazoan pathogens are certain members of the Schistosomatidae , a family of blood flukes . They usually infect victims that make skin contact with the water.  Blood flukes are pathogens that cause Schistosomiasis of various forms, more or less seriously affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide.  Long before modern studies had established the germ theory of disease , or any advanced understanding of the nature of water as a vehicle for transmitting disease, traditional beliefs had cautioned against the consumption of water, rather favouring processed beverages such as beer , wine and tea . For example, in the camel caravans that crossed Central Asia along the Silk Road , the explorer Owen Lattimore noted, "The reason we drank so much tea was because of the bad water. Water alone, unboiled, is never drunk. There is a superstition that it causes blisters on the feet."  Socioeconomic impact Waterborne diseases can have a significant impact on the economy, locally as well as internationally. People who are infected by a waterborne disease are usually confronted with related costs and not seldom with a huge financial burden. This is especially the case in less developed countries. The financial losses are mostly caused by e.g. costs for medical treatment and medication, costs for transport, special food, and by the loss of manpower. Many families must even sell their land to pay for treatment in a proper hospital. On average, a family spends about 10% of the monthly households income per person infected.  Infections by type of pathogen Protozoan Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Amoebiasis (hand-to-mouth) Protozoan ( Entamoeba histolytica ) (Cyst-like appearance) Sewage , non- treated drinking water , flies in water supply, saliva transfer (if the other person has the disease) Abdominal discomfort, fatigue , weight loss, diarrhea , bloating , fever Cryptosporidiosis (oral) Protozoan ( Cryptosporidium parvum ) Collects on water filters and membranes that cannot be disinfected , animal manure , seasonalrunoff of water. Flu-like symptoms , watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, substantial loss of weight, bloating , increased gas, nausea Cyclosporiasis Protozoan parasite ( Cyclospora cayetanensis ) Sewage , non- treated drinking water cramps , nausea, vomiting , muscle aches, fever, and fatigue Giardiasis (fecal- oral) (hand-to- mouth) Protozoan ( Giardia lamblia ) Most common intestinal parasite Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks, leaks, groundwater contamination, campgrounds where humans and wildlife use same source of water. Beavers and muskrats createponds that act as reservoirsfor Giardia. Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating , and flatulence Microsporidiosis Protozoan phylum ( Microsporidia ), but closely related to fungi Encephalitozoon intestinalis has been detected in groundwater , the origin of drinking water  Diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals. Bacterial Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Botulism Clostridium botulinum Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision , difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea . Death is usually caused by respiratory failure . Campylobacteriosis Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni Drinking water contaminated with feces Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever . Usually lasts 2–10 days. Cholera Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea , cramps , nosebleed , rapid pulse , vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours. E. coli Infection Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli ) Water contaminated with the bacteria Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness. M. marinum infection Mycobacterium marinum Naturally occurs in water, most cases from exposure in swimming poolsor more frequently aquariums ; rare infection since it mostly infects immunocompromised individuals Symptoms include lesions typically located on the elbows, knees, and feet (from swimming pools ) or lesions on the hands ( aquariums ). Lesions may be painless or painful. Dysentery Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonella with the most common being Shigella dysenteriae Water contaminated with the bacterium Frequent passage of feces with blood and/ or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood. Legionellosis(two distinct forms: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever) Caused by bacteria belonging to genus Legionella (90% of cases caused by Legionella pneumophila ) Legionella is a very common organism that reproduces to high numbers in warm water;  but only causes severe disease when aerosolized.  Pontiac fever produces milder symptoms resembling acute influenza without pneumonia . Legionnaires' disease has severe symptoms such as fever , chills , pneumonia (with cough that sometimes produces sputum ), ataxia , anorexia , muscle aches, malaiseand occasionally diarrhea and vomiting Leptospirosis Caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira Water contaminated by the animal urine carrying the bacteria Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The second phase then occurs involving meningitis , liver damage (causes jaundice ), and renal failure Otitis Externa (swimmer's ear) Caused by a number of bacterial and fungal species. Swimming in water contaminated by the responsible pathogens Ear canal swells, causing pain and tenderness to the touch Salmonellosis Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness . Symptoms include diarrhea , fever , vomiting, and abdominal cramps Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Ingestion of water contaminated with feces of an infected person Characterized by sustained fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), profusesweating ; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium , and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots", small red spots on the abdomen and chest. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio alginolyticus , and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Can enter wounds from contaminated water. Also acquired by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters . Symptoms include abdominal tenderness, agitation, bloody stools, chills, confusion, difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), delirium, fluctuating mood, hallucination, nosebleeds, severe fatigue, slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.  Viral Disease and Transmission Viral Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus Manifests itself in improperly treated water Symptoms include fever , myalgia , lethargy , gastrointestinal symptoms , cough , and sore throat Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Can manifest itself in water (and food) Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue , fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression . Poliomyelitis (Polio) Poliovirus Enters water through the feces of infected individuals 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with delirium , headache , fever , and occasional seizures , and spastic paralysis , 1% have symptoms of non- paralytic aseptic meningitis . The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysisor death Polyomavirus infection Two of Polyomavirus : JC virus and BK virus Very widespread, can manifest itself in water, ~80% of the population has antibodies to Polyomavirus BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplantpatients. JC virus infects the respiratory system , kidneys or can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain (which is fatal).  Algal Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Desmodesmus infection desmodesmusDr. Tapan Kumar Sau10 Likes19 Answers
