I have stopped seeing patients complaining of fever, cough,sore throat, diarrhea, headache, body ache, breathlessness, loss of smell/taste and requested them to go to govt authorities or if they have RTPCR report of last 24 to 48 hours
AS PER HISTORY BY PATIENT.. S/S .. TEMPERATURE WITH .. GUN .. SUSPECTED CASES .. REFERRED TO.. COVID CENTERS.. REST OF THE CASES .. TREATED .. SYMPTOMATICALLY WITH ALL .. PRECAUTIONS.. AS PER PROTOCOLS.. AND.. DAILY .. SANITATION ..
Start treatment early Start treatment even before diagnosis of RT PCR test comes Acute onset fever with cough, cold, one must suspect Covid 19 Early treatment of family members diagnosed with Covid 19 Early treatment with Ivermectin 12 mg, Doxy, Azithromycin, Levocetrizine+ Montelukast, Ecosprin may help in avoiding progression Remdesivir seems to work when given early
I am not attending my clinic and pts at home almost passing my time to educate few younger generation of my family or child interest in study ,go online and answers to their questions. Reading books written by munshi prem chand presently reading discovery of india and attending curofy regularly learning few things and sharing a little bit.
Strategies in the control of an outbreak are screening, containment (or suppression), and mitigation. Screening is done with a device such as a thermometer to detect the elevated body temperature associated with fevers caused by the coronavirus
Oxygen saturation and RTPCR Early treatment in COVID care centres
Any patients with fever i advice COVID 19 RT PCR. Any patients with typical symptoms of COVID 19 I start them on COVID 19 treatment .Any elderly patients with symptoms i refer them to higher centres
Person protection with good hygiene and food. Change lifestyle, mentally, awareness and basic reality of pandemic. It's time to change something about ourselves in new (yug). For example... modern yug, Now new version of virus to hack our system. So to keep your and our safety site. Routine life is now changed to convert in updated virus...for special people and special immunity build up version.
NICELY DISCUSSED. IN DETAILS... THANKS. DR
Diagnosed & refferAl to Md chest
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a 3 old child heaving complain high grade fever 105 f cough with body rases..what is diagnosisDr. Vikas Chaudhary1 Like25 Answers
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According to the World Health Organization , waterborne diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY (disability- adjusted life year) global burden of disease , and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842,000 deaths per year, is attributable to a lack of safe drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene (summarized as WASH ).  Overview The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer to diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors . Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria , many of which are intestinal parasites , or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses . (In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as " organisms ", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection.) Yet other important classes of water- borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites. Typical examples include certain Nematoda , that is to say "roundworms". As an example of water-borne Nematode infections, one important waterborne nematodal disease is Dracunculiasis . It is acquired by swallowing water in which certain copepoda occur that act as vectors for the Nematoda. Anyone swallowing a copepod that happens to be infected with Nematode larvae in the genus Dracunculus , becomes liable to infection. The larvae cause guinea worm disease .  Another class of waterbornemetazoan pathogens are certain members of the Schistosomatidae , a family of blood flukes . They usually infect victims that make skin contact with the water.  Blood flukes are pathogens that cause Schistosomiasis of various forms, more or less seriously affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide.  Long before modern studies had established the germ theory of disease , or any advanced understanding of the nature of water as a vehicle for transmitting disease, traditional beliefs had cautioned against the consumption of water, rather favouring processed beverages such as beer , wine and tea . For example, in the camel caravans that crossed Central Asia along the Silk Road , the explorer Owen Lattimore noted, "The reason we drank so much tea was because of the bad water. Water alone, unboiled, is never drunk. There is a superstition that it causes blisters on the feet."  Socioeconomic impact Waterborne diseases can have a significant impact on the economy, locally as well as internationally. People who are infected by a waterborne disease are usually confronted with related costs and not seldom with a huge financial burden. This is especially the case in less developed countries. The financial losses are mostly caused by e.g. costs for medical treatment and medication, costs for transport, special food, and by the loss of manpower. Many families must even sell their land to pay for treatment in a proper hospital. On average, a family spends about 10% of the monthly households income per person infected.  