Breast cancer survivors should begin screening earlier than general population because some genetic causes like Lynch syndrome may cause cancer in other body parts
SUGGESTIVE. OF ...A... TRUE... PATIENTS. WITH. HISTORY. OF BREAST. CANCERS. ARE. AT. HIGH. INCIDENCE. . OF. DEVELOPING. . ... .ADENOMATOUS. POLYPS... IN. ALL. AGE. GROUPS. AND 5%. MORE. INCIDENCES OF. INVASIVE. C. R. C....
History of breast cancer has been reported as a risk factor for colorectal cancer in women. In view of the ambiguous nature of existing evidence and the growing interest in targeted colorectal cancer prevention, we sought to quantify this risk.Observed colon and rectal cancer risk was compared with that expected in the general population.
The correct answer is, "A. True"
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What is your opinion of doing bilateral salpingo Oophorectomy at the time of hysterectomy. Coz patients are of the opinion that if they undergo Tubectomy,they will land with a BIGGER operation that is hysterectomy.therefore some people come asking to do a hysterectomy after child bearing. If only hysterectomy is done when indicated and later if they require laparotomy for ovarian cyst /tumour,patients question "why you didn't remove these appendages earlier. One patient had hysterectomy,followed by laparotomy again for an ovarian cyst,later another cyst on other side -third surgery .she again developed cystic mass in the pelvis for which she had fourth surgery . Though we leave ovaries ,their function gradually comes down after hysterectomy and they have PMS and osteoporosis. When I have to do a hysterectomy ,I remove the appendages if she is above 40 years and retain them if she is young. What are your opinionsDr. Suvarchala Pratap10 Likes21 Answers
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Friends today I am discussing about a very common problem faced by the females in there life at some stage of life. Menopause is the process through which a woman ceases to be fertile or menstruate. It is a normal part of life and is not considered a disease or a condition. Symptoms may occur years before a woman's final period. Some women may experience symptoms for months or years afterward. Despite being a natural process in the body of any woman, menopause can cause drastic changes that trigger severe symptoms. This article will explain the symptoms and causes of menopause, as well as how to diagnose and treat any symptoms that arise. Fast facts on menopause Menopause marks the end of a woman's fertility. Symptoms of menopause include night sweats, hot flashes, mood fluctuations, and cognitive changes. A reduction in estrogen levels can lead to the symptoms of menopause. There are a number of medical treatments and home remedies that can help with symptoms, including hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and self-management techniques. The average age of menopause in the United States (U.S.) is 51 years. Signs and symptoms Menopause hot flash woman fan Menopause is a natural change in the body. It causes symptoms such as hot flashes. While menopause is not a disease or disorder, it does trigger some profound changes in a woman's body. A diagnosis of menopause is confirmed when a woman has not had a menstrual period for one year. However, the symptoms of menopause generally appear before the end of that one-year period. Irregular periods Changes to the menstrual pattern are the first noticeable symptoms of menopause. Some women may experience a period every 2 to 3 weeks. Others will not menstruate for months at a time. Lower fertility Perimenopause is the 3-to-5-year period before menopause. During the perimenopausal stage, a woman's estrogen levels will drop significantly. This reduces her chances of becoming pregnant. Vaginal dryness Dryness, itching, and discomfort of the vagina tend to occur during perimenopause. As a result, some women may experience dyspareunia, or pain during sex . Women experience this pain due to lowering estrogen levels. These lower levels cause vaginal atrophy. Vaginal atrophy is an inflammation of the vagina that happens as a result of the thinning and shrinking of the tissues, as well as decreased lubrication. A hot flash is a sudden sensation of heat in the upper body. It may start in the face, neck, or chest, and progress upward or downward. The skin may become red and patchy, and a woman will typically start to sweat. Her heart rate may suddenly increase, strengthen, or become irregular. Hot flashes generally occur during the first year after a woman's final period. Night sweats Hot flashes that occur during the sleep cycle are called night sweats. Most women say their hot flashes do not last more than a few minutes. However, studies have confirmed that moderate-to-severe night sweats and hot flashes may pose a problem for around 10.2 years. Disturbed sleep It can be difficult for women to fall asleep and stay asleep as