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Friends today I am discussing about a very common problem occurs in change of weather known as tonsillitis. What is tonsillitis? Tonsils are the two lymph nodes located on each side of the back of your throat. They function as a defense mechanism. They help prevent your body from infection. When the tonsils become infected, the condition is called tonsillitis. Tonsillitis can occur at any age and is a common childhood infection. It is most often diagnosed in children from preschool age through their midteens. Symptoms include a sore throat, swollen tonsils, and fever. This condition is contagious and can be caused by a variety of common viruses and bacteria, such as Streptococcal bacteria, which causes strep throat. Tonsillitis caused by strep throat can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Tonsillitis is easily diagnosed. Symptoms usually go away within 7 to 10 days. Find a internist or a pediatrician or an ENT near you. Causes of tonsillitis Tonsils are your first line of defense against illness. They produce white blood cells to help your body fight infection. The tonsils combat bacteria and viruses that enter your body through your mouth. However, tonsils are also vulnerable to infection from these invaders. Tonsillitis can be caused by a virus, such as the common cold, or by a bacterial infection, such as strep throat. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), an estimated 15 to 30 percent of tonsillitis cases are due to bacteria. Most often it's strep bacteria. Viruses are the most common cause of tonsillitis. The Epstein-Barr virus can cause tonsillitis, which can also cause mononucleosis. Children come into close contact with others at school and play, exposing them to a variety of viruses and bacteria. This makes them particularly vulnerable to the germs that cause tonsillitis. Symptoms of tonsillitis There are several types of tonsillitis, and there are many possible symptoms that include: a very sore throat difficulty swallowing or painful swallowing a scratchy-sounding voice bad breath fever chills earaches stomachaches headaches a stiff neck jaw and neck tenderness due to swollen lymph nodes tonsils that appear red and swollen tonsils that have white or yellow spots In very young children, you may also notice increased irritability, poor appetite, or excessive drooling. There are two types of tonsillitis: recurrent tonsillitis: multiple episodes of acute tonsillitis a year chronic tonsillitis: episodes last longer than acute tonsillitis in addition to other symptoms that include: chronic sore throat bad breath, or halitosis tender lymph nodes in the neck When to see a doctor In rare cases, tonsillitis can cause the throat to swell so much that it causes trouble breathing. If this happens, seek immediate medical attention. See a doctor if you experience the following symptoms: fever that’s higher than 103˚F (39.5°C) muscle weakness neck stiffness sore throat that doesn’t go away after two days While some tonsillitis episodes go away on their own, some may require other treatments. How tonsillitis is diagnosed Diagnosis is based on a physical examination of your throat. Your doctor may also take a throat culture by gently swabbing the back of your throat. The culture will be sent to a laboratory to identify the cause of your throat infection. Treatment for tonsillitis A mild case of tonsillitis does not necessarily require treatment, especially if a virus, such as a cold, causes it. Treatments for more severe cases of tonsillitis may include antibiotics or a tonsillectomy. Antibiotics will be prescribed to fight a bacterial infection. It’s important you complete the full course of antibiotics. Your doctor may want you to schedule a follow-up visit to ensure that the medication was effective. Surgery to remove the tonsils is called a tonsillectomy. This was once a very common procedure. However, tonsillectomies today are only recommended for people who experience chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. Surgery is also recommend to treat tonsillitis that doesn’t respond to other treatment, or tonsillitis that causes complications. If a person becomes dehydrated due to tonsillitis, they may need intravenous fluids. Pain medicines to relieve the sore throat can also help while the throat is healing. Home care tips to ease a sore throat drink plenty of fluids get lots of rest gargle with warm salt water several times a day use throat lozenges use a humidifier to moisten the air in your home avoid smoke Also, you may want to use over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications, such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Always check with your doctor before giving medications to children. Tonsillitis complications People who experience chronic tonsillitis may start to experience obstructive sleep apnea. This happens when the airway swells and prevents a person from sleeping well. It’s also possible the infection will worsen and spread to other areas of the body. This is known as tonsillar cellulitis. The infection can also cause a person to develop a buildup of pus behind the tonsils, which is known as peritonsillar abscess. This can require drainage and more surgery. If a person doesn’t take a full course of antibiotics or the antibiotics don’t kill off the bacteria, it’s possible a person could develop complications. These include rheumatic fever and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Preventing tonsillitis Tonsillitis is highly contagious. To decrease your risk of getting tonsillitis, stay away from people who have active infections. Wash your hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who has a sore throat, or is coughing or sneezing. If you have tonsillitis, try to stay away from others until you are no longer contagious. Outlook for tonsillitis Swollen tonsils may cause difficulty breathing, which can lead to disturbed sleep. Tonsillitis left untreated can result in the infection spreading to the area behind the tonsils or to the surrounding tissue. Symptoms of tonsillitis caused by a bacterial infection usually improve a few days after you begin taking antibiotics. Strep throat is considered contagious until you have been taking antibiotics for a 24-hour period. Strep Throat Strep throat is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation and pain in the throat. This common condition is caused by group A Streptococcus… Diphtheria Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that affects the throat and nose. Get the facts on causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. What’s the Difference Between Tonsillitis and Strep Throat? Tonsillitis can be caused by various viruses or bacteria. Strep throat is only caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. Tonsillectomy A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils, which are located in the back of your throat. Sometimes they can become infected. Here there are some common homeopathic medicines given for tonsillitis Belladonna – belladonna is the most common and hugely prescribed homeopathic medicines for tonsillitis. Belladonna has the best anti inflammatory action and thus helps a lot to relief the symptoms both in acute and chronic condition. The key symptoms by which belladonna is prescribes are – pain in throat at the time of wallowing, red congested and swelling of tonsils, mild to moderate fever associates with tonsillitis, headache and malaise also present. The tonsils are been affected by taking any cold things like chilled drink or ice cream or cold drink or exposing to cold air etc. The throat pain is slightly relieved after taking any sort of warm drink. If