Infections by type of pathogen Protozoan Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Amoebiasis (hand-to-mouth) Protozoan ( Entamoeba histolytica ) (Cyst-like appearance) Sewage , non- treated drinking water , flies in water supply, saliva transfer (if the other person has the disease) Abdominal discomfort, fatigue , weight loss, diarrhea , bloating , fever Cryptosporidiosis (oral) Protozoan ( Cryptosporidium parvum ) Collects on water filters and membranes that cannot be disinfected , animal manure , seasonalrunoff of water. Flu-like symptoms , watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, substantial loss of weight, bloating , increased gas, nausea Cyclosporiasis Protozoan parasite ( Cyclospora cayetanensis ) Sewage , non- treated drinking water cramps , nausea, vomiting , muscle aches, fever, and fatigue Giardiasis (fecal- oral) (hand-to- mouth) Protozoan ( Giardia lamblia ) Most common intestinal parasite Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks, leaks, groundwater contamination, campgrounds where humans and wildlife use same source of water. Beavers and muskrats createponds that act as reservoirsfor Giardia. Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating , and flatulence Microsporidiosis Protozoan phylum ( Microsporidia ), but closely related to fungi Encephalitozoon intestinalis has been detected in groundwater , the origin of drinking water  Diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals. Bacterial Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Botulism Clostridium botulinum Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision , difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea . Death is usually caused by respiratory failure . Campylobacteriosis Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni Drinking water contaminated with feces Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever . Usually lasts 2–10 days. Cholera Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea , cramps , nosebleed , rapid pulse , vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours. E. coli Infection Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli ) Water contaminated with the bacteria Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness. M. marinum infection Mycobacterium marinum Naturally occurs in water, most cases from exposure in swimming poolsor more frequently aquariums ; rare infection since it mostly infects immunocompromised individuals Symptoms include lesions typically located on the elbows, knees, and feet (from swimming pools ) or lesions on the hands ( aquariums ). Lesions may be painless or painful. Dysentery Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonella with the most common being Shigella dysenteriae Water contaminated with the bacterium Frequent passage of feces with blood and/ or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood. Legionellosis(two distinct forms: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever) Caused by bacteria belonging to genus Legionella (90% of cases caused by Legionella pneumophila ) Legionella is a very common organism that reproduces to high numbers in warm water;  but only causes severe disease when aerosolized.  Pontiac fever produces milder symptoms resembling acute influenza without pneumonia . Legionnaires' disease has severe symptoms such as fever , chills , pneumonia (with cough that sometimes produces sputum ), ataxia , anorexia , muscle aches, malaiseand occasionally diarrhea and vomiting Leptospirosis Caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira Water contaminated by the animal urine carrying the bacteria Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The second phase then occurs involving meningitis , liver damage (causes jaundice ), and renal failure Otitis Externa (swimmer's ear) Caused by a number of bacterial and fungal species. Swimming in water contaminated by the responsible pathogens Ear canal swells, causing pain and tenderness to the touch Salmonellosis Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness . Symptoms include diarrhea , fever , vomiting, and abdominal cramps Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Ingestion of water contaminated with feces of an infected person Characterized by sustained fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), profusesweating ; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium , and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots", small red spots on the abdomen and chest. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio alginolyticus , and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Can enter wounds from contaminated water. Also acquired by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters . Symptoms include abdominal tenderness, agitation, bloody stools, chills, confusion, difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), delirium, fluctuating mood, hallucination, nosebleeds, severe fatigue, slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.  