Hit by cow anterior luxation of eye ball, pressure of lids behind equator As there is no perception of light eye is not functional ,as there is injury to optic nerve Evident from photographe eye has been placed in the orbit and lids reconstructed Now main aim is control of infection with Injection purezone 1 gm iv 12 hourly , injection TT and ibubrufen 600mg bd C-ray orbit for fracture , CT orbit for globe integrity and retrobulbar hematoma Let the patient settle as the infection and inflamation are controlled can decide for globe weather to do enucleation to safe guard from sympathetic ophthalmia and replace with prosthetic in future
Alleged HISTORY OF HIT BY COW LEFT EYE ON EXAMINATION MARKED SWOLLEN EYE FROSS ODEMA BOTH LIDS PROPTODI ONE WOULD SUSPECT RUPTURE GLOBE SUCH PT NEEDS ADMISSION AND EXPLIRE THE EYE BALL UNDER ANASTHESIA AND LOOK FOR TGE STATE OF O VUKAR TRAUMA AND DO THE NEEDGUL IN SUCH A EYE HOW CAN ONE CAN MAKE DX OF OPTIC NERVE DSMAGE WHEN EXAMINATION OF FUNDUS IS NOT POSSIBLE ALSO DO CT SCAN ORBITS AND ALSO RULE OUT BLOW OUT ORBITAL FRACTURE
HORRIBLE.. ACCIDENTAL EYE INJURY.. NEED'S.. CTCE STUDY TO R/O.. NEUROVASCULAR.. BONE.. AND.. EYEBALL INJURIES.. WITH..EXPERTS OPINION..& SURGICAL INTERVENTION..
Very very unfortunate ! Only evisceration of the affected eye can save the fellow eye from sympathetic ophthalmitis
Pl get his ct scan done to rule out intracerebral bleed.whole lt eye ball.has evolved out.needs urgent surgical intervention to save the eye
Traumatic Anterior luxaition of globe. ...As vn is " no pl " , vision can't be regained. Only cosmetic result will be there .
SUGGESTIVE. OF TRAUMATIC OPTIC NEUROPATHY. ....IRREVERSIBLE..
@Jagruti Muda @Srujana D @Sk Gupta @Dr. Alok Niranjan @Manoj Maurya @Kumar Himanshu @Dr. Kunal Kaushal @Dr. Seema Shukla @Dr. Kute Ankush @Vijay Gupta @Dr. Mrinal Kantil Pal @@Simran Dhanjal
Optic nerve damaged Informative post Thanks for sharing
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OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SLE. SLE is a chronic auto immune disease with multisystem involvement.SLE is multifactorial . Possible factors are genetic susceptibility, environmental factors and disturbances in both innate and adaptive immunity. Early detection and prompt referral to ophthalmologist can prevent permanent visual loss in some instances. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS. SLE can affect any part of the eye and visual pathway.Eyelids ,orbit, lacrimal system , conjunctiva ,cornea ,sclera ,episclera ,retina , choroid ,uvea ,cataract ,glaucoma and cranial nerve are all involved. EXTERNAL EYE DISEASES : 1.EYELID DISEASE:Discoid lupus rash over the eyelids present as discrete raised scaly lesions. HPE shows hyperkeratotic epithelium with liquefactive degeneration of the basal layer and dense perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. ANA titre,ESR,C reactive protein,CBC,LFT,RFT Complement factors C3 &C4,anti phospholipid antibodies ,immunoglobulins,rheumatoid factor TSH,VDRL,GFR,24 hour urinary protein etc are the investigations necessary. 2.LACRIMAL SYSTEM DISEASE : Dry eye syndrome is the most common ocular presentation. 3.ORBITAL DISEASE. It can present as orbital mass,periorbital oedema ,orbital myositis,panniculitis,acute orbital ischemia and infarction. Clinical presentation can be ptosis,proptosis, orbital pain,limitation of extra ocular movements and enophthalmos. Treatment is by immunosupression. ANTERIOR EYE SEGMENT MANIFESTATIONS 4.CONJUNCTIVA : Chronic conjunctivitis is infrequent.Conjunctiva is inflammed in SLE associated keratitis and scleritis. Treatment NSAID or anti malarial therapy given. 5.CORNEAL DISEASE: Breakdown of corneal epithelium can cause recurrent corneal erosions.The inflammatory process in SLE causes PERIPHERAL ULCERATIVE KERATITIS. Treatment is with systemic corticosteroids and cytotoxic agent during acute phase of the disease and lubrication of corneal surface concommitantly.TOPICAL STEROIDS ARE NOT ADVOCATED AS THEY INHIBIT NEW COLLAGEN PRODUCTION AND THEREBY INCREASE THE RISK OF PERFORATION. 6.EPISCLERA : Episcleritis is benign inflammation of the episclera. 7.SCLERAL DISEASE : Scleritis is a painful and potentially sight threatening disorder.b ANTERIOR SCLERITIS presents as diffuse nodular or necrotising scleritis resulting in significant destruction and scleral thinning. Redness is caused by injection of deep episcleral vessels. POSTERIOR SCLERITIS :Affects the sclera posterior to the equator of the globe. presenting symptoms are pain and blurry vision caused by exudative retinal detachment papillitis and cystoid macular edema. Immunosupression is essential. 8.ANTERIOR UVEITIS Rare presentation.Prompt immunosuppressive therapy is considered. 9.CATARACT : Iatrogenic steroid use in SLE is associated with cataract formation. 10.GLAUCOMA : Open angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma are seen in SLE. POSTERIOR EYE SEGMENT MANIFESTATIONS 11.SLE RETINOPATHY. The earliest findings are small intra retinal hemorrhages and cotton wool spots,multiple areas of polygonal retinal whitening between the retinal arterioles and venules. Systemic therapy with steroids, Immunosupression ,laser therapy,intra vitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents (anti-VEGF) and vitrectomy are all treatments offered. 12.RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION / RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION. Pathogenesis of vaso occlusive retinopathy is due to thrombosis associated with anti- phospholipid syndrome. 13.RETINAL VASCULITIS : This is a rare potentially blinding complication of SLE. 14 CHOROIDOPATHY : Choroidopathy with exudative retinal detachment is a rare ocular manifestation of SLE.It is manifested as multi focal serous detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the neural retina ,with the transduction of the accumulated fluid through bruch's membrane and RPE affected by the choroidal ischemia and inflammation. The presenting feature is visual loss ,which depends on the extent of the macular involvement. 15. OPTIC NEURVE DISEASE: SLE can cause optic neuritis and ischemic optic neuropathy.The optic nerve damage is believed to be secondary to an occlusive vasculitis of the small arterioles of the nerve , which leads to demyelination and /or axonal necrosis. Signs of optic nerve disease. *Reduced visual acuity. *Impairment of color vision. *Diminished light brightness sensitivity. *Decreased contrast sensitivity. *Afferant pupillary defect. *Visual field defects. 16.CRANIAL NERVE INVOLVEMENT. Ocular motor nerve palsy can occur. MANY OCULAR COMPLICATIONS ARE PREVENTABLE,TREATABLE OR EVEN CURABLE.PROMPT TREATMENT WITH HIGH DOSE SYSTEMIC CORTICOSTEROIDS AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY ARE NECESSARY.Dr. Suvarchala Pratap11 Likes19 Answers