all those symptoms are prominently found in a tonsillitis patient then belladonna is the suitable medicine for that person. Mercurius Solubis- Here is another best hoemopathy medicine for tonsillitis. The key symptoms to prescribe tonsillitis are – pain in throat, congestion of tonsils and unable to drink or eat anything. There is more salivation from mouth. The pain is worse in the night time in compare to day time. There is swelling of tonsils and also swelling of other lymph nodes in neck and sub mandibular regions. There is mild to moderate fever and the person feels thirsty though there is more salivation. If the above symptoms are prominent in any tonsillitis patient this medicine is most suitable medicine for that person Phytolacca- it is also one of the important homeopathic medicine for tonsillitis. The tonsils are dark red or bluish red in colour. There is much pain at the root of tongue, soft palate. The tonsils are swollen. There is a sensation of a lump in throat. While taking any food the throat feels rough, narrow, and hot. The Tonsils are swollen, especially of right side. There is a sharp shooting pain into ears on swallowing anything. There is much pain when swallow anything hot. The pain of phytolacca is burning type of pain. The person cannot swallow anything even water. Hepar Sulphur- Hepar Sulphur is one of the best Homeopathic medicines for tonsillitis. The tendency to suppuration is most marked, and has been a strong guiding symptom in tonsillitis. When swallowing, sensations as if a plug and of a splinter like sensation in throat. There is quinsy with suppuration of tonsils. When swallowing there is stitching type of pain in throat extending to the ear. There is mild to moderate fever and chilliness is feeling during the tonsillitis affection. The person is very chill and cannot tolerate any cold air or cold water. Calcarea Carb –It is a medicine for chronic tonsillitis problem.The person is bulky, obese, gaining weight easily. He is though fatty but very weak in stamina. Exhausted or tired on slightest physical activity. He/she sweats a lot on slightest physical exertion. He is very susceptible to catch cold. the tonsils are large, swelled and get acutely affected on slightest exposure to cold. The throat appearance itself is not always sufficient to prescribe on, but the complaints in the throat are those that come on in persons taking cold so frequently. On every cold he will have cough, tonsil affection, appetite lost. The calcarea carb child is very lazy and lethargic in nature. he takes cold from every, draft, from very exposure, and from damp weather. There are little red patches in the throat, this extends to the roof of the mouth, a sore tongue, and a constant dry, choking feeling in the pharynx, covering the tonsils. The throat is very painful on swallowing. Baryta Carb – it is one of the 1st grade medicine for chronic tonsillitis. The tonsils are inflamed, swelled and very painful in acute condition. After the acute attack passed on the tonsils looks larger than with the last cold. The child is weak, not fatty like calcarea carb. Physically and also mentally he is week. He/she has a tendency to catch cold very easily. But the most important symptom is whenever he catch cold first it attack to the tonsil or throat. So it is written in allens materia medica that every cold settles in the throat. The person sweats more from the feet. Every cold change inflames the tonsils, and in children they very soon enlarge. Children with enlarged tonsils, and with enlarged glands in other places, somewhat weak intellectually, slow to learn.The throat is very painful on swallowing.On every cold change of the weather, and on every exposure to the cold, he gets rattling respiration.Dr. Rajesh Gupta21 Likes36 Answers
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HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR MEASELS. #Aconite. [Acon] Aconite is one of the first remedies for measles; that is, while the case is presumed to be one of measles, and a hard croupy cough are present. Ferrum phosphoricum in many respects is similar to Aconite, and will take its place where restlessness and anxiety are wanting. It is somewhat questionable whether Aconite will ever be strictly indicated in any disease depending on a poisoned or infected condition of the blood, since in its pathogenesis it does not show any evidence of such condition; however, it may be indicated in the catarrhal irritation, sneezing , etc., before the case can be fully determined to be measles. In catarrhal conditions Aconite ceases to be of use after exudation has taken place, and so in measles; it would cease to be of use after it modified the fever, and the eruption appears and the disease is diagnosed as measles. Ferrum phosphoricum will perhaps be the better remedy if there be chest involvement together with the catarrhal symptoms. #Gelsemium. [Gels] Gelsemium is, on the whole, a more usefulremedy in commencing measles than Aconite ; that is, it is oftener indicated; there is much chilliness, the fever is a prominent symptoms, the child is dumpish, apathetic, does not want to be disturbed ; there is watery coryza which excoriates the upper lip and nose, and there is harsh, barking, croupy cough, with chest soreness and hoarseness. Gelsemium, too, has an action on the skin and may be continued with benefit afterthe eruption has appeared; there is an itching and redness of the skin, and a decidely measly eruption produced by it. It has some aching in the limbs, and may be compared with Dulcamara, but seldombe mistaken for that remedy. Gelsemiumhas more coryza, Dulcamara more aching.Both may be useful in an undeveloped eruption ; Gelsemium when there is pain at the base of the brain , high fever and passive brain symptoms ; Dulcamara when occurring from damp, cool air, rainyweather or sudden changes. Belladonna may be indicated in measles when sore throat is present and the cerebral excitement indicating that remedy, together with moisture and heat; but it corresponds more closely to scarlet fever .#Euphrasia. [Euph] When the catarrhal symptoms greatly predominate Euphrasia may be used. Acrid tears stream out of the eyes, with a red and swollen conjunctiva. The cough is dry and very hoarse, and there is an intense throbbing headache which is relieved on the appearance of the eruption. The excoriating discharge fromthe eyes will distinguish from Allium cepa. The photophobia of Euphrasia is worse in artificial light , and a brightnessof the eyes despite the catarrhal condition is characteristic. #Pulsatilla. A little later in the disease Pulsatilla symptoms may make their appearance. The fever has subsided or entirely disappeared. There is coryza and profuselachrymation. The cough is still dry at night, but loosens a little in the daytime. The child sits up to cough. There is much predisposition to earache and sometimes sickness at the stomach. Where there is catarrh of the digestive canal and diarrhea Pulsatilla will be found useful. The eyes agglutinate and the discharge is purulent. Kali bichromicum is so similarto Pulsatilla in many respects that it maybe mentioned here, as the two remedies seem to differ in intensity only. Kali bichromicum has pustules developing on the cornea. The throat is swollen and there is catarrhal deafness. It produces an eruption which closely resembles measles. It comes in very well after Pulsatilla when the patient develops more intense symptoms. Measles associated with ear symptoms and swollen glands especially call for Kali bichromicum, and it is one of our best remedies for laryngeal affections, with a hoarse, dry,croupy cough. Dr. Jousset recommends Viola odorata for the cough.Sulphur is a great measles remedy. It is useful where the skin is dusky and the