CNS - Glial cells.

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New question Curofy. Question section not much answeres. I am concluding . Thanks for the answer. This is for the benefits of students undergraduate and post graduate and others. 1. Astrocytes--- large glual cellsthat stabilize extracellular fluids and ions Astrocytes proliferate in response to many CNS insult and may release neuronal growth factors and form barriers to the spread of infection. 2 .Oligodendroglia --- myelin forming glial cells . Myelin antigens may form targets for autoimmune attack in multiple sclerosis. 3 . Ependymal cells--- neuro epithelial cells lining ventricular system ,choroid plexus,and central part of spinal cord 4. Microglia,---- resident nonnuclear phagocytic cellsthat became reactive in degenerative diseases and demyelinating disorders as well as in more acute CNS insult.They produce numerous cytokines( which regulate inflammatory process), present antigen to T- cell,and secrete a number of cytotoxic factors( eg ,free radicals,low molecular weight neurotoxins).

Oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons. Astrocytes provide nutrients to neurons, maintain their extracellular environment, and provide structural support. Microglia scavenge pathogens and dead cells. Ependymal cells produce cerebrospinal fluid that cushions the neurons.

In addition to activation on nervous system injury and during neuronal degeneration, glial cells also degenerate in several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, glial cell loss may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory.

There are three types of glial cells in the mature central nervous system: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells (Figure 1.4A—C). Astrocytes, which are restricted to the brain and spinal cord, have elaborate local processes that give these cells a starlike appearance
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