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Immunodiaagnostics- COVID- 19 - Discovered

IMMUNO- DIAGNOSTICS PRINCIPLES OF COVID- 19. 1.IgM and IgA can be produced 5 days post infection, while IgG can be detected 14 days later .High levels of IgM indicates active infection. 4 fold rise in IgG is an evidence of confirmed infection. 2.Detection rate may be increased if IgM - ELISA will be combined with q PCR / RT - PCR . Negative result in molecular tests does n't mean that the patient is negative, but was tested earlier. 3.There are 7 corona viruses that are known to cause human disease which are divided into low pathogenic and highly pathogenic 4 corona viruses ( HCoV - 229E , NL 63 , OC - 43 and HKU1 ) are known as non - severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) like corona viruses. Three highly pathogenic, novel zoonotic: - - SARS - CoV - 1 -- The MERS corona,virus -- SARS - CoV- 2 - which caused COVID- 19 . 4,- Possible natural reservoir - Bats possible intermediate host - Pangolin 5-- Spike protein receptor binding domain ( RBD) of SARS - CoV2 use angiotensin converting enzyme- 2 ( ACE- 2) in lungs ( Type 2 alveolar cells and minimal in lung macrophages. Both lung tissues and phagocytes are infected. 6-- Incubation period- 2- 14 days .Longer than influenza due to immune invasion . 7-- Presence of lymhopenia with increased neutrophils and cytokine storm . 8- An increase also in pro inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 , IL - 6 , IL - 10 , G - CSF, CRP , IP - 10 , MCP - 1, HIP - 1A and TNF - alfa. 9- A delayed type 1 interferon response observed during acute , but chronic infection causes an increase in type 1 interferon ., which can trigger the lung dysfunction. 10 - How does the immune cells recognize the virus? .Through Toll like receptor 3 and 7 and cytosolic sensor R1G1 / MDA 5 11.- SARS - CoV - 2 can also exhibit immune evasion: down regulation of antigen presentation, viral membrane and non -structural protein immune modulation and possibly viral mutation. 12.Th- 1 / Th17 - T - helper subset is activated which can exacerbate immune response 13.- Plasma cells can release neutralizing antibodies ( usually against spike proteins , membrane, envelope, nucleocapsid ) .This can only show that our body can fight . 14.COVID - 19 infection could also cause anosmia- loss of sense of smell . 15.Preliminary research in Macaques shows that re- infection can be unlikely, but this has to be monitored even more . 16.It is possible that SARS - CoV2 RNA may be detectable in the upper or lower respiratory tract for weeks post illness onset- but that does not necessarily mean that infectious,virus is present. 17.A decrease in CD4+ and CD 8+ T cells is seen especially in severe cases ( lymphocyte exhaustion)

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Immunodiaagnostics in COVID- 19 has gathered lot of interest as it is the corner stone of serology testing for COVID- 19 and is a precursor of vaccine development against COVID- 19
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Rapid antibody kits are available reportedly.. in indian market.. Are private laboratories authorized to carry out this test or any permission.. from GOVT OF INDIA.. is to be obtained prior to its use..?
Immunodiaagnostics in COVID- 19 has gathered lot of interest as it is the corner stone of serology testing for COVID- 19 and is a precursor of vaccine development against COVID- 19
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