rash does not come out, or is purplish when it does appear. #Arsenicum. In measles which do not run a favourable course, in malignant type or black or haemorrhagic measles we have two or three important remedies. The first of these is Arsenicum. There will be sinking of strength, diarrhea,delirium, restlessness and debility, petechiae and general typhoid symptoms. The stools areparticularly offensive and exhausting. Arsenicum may save the patient in these conditions. Dr. Gaudy, of Brussels, considers Arsenicum almost specific in measles. He says that its action is little short a marvelous. It is prophylactic and curative, and one of the best remedies to remove all sequelae of the disease. It corresponds to the insidious phenomena of severe epidemics of measles. Crotalusmay also be indicated in the form known as black measles. Also Baptisia, with its foetor and prostration, may prove useful. Lachesis is the fourth remedy for these conditions. The individual symptom of each remedy will differentiate them, but all four should be studied carefully in these low conditions of measles. #Stramonium. When the eruption does not come out properly, or when it disappears suddenly and grave symptoms appear, there are a few remedies which play a most important role. Stramonium is one of these. In a case calling for it you will find these symptoms: non-appearance ofthe rash; the child is hot, restless, and onfalling asleep cries out as if frightened ;there are convulsive movements and the face is red. Cuprum is indicated in convulsion due to recession of the eruption. It has the same terror on awakening, but its symptoms are move violent than those of Stramonium and the face instead of being red is more apt to be bluish. Zincum has the same awakening from sleep as if terrified, butwith Zincum there is much weakness, the child seems too weak to develop the eruption. Bryonia is useful when chest symptoms appear upon a retardation or arecession of the eruption. Too slow development of the eruption with chest symptoms calls for it. Antimonium tartaricum is another remedy for retarded or repelled eruption. There will be great difficulty in breathing, rattlingof mucus, bluish or purplish face, drowsiness and twitching.Dr. Akshay Ingole6 Likes9 Answers
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ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SWINE FLU: Editor: Dr.Shashank Kumar Srivastav MICU/ICCU Incharge, Care Hospitals, Hyderabad, Former President Indian Medicos Association. Email: email@example.com INTRODUCTION The classical swine flu virus an influenza type A (H1N1) virus was first isolated from a pig in 1930. Swine flu viruses cause high level of illness, but low death rates in pigs. Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can also be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Suspect Case: A suspect case is defined as an individual with fever (temperature 100.4°F/ 38°C) and one or more of the following manifestations- cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath. Probable Case: A probable case is defined as an individual with an influenza test that is positive for influenza A, but is unsubtypable by reagents used to detect seasonal influenza virus infection or an individual who died of an unexplained acute respiratory illness. Confirmed Case: A confirmed case is defined as an individual who is confirmed in the laboratory with PCR or virus culture for pandemic influenza virus 2009. TRANSMISSION The SO-IAV has efficiently transmitted between humans since its first detection in April 2009. So far it has spread in the Northern hemisphere outside of the flu season and in the Southern hemisphere during its flu season. It has caused mild disease, and that is in accordance with absence of the pathogenicity marker PB1- F2. As seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses are also circulating in humans since 1977, mild disease could also be due to partial immunity in the population. It will now be critical to watch how the virus behaves as it comes back to the Northern hemisphere in the next wave with the approaching flu season. All previously characterized pandemics have been due to viruses generated by antigenic shift involving the HA gene of avian lineage – H1 for 1918 virus, H2 for 1957 virus and H3 for 1968 virus. Though still of the H1 serotype, the HA of SO-IAV is different from the H1 HAs of seasonal influenza viruses; the inclusion of a porcine H1 in human influenza A viruses has been considered an antigenic pseudo- shift. Although SOIAV is of zoonotic origin, it’s HA may not be sufficiently divergent to call it a true antigenic shift5. Compared to viruses that caused previous pandemics, SO-IAV is at present not sufficiently virulent. But, it is already transmitting like a pandemic virus and is undergoing adaptive mutations. Whether it will remain mild or develop into a highly pathogenic fully pandemic virus remains to be seen. PREVENTION * There currently is no vaccine to protect humans against the H1N1 flu virus. The following tips will help you prevent flu infections such as the common flu and the H1N1 flu. * Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially before eating and after sneezing or coughing. * You can also use an alcohol gel product available over the counter, which is also effective in protecting against flu. * When you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or sleeve. Or use a tissue and be sure to throw away the tissue after use. Wash your hands after you sneeze or cough. * Try to avoid close contact with sick people. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs spread this way. Try to stay in good general health. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food. CLINICAL MANISFESTATIONS Signs Swine flu, or H1N1, is a type A influenza virus that can infect humans. It is similar to the seasonal influenza virus, but can be more severe in people who may be at high risk because of a preexisting condition. According to the Centers for Disease Control, risk factors include chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and asthma. Aches and Fevers Swine flu is severe body aches, this can include muscle weakness and difficulty standing up or walking. Headaches in combination with body aches are also quite common. Upper-Respiratory Symptoms A common element of swine flu is upper-respiratory symptoms. These can be similar to a cold, except more severe. A runny or stuffy nose combined with head congestion is typically present. Itchy or watery eyes may also be a symptom. Weakness Feelings of general malaise or weakness are common with swine flu, as is overall discomfort. Many people infected with the virus are tired and too weak to complete most normal day-to-day activities, and may sleep longer and more often than usual. Staying home and getting plenty of rest is the best way to fully recover from swine flu. Gastrointestinal In some cases of swine flu, people experience gastrointestinal effects. These can range from stomachaches and cramping to nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. Swine flu may be confused with food poisoning because of the symptoms of stomach pain and upset. Warning Signs Other signs to watch for may indicate that swine flu is developing into a secondary medical condition that can be serious or life- threatening. Because swine flu involves the respiratory tract, there is a risk for developing pneumonia, respiratory failure, and bronchitis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of the 2009 "swine flu" H1N1 virus are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. * DIAGNOSIS The first cases of swine flu were diagnosed in the US in San Diego in mid-April. The discovery was serendipitous, the result of out of season. US-Mexican