they progress through menopause. In some cases, night sweats can lead to discomfort during the night and difficulty sleeping. Sleep disturbance may also be caused by insomnia or anxiety. Urinary problems Menopause can disrupt a woman's urinary cycle. Women tend to be more susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs) during menopause, such as cystitis. They may also find that they also need to visit the toilet more often. Emotional changes Women can experience depression and low mood during menopause. Hormonal changes can often trigger depressed feelings and mood swings. In many cases, these emotional symptoms also go hand-in-hand with sleep disturbance. Women may also experience low libido, or sex drive, as a result of these emotional changes. Problems focusing and learning Menopause can affect cognitive functions, such as concentration. Some women may also experience short-term memory problems and difficulty focusing for long periods. Other effects Other symptoms of menopause include: a buildup of fat in the abdomen, sometimes leading to overweight and obesity hair loss and thinning hair breast shrinkage Without treatment, symptoms usually taper off over a period of 2 to 5 years. However, symptoms can persist for longer. In some cases, vaginal dryness, itching, and discomfort can become chronic and eventually get worse without treatment. Complications Menopause can lead to the development of complications, including: Cardiovascular disease: A drop in estrogen levels has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Osteoporosis: A woman may lose bone density rapidly during the first few years after menopause. Low bone density leads to a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Urinary incontinence: Menopause causes the tissues of the vagina and urethra to lose their elasticity. This can result in frequent, sudden, and overwhelming urges to urinate. These urges can be followed by involuntary loss of urine. Women may involuntarily urinate after coughing, sneezing, laughing, or lifting during menopause. Breast cancer: Women face a higher risk of breast cancer following menopause. Regular exercise can significantly reduce the risk. Treatment HRT menopause pills Treatment for menopausal symptoms can range from hormone replacement therapy to self-management. During menopause, women can pursue a number of treatments to maintain comfort. Most women do not seek medical advice during this time, and many women require no treatment. However, a woman should visit a doctor if symptoms are affecting her quality of life. Women should choose the type of therapy dependent on their menopausal symptoms, medical history, and personal preferences. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Women can keep the symptoms of menopause at bay by supplementing their estrogen and progestin levels. Hormone replacement therapy can be received through a simple patch on the skin. This patch releases estrogen and progestin. HRT is highly effective for many of the symptoms that occur during menopause. There are benefits to HRT, but be conscious of the risks: Benefits of HRT HRT effectively treats many troublesome menopausal symptoms. It can help prevent osteoporosis. HRT can lower the risk of colorectal cancer. Risks of HRT HRT raises the risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and uterine cancer. It increases the risk of coronary heart disease risk and stroke. Hormonal therapy slightly accelerates loss of tissue in the areas of the brain important for thinking and memory among women aged 65 years and over. Medicines There are other medicines available to help reduce the effects of menopause. Low-dose antidepressants Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to decrease menopausal hot flashes. Drugs include: venlafaxine (Effexor) fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) paroxetine (Paxil, others) citalopram (Celexa) Drug treatment for hot flashes Hot flashes can be treated using gabapentin, available under the brand name Neurontin, and clonidine, which is often sold as Catapres. Clonidine can be taken either orally as a pill or placed on the skin as a patch. It is effective in treating hot flashes, but unpleasant side effects are common, including constipation, dry eyes, and nightmares. Vaginal estrogen may be applied to the area as a tablet, ring, or cream. This medication effectively treats vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and some urinary problems. Moisturisers are available over-the-counter. Causes Aging woman A woman's estrogen levels drop during the aging process. A reduction in levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone triggers the effects of menopause. Estrogen regulates menstruation, and progesterone is involved with preparing the body for pregnancy. Perimenopause begins when the ovaries start producing less of these two hormones. By the time a woman reaches her late