Viral Disease and Transmission Viral Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus Manifests itself in improperly treated water Symptoms include fever , myalgia , lethargy , gastrointestinal symptoms , cough , and sore throat Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Can manifest itself in water (and food) Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue , fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression . Poliomyelitis (Polio) Poliovirus Enters water through the feces of infected individuals 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with delirium , headache , fever , and occasional seizures , and spastic paralysis , 1% have symptoms of non- paralytic aseptic meningitis . The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysisor death Polyomavirus infection Two of Polyomavirus : JC virus and BK virus Very widespread, can manifest itself in water, ~80% of the population has antibodies to Polyomavirus BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplantpatients. JC virus infects the respiratory system , kidneys or can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain (which is fatal).  Algal Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Desmodesmus infection desmodesmusDr. Tapan Kumar Sau10 Likes19 Answers
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AN UPDATE: COVID-19 An unusual finding........ A 33‐year‐old female health care professional, with no previous medical condition, presented with fever (39.4°C), myalgia, abdominal pain, and severe watery diarrhea 12 hours after exposure to a highly suspected case of COVID‐19. She was tachycardic, tachypneic with hypertension, and her laboratory tests showed leukocytosis with absolute lymphopenia (white blood cells = 13.6 × 103, lymphocytes = 1 × 103 [7%], serum ferritin [315 ng/mL], and d‐dimer was high normal [0.4 μg fibrinogen equivalent units/mL]). Computed tomography (CT) of the chest was normal. One day later, she developed sore throat, anosmia and ageusia, headache, generalized bone pain, and dry cough. Skin lesions started to appear in the form of sudden onset of morbilliform skin rash, erythematous patches, and urticarial lesions fading on pressure with itching mainly on the trunk; the skin lesions were extending to the upper and lower limbs including the palms; there were oral lesions in the form of oral congestion and petechiae; and sore throat and pain were referred to the ear. She was home isolated and started symptomatic treatment. Three days later, she started to take azithromycin 500 mg/d for 5 days and oseltamivir 75 mg/12 h for 5 days, but unfortunately her condition worsened and CT chest showed ground‐glass opacities and she started hydroxychloroquine per oral (PO) (400 mg /12 h for 1 day and then 200 mg/12 h for 9 days); the skin lesions started to fade out while itching continued for several days. A unique finding was seen in the form of sudden eruption of 12 wart‐like lesions on the lower extremities, of different clinical types (planter and plane) and sizes (0.2‐2 cm in diameter) which, to our knowledge, was not described before. Her general condition worsened over the next few days, she got hospitalized, rapid test for COVID‐19 was positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM), and she was prescribed intravenous methylprednisolone (1.5 mg/kg/d for 5 days), anticoagulation therapy (enoxaparine [1 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days]), and levofloxacin (500 mg/d for 5 days). After few days, she got better, nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID‐19 were negative, and discharged from hospital on pulse prednisone 80 mg PO 2 days a week for 2 weeks with gradual tapering and rivaroxaban (10 mg/d for 4 weeks) after which her condition resolved with deterioration of her warts in a slowly progressive fashion. We believe that these skin lesions were part of the COVID‐19 syndrome, as she had most of the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features associated with the disease, with positive rapid IgM test. Take away: This is the first case to report wart‐like lesions in association with COVID‐19. This may be due to the presence of subclinical infection with human papilloma virus that was dormant in skin, as a sequelae to her profession, and exacerbated by lowered immunity due to SARS‐CoV‐2 viral infection, or suggestively, the SARS‐CoV‐2 may make the host more susceptible for other viral infections. Content source: Wiley.comDr. Haritma Nigam23 Likes11 Answers
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HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR MEASELS. #Aconite. [Acon] Aconite is one of the first remedies for measles; that is, while the case is presumed to be one of measles, and a hard croupy cough are present. Ferrum phosphoricum in many respects is similar to Aconite, and will take its place where restlessness and anxiety are wanting. It is somewhat questionable whether Aconite will ever be strictly indicated in any disease depending on a poisoned or infected condition of the blood, since in its pathogenesis it does not show any evidence of such condition; however, it may be indicated in the catarrhal irritation, sneezing , etc., before the case can be fully determined to be measles. In catarrhal conditions Aconite ceases to be of use after exudation has taken place, and so in measles; it would cease to be of use after it modified the fever, and the eruption appears and the disease is diagnosed as measles. Ferrum phosphoricum will perhaps