border surveillance and use of a new diagnostic test at the Naval Health Research Center. When the new test protocol showed infection with influenza A with undeterminable subtype, follow-up testing showed it to be an previously unknown swine flu virus. Detection of a second, apparently unlinked swine flu infection in San Diego got the outbreak (now pandemic) investigation rolling. That was just a month ago, but it established the initial diagnostic pattern that was the tail end of the flu season, but seasonal influenza was still present in the community and for the first weeks of the outbreak CDC's lab in Atlanta was the only place that had the reagents to confirm an infection was from swine flu and not seasonal flu or another virus altogether. So a make-shift case definition was set-up to take this into account. If a person with an influenza-like illness (which required sudden onset, fever and respiratory symptoms) had a rapid flu test positive for influenza (or influenza A if the test could differentiate), a nose or throat swab was sent to the state lab. As a result of preparedness activities envisioning a possible pandemic with bird flu, CDC had been training state labs to make the differentiation between the two seasonal flu subtypes, H1N1 and H3N2, and bird flu, H5N1, so the capability to do seasonal sub typing already existed outside of CDC. But neither the reagents nor the proficiency for the new swine virus did. Therefore all specimens that were positive with a rapid test at the point of visit, and so were putative influenza A, were first subtyped at the state lab level. If they could not be sub typed, they were sent on to CDC for confirmation as swine flu. CDC later determined that virtually all unsubtypable influenza A specimens turned out to be swine flu. TREATMENT The main symptoms of Swine Flu are a cough, sore throat, runny nose and fever. Usually there's more muscle pain, headache, fever and chills than seen with the common cold. If you think your child has Swine Flu, here's what you can do to make him feel better: Prescribing pattern for swine flu: 1. For a stuffy or blocked nose, use saline (or warm-water) nose drops followed by nose blowing or suctioning. 2. For throat pain, Tylenol or ibuprofen is very helpful. Children over 6 years old can also suck on hard candy. Children over 1 year old can sip warm chicken broth or other warm liquids. 3. For coughs, try to soothe the throat. For children over age 6, give cough drops. If your child is over 1 year of age, give honey. The dosage would be 1/2 to 1 teaspoon as needed. Never give honey to babies. If honey is not available, you can use corn syrup. 4. Flu can cause body aches that include leg pain, back pain, chest pain and headache. Give ibuprofen to make these sore muscles feel better. 5. For diet, mainly encourage your child to drink adequate fluids to prevent dehydration. This will also thin out the nasal secretions and loosen the phlegm in the lungs. 6. Tamiflu is an antiviral medicine that may be useful for some children. Finally: Your job is to keep your child comfortable. Determine your child's main symptoms and treat them. Antiviral Drugs for Influenza Oseltamivir: The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir formulated as capsules or oral suspension (Tamiflu®) is FDA-approved for the treatment of uncomplicated acute influenza in patients 1 year and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. Zanamivir: The neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir formulated for oral inhalation (Relenza®) is FDA-approved for the treatment of influenza in patients 7 years of age and older who, similar to approved uses for oseltamivir, have uncomplicated illness and have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. Peramivir: A third neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir formulated for intravenous (IV) administration is an investigational product currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Children: Children younger than 2 years of age are at higher risk for influenza-related complications and have a higher rate of hospitalization compared to older children. Children aged 2 to 4 years are more likely to require hospitalization or urgent medical evaluation for influenza compared with older children and adults, although the risk is much lower than for children younger than 2 years old. Adults aged 65 years and older: Even though persons aged 65 years and older are less likely to become ill with 2009 H1N1 influenza compared to younger persons, when they do acquire influenza, they are at higher risk for severe influenza-related complications. Pregnant women: Pregnancy increases the risk of complications, hospitalization, and severe disease. One study estimated the risk of hospitalization for 2009 H1N1 to be four times higher for pregnant women than for the general population hile oseltamivir and zanamivir are "Pregnancy Category C" medications.Dr. Shashank Kumar Srivastav8 Likes8 Answers
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Friends today I am explaining about HIV and AIDS. Explaining HIV and AIDS HIV is a virus that targets and alters the immune system, increasing the risk and impact of other infections and diseases. Without treatment, the infection might progress to an advanced disease stage called AIDS. However, modern advances in treatment mean that people living with HIV in countries with good access to healthcare very rarely develop AIDS once they are receiving treatment. The life expectancy of a person who carries the HIV virus is now approaching that of a person that tests negative for the virus, as long as they adhere to a combination of medications called antiretroviral therapy (ART) on an ongoing basis. A Kaiser Permanente study in 2016 suggested that between 1996 and 2016, the gap in life expectancy between people who are HIV positive and HIV negative closed from 44 years to 12 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) also advises that a person living with HIV can resume a high quality of life with treatment, and that 20.9 million people worldwide were receiving ART as of mid-2017. In this article, we explain HIV and AIDS, their symptoms, causes, and treatments. What is HIV? doctor discusses HIV with patient While HIV is a life-changing illness, a person can live a long and full live with it. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks immune cells called CD4 cells, which are a type of T cell. These are white blood cells that move around the body, detecting faults and anomalies in cells as well as infections. When HIV targets and infiltrates these cells, it reduces the body's ability to combat other diseases. This increases the risk and impact of opportunistic infections and cancers. However, a person can carry HIV without experiencing symptoms for a long time. HIV is a lifelong infection. However, receiving treatment and managing the disease effectively can prevent HIV from reaching a severe level and reduce the risk of a person passing on the virus. What is AIDS? AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection. Once HIV infection develops into AIDS, infections and cancer pose a greater risk. Without treatment, HIV infection is likely to develop into AIDS as the immune system gradually wears down. However, advances in ART mean than an ever-decreasing number of people progress to this stage. By the close of 2015, around 1,122,900 people were HIV-positive. To compare, figures from 2016 show that medical professionals diagnosed AIDS in an estimated 18,160 people. Causes People transmit HIV in bodily fluids, including: blood semen vaginal secretions anal fluids breast milk In the United States, the main causes of this transfer of fluids are: anal or vaginal intercourse with a person who has