thirties, the ovaries start producing less progesterone and estrogen. Fertility starts to decline long before the onset of any menopausal or perimenopausal symptoms. The ovaries produce less estrogen and progesterone over time until they shut down completely. Menstruation will then stop completely. This change is gradual in most women, but some find that their menstrual cycle continues as normal and then suddenly stops. Ovaries tend to stop producing eggs after the age of 45 years, but they may cease production before then. This is known as premature menopause. Although rare, this can occur at any age. A number of underlying conditions can cause premature menopause, including: enzyme deficiencies Down's syndrome Turner's syndrome Addison's disease hypothyroidism Certain surgeries and procedures may also lead to premature ovarian failure, such as: surgery to remove the ovaries surgery to remove the womb radiotherapy to the pelvic area chemotherapy to the pelvic area There is no way to prevent menopause, but its symptoms and effects can be managed. Diagnosis A doctor should be able to diagnose menopause or perimenopause in a woman using her age, questions about her menstrual patterns, and feedback about any physical signs. The test works by measuring anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the blood, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This hormone is a marker of ovarian function. Used with other clinical evaluations and laboratory findings, it can give a better idea of a woman's menopausal status than was previously possible. The test may also help those who have symptoms of perimenopause, which is the stage before menopause. At this stage, too there may also be adverse health impacts. Early menopause is associated with a higher risk of: osteoporosis and fracture heart disease cognitive changes vaginal changes loss of libido mood changes Another types of test is for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). During menopause FSH levels rise. However, FSH is also not always a reliable indicator of menopause, as levels tend to fluctuate during menopause and perimenopause. Under certain circumstances, a doctor may order a blood test to determine the estrogen level. Low thyroid activity can cause similar symptoms to those seen in menopause, so a doctor may recommend a blood test to determine the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Self-management It is often possible to manage the symptoms of menopause without medical intervention. Exercise Exercise during menopause can have a range of benefits, including preventing weight gain, reducing cancer risk, protecting the bones, and boosting general mood. Pilates, for example, has shown great benefit in reducing all menopausal symptoms not related to the urinary system and genitals, including sleep problems and hot flashes. Women should exercise earlier in the day during menopause to avoid causing any interruptions to their sleep cycle. Kegel exercises can be useful for preventing urinary incontinence. These are exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor. Practicing 3 or 4 times a day can lead to a noticeable improvement in symptoms within months. Nutrition It is important to maintain a healthful and varied diet when managing the bodily effects of menopause. Researchers found that omega-3 may ease psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Omega-3 is available in foods such as oily fish. Supplements are also available. Women experiencing menopause should eat a well-balanced diet that includes: vegetables fruits whole grains unsaturated fats fiber unrefined carbohydrates Try to consume between 1,200 and 1,500 milligrams (mg) of calcium and plenty of vitamin D each day. Deep breathing techniques, guided meditation, and progressive relaxation can also help limit sleep disturbance. Stress can aggravate hot flashes and night sweats, so avoiding known stressors and practicing relaxation techniques can help these symptoms. Other steps to self-manage menopause symptoms There are a few ways for a woman to comfortably accommodate the effects of menopause: Avoid tight clothing. Limit the consumption of spicy food, caffeine, and alcohol. Stay sexually active to reduce vaginal dryness. Keep stress levels to a minimum, and get plenty of rest. Maintain a cool and comfortable temperature in the bedroom at night to minimize night sweats. Wake up and go to sleep at the same times every day to regulate the sleep cycle. Smoking can exacerbate symptoms, so avoiding it is important. Staying active and healthy and responding to symptoms rapidly can help a woman maintain a good quality of life during menopause. Primary Homoeopathic Remedies Graphites A woman who is chilly, pale, and sluggish—with trouble concentrating, and a tendency toward weight gain during or after menopause—is likely to respond to this remedy. Hot flushing and sweats at night are often seen. A person who