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What could be the cause of the following eye swelling?Vaishnavi P3 Likes19 Answers
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THYROID DISORDERS -EVERYTHING YOU SHOULD KNOW - by Dr Sunil kumar Dear friends and Curofians here's an brief information about thyroid disorders. Thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland in the front of the neck. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs. Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid glands. It plays an important role in regulating numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. The Thyroid gland is located below the adam’s apple wrapped around the trachea. Thyroid disease is a common problem that can cause symptoms because of over- or under-function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is an essential organ for producing thyroid hormones, which maintain our body metabolism. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck below the Adam's apple. Thyroid disease can also sometimes lead to enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck, which can cause symptoms that are directly related to the increase in the size of the organ (such as difficulty swallowing and discomfort in front of the neck). Thyroxine T4 is the primary hormone developed by the Thyroid gland. A small portion of the T4 released from the gland is converted to Triiodothyronine (T3) which is the most active hormone. Hyperthyroidism: Too much thyroid hormone results in a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Affects about 1 percent of women. It's less common in men. Grave’s disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Symptoms: RestlessnessNervousnessIrritabilityracing heartIncreased sweatingShakingRestlessnessTrouble sleepingThin skinBrittle hairNailsWeight lossMuscle weakness Causes: Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid glands and begin to secrete thyroid hormones upsetting the body's chemical balance.Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to leak excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.Pituitary gland: Malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland. Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes. Treatments for hyperthyroidism: destroy the thyroid gland or block it from producing its hormones. Antithyroid drugs: such as methimazole (Tapazole) prevent the thyroid from producing its hormones.Radioactive iodine: a large dose of it damages the thyroid gland. A pill is given by mouth. As thyroid gland takes in iodine, it also pulls in the radioactive iodine, which damages the gland.Surgery: Surgery can be performed to remove your thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism: Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates. Since the body needs some amount of thyroid for energy production and drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels. Symptoms: FatigueDry skinIncreased sensitivity to coldMemory problemsConstipationDepressionWeight gainSlow heart rateComa What are the causes of Hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors: Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.Iodine deficiency in diet: For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.Surgery: Surgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodarone, lithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.Pregnancy: Pregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel. Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism? Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.Older people are at increased risk.People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus, Vitiligo, Pernicious anemia, Multiple sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorderPeople with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism. How to diagnose hypothyroidism? Blood tests: TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidismAnti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling. What is the treatment of hypothyroidism? Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high. What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication? There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains. Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweating, anxiety, irritability etc. There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepine, iron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicin, phenytoin, warfarin etc. What are the complications of hypothyroidism? If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to: heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retentionobesityinfertilityjoint painsdepressionA pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist. Regards Dr Sunil kumarDr. Sunil Kumar16 Likes27 Answers
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swelling inside rt eye at the lateral angle since 3 days , painful ,watery discharge also..kindly suggest treatmentDr. Vijay Nayak0 Like13 Answers
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What is the best therapy according to you for the treatment of exophthalmos? and what prognosis do you predict?Faiz Sheikh1 Like10 Answers