HIV while not using a condom or PrEP, a preventive HIV medication for people at high risk of infection sharing equipment for injectable illicit drugs, hormones, and steroids with a person who has HIV A woman living with HIV who is pregnant or has recently given birth might transfer the disease to her child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. The risk of HIV transmitting through blood transfusions is extremely low in countries that have effective screening procedures in place for blood donations. Undetectable = untransmittable To transmit HIV, these fluids must contain enough of the virus. If a person has 'undetectable' HIV, they will not transmit HIV to another person, even if after a transfer of fluids. Undetectable HIV is when the amount of HIV in the body is so low that a blood test cannot detect it. People may be able to achieve undetectable levels of HIV by closely following the prescribed course of treatment. Confirming and regularly monitoring undetectable status using a blood test is important, as this does not mean that the person no longer has HIV. Undetectable HIV relies on the person adhering to their treatment, as well as the effectiveness of the treatment itself. Progression to AIDS The risk of HIV progressing to AIDS varies widely between individuals and depends on many factors, including: the age of the individual the body's ability to defend against HIV access to high-quality, sanitary healthcare the presence of other infections the individual's genetic inheritance resistance to certain strains of HIV drug-resistant strains of HIV Symptoms For the most part, infections by other bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites cause the more severe symptoms of HIV. These conditions tend to progress further in people who live with HIV than in individuals with healthy immune systems. A correctly functioning immune system would protect the body against the more advanced effects of infections, and HIV disrupts this process. Early symptoms of HIV infection early HIV sweats Sweats are an early sign of HIV, but many people do not know they have the disease for years. Some people with HIV do not show symptoms until months or even years after contracting the virus. However, around 80 percent of people may develop a set of flu-like symptoms known as acute retroviral syndrome around 2–6 weeks after the virus enters the body. The early symptoms of HIV infection may include: fever chills joint pain muscle aches sore throat sweats. particularly at night enlarged glands a red rash tiredness weakness unintentional weight loss thrush These symptoms might also result from the immune system fighting off many types of viruses. However, people who experience several of these symptoms and know of any reason they might have been at risk of contracting HIV over the last 6 weeks should take a test. Asymptomatic HIV In many cases, after the symptoms of acute retroviral syndrome, symptoms might not occur for many years. During this time, the virus continues to develop and cause immune system and organ damage. Without medication that prevents the replication of the virus, this slow process can continue for an average of around 10 years. A person living with HIV often experiences no symptoms, feels well, and appears healthy. Complying rigidly to a course of ART can disrupt this phase and suppress the virus completely. Taking effective antiretroviral medications for life can halt on-going damage to the immune system. Late-stage HIV infection Without medication, HIV weakens the ability to fight infection. The person becomes vulnerable to serious illnesses. This stage is known as AIDS or stage 3 HIV. Symptoms of late-stage HIV infection may include: blurred vision diarrhea, which is usually persistent or chronic dry cough a fever of over 100 °F (37 °C) lasting for weeks night sweats permanent tiredness shortness of breath, or dyspnea swollen glands lasting for weeks unintentional weight loss white spots on the tongue or mouth During late-stage HIV infection, the risk of developing a life-threatening illness increases greatly. A person with late-stage HIV can control, prevent and treat serious conditions by taking other medications alongside HIV treatment. Opportunistic infections toxoplasmosis opportunistic infection Toxoplasmosis, found in cat and animal feces, is a dangerous opportunistic infection for people who have AIDS. HIV treatment is nowadays often effective enough to keep many infections at bay. In reducing the activity of the immune system, late-stage HIV reduces the ability of the body to combat a range of infections, diseases, and cancers. Infections that caused minimal or no health problems before the development of AIDS might pose a serious health risk once the condition has weakened the immune system. Medical professionals refer to these as opportunistic infections (OIs). Once any of these infections occur, a doctor will diagnose AIDS. These include: Candidiasis of the bronchi, trachea, esophagus, and lungs: As a fungal infection that normally occurs in the skin and nails, this frequently causes serious problems in the esophagus and lower respiratory tract for people with AIDS. Invasive cervical cancer: This type of cancer begins in the cervix and spreads to other areas in the body. Regular checks with a cancer care team can help prevent the cancer or limit the spread. Coccidioidomycosis: People sometimes refer to the self-limited version of this disease in healthy individuals as valley fever. Inhalation of the fungus Coccidioides immitis causes this infection. Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that can infect any part of the body, but most often enters the lungs to trigger pneumonia or the brain to cause swelling. Cryptosporidiosis: The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium causes this infection that leads to severe abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea. Cytomegalovirus disease (CMV): CMV can cause a range of diseases in the body, including pneumonia, gastroenteritis, and encephalitis, a brain infection. However, CMV retinitis is of particular concern in people with late-stage HIV, and it can infect the retina at the back of the eye, permanently removing sight. CMV retinitis is a medical emergency. HIV-related encephalopathy: An acute or chronic HIV infection can trigger this brain disorder. While doctors do not fully understand the cause, they consider it to be linked to post-infection inflammation in the brain. Herpes simplex (HSV): This virus, usually sexually transmitted or passed on in childbirth, is extremely common and rarely causes health issues or causes self-limiting recurrences in people with healthy immune systems. However, it can reactivate in people with HIV, causing painful cold sores around the mouth and ulcers on the genitals and anus that do not resolve. The sores, rather than a herpes diagnosis, are an indicator of AIDS. HSV can also infect the breathing tube, lungs, or esophagus of people with AIDS. Histoplasmosis: The fungus Histoplasma capsulatum causes extremely severe, pneumonia-like symptoms in people with advanced HIV. This condition can become progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and can impact on organs outside of the respiratory system. Chronic intestinal isosporiasis: The parasite Isospora belli can infect the body through contaminated food and water, causing diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, headaches, and abdominal pain. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS): Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), causes a cancer that leads to the growth of abnormal blood vessels anywhere in the body. If KS reaches organs, such as the intestines or lymph nodes, it can be extremely dangerous. KS appears as solid purple or pink spots on the surface of the skin. They might be flat or raised. Lymphoma: People refer to cancer of the lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues as lymphoma, and many different types might occur. However, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma have strong links to HIV infection. Tuberculosis (TB): The bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes this disease and can transfer in droplets if a person with an active form of the bacteria sneezes, coughs, or speaks. TB causes a severe lung infection as well as weight loss, fever, and tiredness, and can also infect the brain, lymph nodes, bones, or kidneys. Mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium kansasii: These bacteria occur naturally in the environment and pose few problems for people with fully-functioning immune systems. However, they can spread throughout the body and cause life-threatening health issues for people with HIV, especially in its later stages. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP): A fungus called Pneumocystis jirovecii causes breathlessness, dry cough, and high fever in people with suppressed immune systems, including those with HIV. Recurrent pneumonia: Many different infections can cause pneumonia, but a bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of its most dangerous causes in people with HIV. Vaccines are available for this bacteria, and every person who has HIV should receive vaccination for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML): The John Cunningham (JC) virus occurs in a vast number of people, usually lying dormant in the kidneys. However, in people with compromised immune systems, either due to HIV or medications, such as those for multiple sclerosis (MS), the JC virus attacks the brain, leading to a dangerous conditon called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML can be life-threatening, causing paralysis and cognitive difficulties. Recurrent Salmonella septicemia: This type of bacteria often enters the body in contaminated food and water, circulates the entire body, and overpowers the immune system, causing nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Toxoplasmosis (toxo): Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that inhabits warm-blooded animals, including cats and rodents, and leaves the body in their feces. Humans contract the diseases by inhaling contaminated dust or eating contaminated food, but it can also occur in commercial meats. T. gondii causes severe infection in the lungs, retina, heart, liver, pancreas, brain, testes, and colon. Take care to wear protective gloves while changing cat litter and thoroughly wash the hands afterward. Wasting syndrome: This occurs when a person involuntarily loses 10 percent of their muscle mass through diarrhea, weakness, or fever. Part of the weight loss may also consist of fat loss. Prevention Preventing OIs is key to extending life expectancy with late-stage HIV. Aside from managing HIV viral load with medications, a person who lives with the disease must take precautions, including the following steps: Wear condoms to prevent other STIs. Receive vaccinations for potential OIs. Discuss these with your primary care physician. Understand the germs in your surrounding environment that could lead to an OI. A pet cat, for example, could be a source of toxoplasmosis. Limit exposure and take precautions, such as wearing protective gloves while changing litter Avoid foods that are at risk of contamination, such as undercooked eggs, unpasteurized dairy and fruit juice, or raw seed sprouts. Do not drink water straight from a lake or river or tap water in certain foreign countries. Drink bottled water or use water filters. Ask your doctor about work, home, and vacation activities to limit exposure to potential OIs. Antibiotic, antifungal, or antiparasitic drugs can help treat an OI. HIV and AIDS myths and facts Many misconceptions circulate about HIV that are harmful and stigmatizing for people with the virus. The following cannot transmit the virus: shaking hands hugging kissing sneezing touching unbroken skin using the same toilet sharing towels sharing cutlery mouth-to-mouth resuscitation or other forms of "casual contact" the saliva, tears, feces, and urine of a person with HIV HIV and AIDS: Transmission myths and facts HIV and AIDS: Transmission myths and facts Click here to learn more about HIV transmission and how it works. READ NOW Diagnosis The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that about 1 in every 7 HIV-positive Americans is unaware of their HIV status. Becoming aware of HIV status is vital for commencing treatment and preventing the development of more severe immune difficulties and subsequent infections. HIV blood tests and results A doctor can test for HIV using a specific blood test. A positive result means that they have detected HIV antibody in the bloodstream. The blood is re-tested before a positive result is given. After potential exposure to the virus, early testing and diagnosis is crucial and greatly improves the chances of successful treatment. Home testing kits are also available. HIV might take 3 - 6 months to show up in testing, and re-testing may be necessary for a definitive diagnosis. People at risk of infection within the last 6 months can have an immediate test. The test provider will normally recommend another test within a few weeks. Treatment woman taking pill Adhering to antiretroviral treatment can reduce HIV to an undetectable viral load. No cure is currently available for HIV or AIDS. However, treatments can stop the progression of the condition and allow most people living with HIV the opportunity to live a long and relatively healthy life. Starting ART early in the progression of the virus is crucial. This improves quality of life, extends life expectancy, and reduces the risk of transmission, according to the WHO's guidelines from June 2013. More effective and better-tolerated treatments have evolved that can improve general health and quality of life by taking as little as one pill per day. A person living with HIV can reduce their viral load to such a degree that it is no longer detectable in a blood test. After assessing a number of large studies, the CDC concluded that individuals who have no detectable viral load "have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting the virus to an HIV-negative partner." Medical professionals refer to this as undetectable = untransmittable (U=U). Emergency HIV pills, or post-exposure prophylaxis If an individual believes they have been exposed to the virus within the last 3 days, anti-HIV medications, called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), may be able to stop infection. Take PEP as soon as possible after potential contact with the virus. PEP is a treatment lasting a total of 28 days, and physicians will continue to monitor for HIV after the completion of the treatment. Antiretroviral drugs The treatment of HIV involves antiretroviral medications that fight the HIV infection and slows down the spread of the virus in the body. People living with HIV generally take a combination of medications called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There are a number of subgroups of antiretrovirals, such as: Protease inhibitors Protease is an enzyme that HIV needs to replicate. These medications bind to the enzyme and inhibit its action, preventing HIV from making copies of itself. These include: atazanavir/cobicistat (Evotaz) lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) darunavir/cobicistat (Prezcobix) Integrase inhibitors HIV needs integrase, another enzyme, to infect T cells. This drug blocks integrase. These are often the first line of treatment due to their effectiveness