needs this remedy may also have a tendency toward skin problems with oozing cracked eruptions, and be very slow to become alert when waking in the morning. Lachesis mutus This remedy relieves hot flashes from menopause, especially when hot flashes are relieved by sweating or the occurrence of periods. Sepia This remedy can be helpful if a woman's periods are sometimes late and scanty, but heavy and flooding at other times. Her pelvic organs can feel weak and sagging, and she may have a craving for vinegar or sour foods. Women who need this remedy usually feel dragged-out and weary, with an irritable detachment regarding family members, and a loss of interest in daily tasks. Exercise, especially dancing, may brighten up the woman's mood and improve her energy. Sulphur This remedy is often helpful for hot flashes and flushing during menopause, when the woman wakes in the early morning hours and throws the covers off. She may be very anxious, weep a lot, and worry excessively about her health. A person needing Sulphur often is mentally active (or even eccentric), inclined toward messy habits, and usually feels worse from warmth. Other Remedies Belladonna This remedy relieves hot flashes with profuse sweating and head congestion. Calcarea carbonica This remedy may be helpful to a woman with heavy flooding, night sweats and flushing (despite a general chilliness), as well as weight gain during menopause. People who need this remedy are usually responsible and hard-working, yet somewhat slow or plodding and can be easily fatigued. Anxiety may be strong, and overwork or stress may lead to temporary breakdown. Stiff joints or cramps in the legs and feet, and cravings for eggs and sweets are other indications for Calcarea. Glonoinum This relieves sudden hot flashes with throbbing headaches or congestion, aggravated by heat. Ignatia Ignatia is often helpful for emotional ups and downs occurring during menopause. The woman will be very sensitive, but may try to hide her feelings—seeming guarded and defensive, moody, or hysterical. Headaches, muscle spasms, and menstrual cramps can occur, along with irregular periods. A heavy feeling in the chest, a tendency to sigh and yawn, and sudden outbursts of tears or laughter are strong indications for Ignatia. Lilium tigrinum A woman likely to respond to this remedy feels hurried, anxious, and very emotional — with a tendency to fly into rages and make other people "walk on eggs." She often has a sensation of tightness in her chest, and a feeling as if her pelvic organs are pressing out, which can make her feel a need to sit a lot or cross her legs. Natrum muriaticum A woman who needs this remedy may seem reserved, but has strong emotions that she keeps inside. She often feels deep grief and may dwell on the loss of happy times from the past or brood about hurts and disappointments. During menopause, she can have irregular periods accompanied by backaches or migraines. A person who needs this remedy usually craves salt, and feels worse from being in the sun. Pulsatilla A person who needs this remedy is usually soft and emotional, with changeable moods and a tendency toward tears. Women are very attached to their families and find it hard to bear the thought of the children growing up and leaving home. They usually feel deeply insecure about getting older. A fondness for desserts and butter can often lead to weight problems. Changeable moods, irregular periods, queasy feelings, alternating heat and chills, and lack of thirst are common. Aggravation from stuffy rooms and improvement in open air may confirm the choice of Pulsatilla. Staphysagria A person who needs this remedy usually seems mild-mannered, shy, and accommodating, but has many suppressed emotions. Women around the time of menopause may become depressed, or have outbursts of unaccustomed rage (even throwing or breaking things). Many people needing Staphysagria have deferred to a spouse for many years, or have experienced abuse in childhood.Dr. Rajesh Gupta7 Likes13 Answers
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Sudden Cardiac Death Linked To Higher Thyroid Hormone Levels, Study Finds Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death among adults over the age of 40, according to the SCA Foundation . In reality, the number of annual deaths from SCA is roughly equivalent to combined casualties from Alzheimers disease , firearms assault, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer , diabetes, HIV, house fires, motor vehicle accidents, prostate cancer and suicides. A new study from the American Heart Association has found a potential way to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Researchers have revealed a correlation between sudden cardiac death and thyroid hormones , so doctors could use information about a patient's hormone use to determine a new risk factor. According to the new research, people with higher thyroid hormone levels