be the better remedy if there be chest involvement together with the catarrhal symptoms. #Gelsemium. [Gels] Gelsemium is, on the whole, a more usefulremedy in commencing measles than Aconite ; that is, it is oftener indicated; there is much chilliness, the fever is a prominent symptoms, the child is dumpish, apathetic, does not want to be disturbed ; there is watery coryza which excoriates the upper lip and nose, and there is harsh, barking, croupy cough, with chest soreness and hoarseness. Gelsemium, too, has an action on the skin and may be continued with benefit afterthe eruption has appeared; there is an itching and redness of the skin, and a decidely measly eruption produced by it. It has some aching in the limbs, and may be compared with Dulcamara, but seldombe mistaken for that remedy. Gelsemiumhas more coryza, Dulcamara more aching.Both may be useful in an undeveloped eruption ; Gelsemium when there is pain at the base of the brain , high fever and passive brain symptoms ; Dulcamara when occurring from damp, cool air, rainyweather or sudden changes. Belladonna may be indicated in measles when sore throat is present and the cerebral excitement indicating that remedy, together with moisture and heat; but it corresponds more closely to scarlet fever .#Euphrasia. [Euph] When the catarrhal symptoms greatly predominate Euphrasia may be used. Acrid tears stream out of the eyes, with a red and swollen conjunctiva. The cough is dry and very hoarse, and there is an intense throbbing headache which is relieved on the appearance of the eruption. The excoriating discharge fromthe eyes will distinguish from Allium cepa. The photophobia of Euphrasia is worse in artificial light , and a brightnessof the eyes despite the catarrhal condition is characteristic. #Pulsatilla. A little later in the disease Pulsatilla symptoms may make their appearance. The fever has subsided or entirely disappeared. There is coryza and profuselachrymation. The cough is still dry at night, but loosens a little in the daytime. The child sits up to cough. There is much predisposition to earache and sometimes sickness at the stomach. Where there is catarrh of the digestive canal and diarrhea Pulsatilla will be found useful. The eyes agglutinate and the discharge is purulent. Kali bichromicum is so similarto Pulsatilla in many respects that it maybe mentioned here, as the two remedies seem to differ in intensity only. Kali bichromicum has pustules developing on the cornea. The throat is swollen and there is catarrhal deafness. It produces an eruption which closely resembles measles. It comes in very well after Pulsatilla when the patient develops more intense symptoms. Measles associated with ear symptoms and swollen glands especially call for Kali bichromicum, and it is one of our best remedies for laryngeal affections, with a hoarse, dry,croupy cough. Dr. Jousset recommends Viola odorata for the cough.Sulphur is a great measles remedy. It is useful where the skin is dusky and the rash does not come out, or is purplish when it does appear. #Arsenicum. In measles which do not run a favourable course, in malignant type or black or haemorrhagic measles we have two or three important remedies. The first of these is Arsenicum. There will be sinking of strength, diarrhea,delirium, restlessness and debility, petechiae and general typhoid symptoms. The stools areparticularly offensive and exhausting. Arsenicum may save the patient in these conditions. Dr. Gaudy, of Brussels, considers Arsenicum almost specific in measles. He says that its action is little short a marvelous. It is prophylactic and curative, and one of the best remedies to remove all sequelae of the disease. It corresponds to the insidious phenomena of severe epidemics of measles. Crotalusmay also be indicated in the form known as black measles. Also Baptisia, with its foetor and prostration, may prove useful. Lachesis is the fourth remedy for these conditions. The individual symptom of each remedy will differentiate them, but all four should be studied carefully in these low conditions of measles. #Stramonium. When the eruption does not come out properly, or when it disappears suddenly and grave symptoms appear, there are a few remedies which play a most important role. Stramonium is one of these. In a case calling for it you will find these symptoms: non-appearance ofthe rash; the child is hot, restless, and onfalling asleep cries out as if frightened ;there are convulsive movements and the face is red. Cuprum is indicated in convulsion due to recession of the eruption. It has the same terror on awakening, but its symptoms are move violent than those of Stramonium and the face instead of being red is more apt to be bluish. Zincum has the same awakening from sleep as if terrified, butwith Zincum there is much weakness, the child seems too weak to develop the eruption. Bryonia is useful when chest symptoms appear upon a retardation or arecession of the eruption. Too slow development of the eruption with chest symptoms calls for it. Antimonium tartaricum is another remedy for retarded or repelled eruption. There will be great difficulty in breathing, rattlingof mucus, bluish or purplish face, drowsiness and twitching.Dr. Akshay Ingole6 Likes9 Answers