and limited side effects for many people. Integrase inhibitors include: elvitegravir (Vitekta) dolutegravir (Tivicay) raltegravir (Isentress) Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) These drugs, also referred to as "nukes," interfere with HIV as it tries to replicate. This class of drugs includes: abacavir (Ziagen) lamivudine/zidovudine (Combivir) emtricitabine (Emtriva) tenofovir disproxil (Viread) Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) NNRTIs work in a similar way to NRTIs, making it more difficult for HIV to replicate. Chemokine co-receptor antagonists These drugs block HIV from entering cells. However, doctors in the U.S. do not often prescribe these because other drugs are more effective. Entry inhibitors Entry inhibitors prevent HIV from entering T cells. Without access to these cells, HIV cannot replicate. As with chemokine co-receptor antagonists, they are not common in the United States. People will often use a combination of these drugs to suppress HIV. A medical team will adapt the exact mix of drugs to each individual. HIV treatment is usually permanent, lifelong, and based on routine dosage. A person living with HIV must take pills on a regular schedule. Each class of ARVs has different side effects, but possible common side effects include: nausea fatigue diarrhea headache skin rashes Complementary or alternative medicine Although many people who have HIV try complementary, alternative, or herbal options, such as herbal remedies, no evidence confirms them to be effective. According to some limited studies, mineral or vitamin supplements may provide some benefits in overall health. It is important to discuss these options with a healthcare provider because some of these options, even vitamin supplements, may interact with ARVs. Prevention To prevent contracting HIV, healthcare professionals advise precautions related to the following. Sex using a condom or PrEP: Having sex without a condom or other preventive measures, such as PrEP, can drastically increase the risk of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Use condoms or PrEP during every sexual act with a person outside of a trusted relationship in which neither partner has HIV. Drug injection and needle sharing: Intravenous drug use is a key factor for HIV transmission in developed countries. Sharing needles and other drug equipment can expose users to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C. Certain social strategies, such as needle-exchange programs, can help to reduce the infections as a result of drug abuse. Recovering from a substance use disorder can improve health a quality of life for many reasons, but it can dramatically reduce potential exposure to HIV. People using a needle to take medications should use a clean, unused, unshared needle. Body fluid exposure: A person can limit their potential exposure to HIV by taking precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood. Healthcare workers should use gloves, masks, protective eyewear, shields, and gowns in situations where exposure to bodily fluids is a possibility. Frequently and thoroughly washing the skin immediately after coming into contact with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the risk of infection. Healthcare works should follow a set of procedures known as universal precautions to prevent transmission. Pregnancy: Certain antiretrovirals might harm an unborn fetus during pregnancy. However, an effective, well-managed treatment plan can prevent mother-to-fetus HIV transmission. Delivery through caesarean section may be necessary. Women who are pregnant but have HIV might also pass on the virus through their breast milk. However, regularly taking the correct regimen of medications greatly reduces the risk of transmitting the virus. Discuss all options with a healthcare provider. Education: Teaching people about known risk factors is vital to equip them with the tools to avoid exposure to HIV. Living with HIV man drinks after exercising A person with HIV can live a full and active life, as long as they adhere to treatment. Due to the added risk of other infections and disease, people living with HIV must make lifestyle adjustments to accommodate their reduced immunity. Adherence: Taking HIV medication as prescribed is absolutely essential to effective treatment. Missing even a few doses might jeopardize the treatment. Program a daily, methodical routine to fit the treatment plan around any existing lifestyle and schedule. Treatment plans will be different between people. People sometimes refer to "adherence" as "compliance". HIV medications can cause particularly severe side effects that often deter people from adherence. Learn more about the adverse effects of HIV medication by clicking here. If side effects are becoming too severe, speak to your medical team rather than simply stopping medication. They can switch the regimen to a better-tolerated drug. General health: Taking steps to avoid illness and other infections is key. People living with HIV should seek to improve overall health through regular exercise, a balanced, nutritious diet, and the cessation of any drugs, including tobacco. Additional precautions: People living with AIDS should take extra precautions to prevent any exposure to infection, especially around animals. Avoid coming into contact with animal feces and pet litter. Doctors also recommend the meticulous and regular washing of hands. Antiretrovirals reduce the need for these precautions. Regular contact with doctors: HIV is a lifelong condition, so regular contact with a healthcare team is important for updating treatment in line with advancing age and other conditions. The healthcare team will regular review and adjust treatment accordingly. Psychological effects: Common misconceptions about AIDS and HIV are reducing as understanding of the disease increases. However, stigma around the condition continues in many parts of the world. People living with HIV may feel excluded, persecuted, and isolated. An HIV diagnosis can be very distressing, and feelings of anxiety or depression are common. If you feel anxious or have symptoms of depression, seek medical help immediately. Takeaway HIV is a misunderstood and potentially dangerous disease that reduces the effectiveness of the immune system in combatting other infections. Advances in modern medicine person living with HIV can have a near-normal life expectancy and active lifestyle. A person receiving antiretroviral therapy must adhere strictly to their regime for the most effective results. HIV transmits in bodily fluids, such as semen or vaginal secretions during sex, or blood. In the United States, HIV most frequently transmits through sexual intercourse without a condom or PrEP and sharing needles when injecting drugs. However, if a person has a viral load that HIV tests cannot detect, they cannot transmit the virus to another person. If HIV advances, for example in situations where a person is not aware of their HIV status or does not receive treatment, it can progress to a late stage known as AIDS. AIDS can open the door to a range of infections known as opportunistic infections that pose a severe risk to health. Some are extreme or prolonged presentations of infections that would normally resolve quickly in a person with healthy immune function. Others might occur due to microbes that occur naturally in the environment and would not normally cause infection at all. A person living with AIDS can revert the condition to HIV through adhering to treatment. Some of the commonly indicated homeopathic medicines for HIV and AIDS are HIV nosode, Sulphur, Tuberculinum, Syphilinum, Silica, Kali carbonicum, Phosphorus, Calcaria iodum, Arsenic album, Arsenic iodum, Bacillinum.Dr. Rajesh Gupta3 Likes3 Answers