were at higher risk of sudden cardiac death than patients with low levels Researchers suggest healthcare providers exercise discretion when treating patients with low thyroid hormones so that thyroid levels are not over treated."We know that a considerable proportion of patients on thyroid hormone replacement therapy are over-treated and so have high blood levels of thyroid hormone," Chaker said. "Our study suggests more caution is warranted in the treatment of thyroid hormone replacement. Replacement therapy is often aimed at the high normal range which carries a risk of overtreatment." Sudden cardiac death occurs when the heart’s normal electrical rhythm malfunctions, causing the vital organ to stop beating.Dr. Rummana Ansari10 Likes12 Answers
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Cancer in the Ovaries - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention medindia.net Sep 20, 2017 12:00 PM What is Ovarian Cancer? ￼ Ovarian Cancer It refers to cancer of ovaries. It is called the "Silent killer", as it is difficult to detect this cancer in the early stages. Ovarian cancer starts when cells inside, near or on the outer layer of the ovaries grow abnormally out of control. Ovarian cancer is the 5th most common cancer in women and the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths. The lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer in women is less than 2%; this risk is higher in women with a strong family history of ovarian and breast cancer. Cells are the basic units of all living organisms and form organs when they are grouped together. The term cancer indicates an uncontrollable division and growth of cells of a particular organ. The cancer cells thus produced are immature and non-functioning; they crowd out the normal functioning cells and cause disease of the body organ. What are Ovaries and What is their Function? The female reproductive system consists of internal organs such as the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries and fallopian tubes. The external structures include the breasts and labia. The ovaries are two small almond shaped organs that lie on either side of the uterus in a depression called the ovarian fossa. They are connected to the uterus by fallopian tubes which are hollow muscular tubes. The ovaries’ primary function is to store the ova (eggs) which a female child is born with; these ova reach maturity at puberty and every month one ovum is released during menstruation. The ova pass through the fallopian tubes into the uterus. The ovaries also produce estrogen and progesterone which are the female hormones. They regulate menstruation and development of sex organs. What are the Different Types of Ovarian Tumors? Ovaries contain 3 different types of cells: the epithelial cells, the germ cells and the stromal cells. Tumors can develop in any of these cells.Epithelial tumors: Epithelial tumors originate from the epithelial cells; this forms the outermost layer of the ovary. Epithelial cancers account for 90% of all ovarian cancers.Germ cell tumors: These tumors develop from the cells that produce the eggs.Stromal cell tumors: Ovarian stromal cells are structural tissue cells that hold the ovary together and produce the female hormones. Tumors arising from these stromal cells are called stromal tumors. Germ cell tumors and stromal tumors are quite rare. Other related cancers are - Primary peritoneal cancer is cancer that develops in cells from the peritoneum or abdominal lining. It is very similar in appearance, symptoms, and spread like the ovarian epithelial cancer as well as in treatment methods. Fallopian tube cancer is cancer that starts in the fallopian tubes and is also similar to the ovarian epithelial cancer in terms of symptoms and treatment methods. What are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer? The exact cause of development of ovarian cancer is still unknown. Risk factors have been found for epithelial ovarian cancers which are mentioned below; these do not apply for the other types of ovarian cancer. ￼ Age: Ovarian cancer is mainly seen in post-menopausal women, usually over 50 years of age.Reproductive history: Women who have never been pregnant or who have had their first full term pregnancy after 35 years of age are at a higher risk.Obesity: Women who are obese, with a BMI of > 30 are at an increased risk.Endometriosis is a condition when tissue that usually lines the inside of the uterus grows outside it, like in the ovaries or fallopian tubes.Drugs: Some studies have found that taking clomiphene citrate (a drug used in infertility treatment) for more than a year; taking male hormonal drugs (e.g. danazol) or post-menopausal women taking estrogen only hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for more than 5 years increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.Assisted reproductive technologies like in-vitro fertilizationFamily history