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ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SWINE FLU: Editor: Dr.Shashank Kumar Srivastav MICU/ICCU Incharge, Care Hospitals, Hyderabad, Former President Indian Medicos Association. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org INTRODUCTION The classical swine flu virus an influenza type A (H1N1) virus was first isolated from a pig in 1930. Swine flu viruses cause high level of illness, but low death rates in pigs. Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can also be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Suspect Case: A suspect case is defined as an individual with fever (temperature 100.4°F/ 38°C) and one or more of the following manifestations- cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath. Probable Case: A probable case is defined as an individual with an influenza test that is positive for influenza A, but is unsubtypable by reagents used to detect seasonal influenza virus infection or an individual who died of an unexplained acute respiratory illness. Confirmed Case: A confirmed case is defined as an individual who is confirmed in the laboratory with PCR or virus culture for pandemic influenza virus 2009. TRANSMISSION The SO-IAV has efficiently transmitted between humans since its first detection in April 2009. So far it has spread in the Northern hemisphere outside of the flu season and in the Southern hemisphere during its flu season. It has caused mild disease, and that is in accordance with absence of the pathogenicity marker PB1- F2. As seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses are also circulating in humans since 1977, mild disease could also be due to partial immunity in the population. It will now be critical to watch how the virus behaves as it comes back to the Northern hemisphere in the next wave with the approaching flu season. All previously characterized pandemics have been due to viruses generated by antigenic shift involving the HA gene of avian lineage – H1 for 1918 virus, H2 for 1957 virus and H3 for 1968 virus. Though still of the H1 serotype, the HA of SO-IAV is different from the H1 HAs of seasonal influenza viruses; the inclusion of a porcine H1 in human influenza A viruses has been considered an antigenic pseudo- shift. Although SOIAV is of zoonotic origin, it’s HA may not be sufficiently divergent to call it a true antigenic shift5. Compared to viruses that caused previous pandemics, SO-IAV is at present not sufficiently virulent. But, it is already transmitting like a pandemic virus and is undergoing adaptive mutations. Whether it will remain mild or develop into a highly pathogenic fully pandemic virus remains to be seen. PREVENTION * There currently is no vaccine to protect humans against the H1N1 flu virus. The following tips will help you prevent flu infections such as the common flu and the H1N1 flu. * Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially before eating and after sneezing or coughing. * You can also use an alcohol gel product available over the counter, which is also effective in protecting against flu. * When you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or sleeve. Or use a tissue and be sure to throw away the tissue after use. Wash your hands after you sneeze or cough. * Try to avoid close contact with sick people. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth. Germs spread this way. Try to stay in good general health. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food. CLINICAL MANISFESTATIONS Signs Swine flu, or H1N1, is a type A influenza virus that can infect humans. It is similar to the seasonal influenza virus, but can be more severe in people who may be at high risk because of a preexisting condition. According to the Centers for Disease Control, risk factors include chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and asthma. Aches and Fevers Swine flu is severe body aches, this can include muscle weakness and difficulty standing up or walking. Headaches in combination with body aches are also quite common. Upper-Respiratory Symptoms A common element of swine flu is upper-respiratory symptoms. These can be similar to a cold, except more severe. A runny or stuffy nose combined with head congestion is typically present. Itchy or watery eyes may also be a symptom. Weakness Feelings of general malaise or weakness are common with swine flu, as is overall discomfort. Many people infected with the virus are tired and too weak to complete most normal day-to-day activities, and may sleep longer and more often than usual. Staying home and getting plenty of rest is the best way to fully recover from swine flu. Gastrointestinal In some cases of swine flu, people experience gastrointestinal effects. These can range from stomachaches and cramping to nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. Swine flu may be confused with food poisoning because of the symptoms of stomach pain and upset. Warning Signs Other signs to watch for may indicate that swine flu is developing into a secondary medical condition that can be serious or life- threatening. Because swine flu involves the respiratory tract, there is a risk for developing pneumonia, respiratory failure, and bronchitis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in humans the symptoms of the 2009 "swine flu" H1N1 virus are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general. Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. * DIAGNOSIS The first cases of swine flu were diagnosed in the US in San Diego in mid-April. The discovery was serendipitous, the result of out of season. US-Mexican border surveillance and use of a new diagnostic test at the Naval Health Research Center. When the new test protocol showed infection with influenza A with undeterminable subtype, follow-up testing showed it to be an previously unknown swine flu virus. Detection of a second, apparently unlinked swine flu infection in San Diego got the outbreak (now pandemic) investigation rolling. That was just a month ago, but it established the initial diagnostic pattern that was the tail end of the flu season, but seasonal influenza was still present in the community and for the first weeks of the outbreak CDC's lab in Atlanta was the only place that had the reagents to confirm an infection was from swine flu and not seasonal flu or another virus altogether. So a make-shift case definition was set-up to take this into account. If a person with an influenza-like illness (which required sudden onset, fever and respiratory symptoms) had a rapid flu test positive for influenza (or influenza A if the test could differentiate), a nose or throat swab was sent to the state lab. As a result of preparedness activities envisioning a possible pandemic with bird flu, CDC had been training state labs to make the differentiation between the two seasonal flu subtypes, H1N1 and H3N2, and bird flu, H5N1, so the capability to do seasonal sub typing already existed outside of CDC. But neither the reagents nor the proficiency for the new swine virus did. Therefore all specimens that were positive with a rapid test at the point of visit, and so were putative influenza A, were first subtyped at the state lab level. If they could not be sub typed, they were sent on to CDC for confirmation as swine flu. CDC later determined that virtually all unsubtypable influenza A specimens turned out to be swine flu. TREATMENT The main symptoms of Swine Flu are a cough, sore throat, runny nose and fever. Usually there's more muscle pain, headache, fever and chills than seen with the common cold. If you think your child has Swine Flu, here's what you can do to make him feel better: Prescribing pattern for swine flu: 1. For a stuffy or blocked nose, use saline (or warm-water) nose drops followed by nose blowing or suctioning. 2. For throat pain, Tylenol or ibuprofen is very helpful. Children over 6 years old can also suck on hard candy. Children over 1 year old can sip warm chicken broth or other warm liquids. 3. For coughs, try to soothe the throat. For children over age 6, give cough drops. If your child is over 1 year of age, give honey. The dosage would be 1/2 to 1 teaspoon as needed. Never give honey to babies. If honey is not available, you can use corn syrup. 4. Flu can cause body aches that include leg pain, back pain, chest pain and headache. Give ibuprofen to make these sore muscles feel better. 5. For diet, mainly encourage your child to drink adequate fluids to prevent dehydration. This will also thin out the nasal secretions and loosen the phlegm in the lungs. 6. Tamiflu is an antiviral medicine that may be useful for some children. Finally: Your job is to keep your child comfortable. Determine your child's main symptoms and treat them. Antiviral Drugs for Influenza Oseltamivir: The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir formulated as capsules or oral suspension (Tamiflu®) is FDA-approved for the treatment of uncomplicated acute influenza in patients 1 year and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. Zanamivir: The neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir formulated for oral inhalation (Relenza®) is FDA-approved for the treatment of influenza in patients 7 years of age and older who, similar to approved uses for oseltamivir, have uncomplicated illness and have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. Peramivir: A third neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir formulated for intravenous (IV) administration is an investigational product currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Children: Children younger than 2 years of age are at higher risk for influenza-related complications and have a higher rate of hospitalization compared to older children. Children aged 2 to 4 years are more likely to require hospitalization or urgent medical evaluation for influenza compared with older children and adults, although the risk is much lower than for children younger than 2 years old. Adults aged 65 years and older: Even though persons aged 65 years and older are less likely to become ill with 2009 H1N1 influenza compared to younger persons, when they do acquire influenza, they are at higher risk for severe influenza-related complications. Pregnant women: Pregnancy increases the risk of complications, hospitalization, and severe disease. One study estimated the risk of hospitalization for 2009 H1N1 to be four times higher for pregnant women than for the general population hile oseltamivir and zanamivir are "Pregnancy Category C" medications.Dr. Shashank Kumar Srivastav8 Likes8 Answers