of ovarian cancer: The risk of developing ovarian cancer increases if the woman’s first degree relative has had ovarian cancer. The risk increases with the number of relatives affected (both on the maternal and paternal side of family).Family cancer syndromes: There is a link between developing ovarian cancer and family history of other cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers. This is due to change (mutation) in the gene causing cancers; this gene is inherited among family members. Hereditary ovarian and breast cancer syndrome are caused by inherited mutations mainly in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; these mutated genes are also responsible for fallopian tube, pancreatic and peritoneal cancers. The lifetime ovarian cancer risk with BRCA1 mutation is between 35-70% and with BRCA2 mutation is 10-30%.Talcum powder: Using talcum powder over the genital area or on sanitary napkins (maybe due to the asbestos that used to be added to talcum powder prior to 1970s) has been shown to cause a slight increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.Smoking has been related to increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian cancer.Some of the ways to lower your risk factors are as follows:Women who have had their first full term pregnancy before 26 years of age or who had multiple full term pregnancies are at a lower risk to develop ovarian cancer.Breastfeeding helps to lower ovarian cancer risk as it prevents ovulation.Using birth control pills or depot injection also lowers ovarian cancer risk as it inhibits ovulation.Research has shown that women who had tubal ligation or a hysterectomy with conservation of ovaries are at a lower risk to develop ovarian cancer. Further studies are still needed to corroborate this fact. ￼ What are the Different Stages of Ovarian Cancer? Staging is the process of finding the extent of spread of cancer and is important as it will guide the diagnosis, treatment and the prognosis of the disease. Staging is done with the help of imaging and during surgery.Stage 1: The cancer is within the ovary/ovaries and/or the fallopian tube/tubes.Stage 2: The cancer is in one or both ovaries and/or fallopian tubes and has spread to other organs in the pelvis (uterus, urinary bladder, sigmoid colon or rectum).Stage 3: The cancer has spread beyond the pelvis to the lining of the abdomen or has spread to the lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen.Stage 4: The cancer has spread to distant organs like liver, spleen, lungs, brain or skin. What are the Signs and Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Ovarian cancer usually causes symptoms when the cancer has spread beyond the ovaries, although in some patients even early stage cancer can cause symptoms. They include:Abdominal bloatingUpper or lower abdominal painFeeling full despite eating smaller amounts of foodLoss of appetiteLoss of weightAcid refluxNausea, vomitingUrinary frequency or urgencyFatigueVaginal bleeding after menopauseMenstrual changesLow back painPainful sexual intercourseDiarrhea or constipationAbdominal swelling due to fluidAbdominal or pelvic mass (not fibroids) ￼ How is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed? If any of the symptoms are severe and occur frequently (more than 12 times/month), and is a change from a woman’s normal self, ovarian cancer needs to be ruled out.Medical history: A detailed history of symptoms, risk factors and family history should be taken.Physical examination: A detailed physical examination of the abdomen and pelvis helps to identify any tumorous growths or fluid in the abdomen.Imaging studies: A transvaginal ultrasound and an ultrasound of the abdomen are performed to identify pelvic or abdominal masses. MRI or CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis is performed to identify the extent and spread of the disease. A CT scan of the chest and/or positron emission tomography (PET) scan are performed to check if the cancer has spread to chest and other parts of the body.Tumor markers: Tumor markers or biomarkers are proteins found in abundance in cancer cells when compared to healthy cells. CA 125 (Cancer Antigen 125) is a protein found in ovarian cancer cells and is measured by a blood test. Some germ cell tumors cause increased levels of tumor markers such as Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Beta HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) and /or LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase).Some stromal cell cancers can increase the levels of estrogen, progesterone and a substance called inhibin.Blood tests include complete blood picture, liver function tests, kidney function tests and ESR.Laparoscopy: This is a procedure in which a doctor can look at the insides of the abdominal cavity. This is useful to confirm the diagnosis and the spread of the cancer.Colonoscopy: If the cancer has been found to spread to the large bowel, a colonoscopy is done to confirm the diagnosis and remove it.Tissue biopsy: A definitive diagnosis of cancer can be made by taking a small tissue sample from the tumor during surgery and studying it under the microscope. In rare cases (when the woman cannot have surgery due to ill health or in advanced cancer) the biopsy can be obtained during laparoscopy (or colonoscopy) and also from an ultrasound or CT scan guided percutaneous biopsy procedure. There are some concerns that cancer cells can spread through this type of tissue biopsy.Paracentesis: In patients with ascites, a small sample of fluid is aspirated through a needle attached to a syringe and studied for cancer cells.Genetic tests to identify inherited mutations in genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA 2 can be offered to women with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer. How is Ovarian Cancer Treated? Most of the ovarian tumors are benign tumors, which are non-cancerous and do not spread beyond the ovaries. These are usually treated by removing a part or the full ovary. Tumors that are cancerous are called malignant tumors and can spread beyond the ovaries to distant parts of the body. These are usually fatal if not treated appropriately. There are various types of treatments; the choice of treatment depends on the type and staging of cancer. Surgery: Surgery is the main treatment for majority of ovarian cancers. The affected ovary/ovaries along with the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and omentum are removed. ￼ Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is treatment of cancer by using two or more drugs. These are given intravenously or orally. Chemotherapy is often given after surgery to destroy any remnant cancer cells, to shrink the tumor or to relieve the patient of their symptoms. Gemcitabine, capecitabine, melphalan and other similar drugs are usually used. Targeted therapy: The metabolism of cancer cells is different from surrounding healthy cells. In targeted therapy, injected drugs attack only the cancer cells without destroying the healthy cells. Bevacizumab, olaparib, and rucaparib are commonly used. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy refers to destroying cancer cells by using high energy X-rays / particles. Radiotherapy is now not so commonly used and is usually given to women who are in advanced stages of cancer, who cannot undergo surgery, who have cancer recurrence after surgery or to relieve symptoms. Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy is use of hormones or hormone blocking drugs to destroy cancer cells. Commonly used drugs are anastrazole, exemestane, tamoxifen and goserelin. Newer therapies involving use of cytokines, chromatin remodeling proteins and immunomodulators are being tested as treatment options. Once the treatment is completed, patients should see their doctor every 3 months; this is done to identify recurrence of ovarian cancer or development of a new cancer (breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or leukemia) early on. The patient is examined and investigations such as tumor markers and imaging studies are performed as necessary. Health Tips Eating a well-balanced diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grain products and limiting red meat intake has been shown to prevent various types of cancers.Stopping smoking is beneficial for a healthy life.Exercise helps to improve physical and mental health.Practicing relaxation therapies or meditation helps to control stress and anxiety. Report a problemDr. Tapan Kumar Sau4 Likes7 Answers
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The Power of Beans, the Cancer Fighting Food food.ndtv.com Aug 21, 2017 3:28 PM ￼ Over six lakh people die every year in India and seven per cent of all deaths in India are due to various types of cancers, quoted by WHO reports of 2016. Loosing someone is never easy. In fact we would never want our close ones to get caught with such terrible diseases. Focusing on health may prevent our body from different types of cancers, as it is rightly said that it is better to be late than sorry. There are several foods that are known to help prevent risk of cancer, and one such incredible ingredient is beans. Beans are available in different varieties - pinto beans, black eyed peas, kidney beans, garbonzo beans, black beans and soya beans to name a few. Shilpa Arora, a renowned health instructor and nutritionist recommends darker beans as they are rich in phytonutrients and selenium that prevent inflammation and thus the growth of cancer cells. Beans, also known as legumes, are rich in three types of phytochemicals which fight against cancer. They are- Saponins: As per the lab tests, saponins are found with the ability to constrain the generation of cancer cells and slows the growth of tumors. Protease Inhibitors: It releases a substance called proteases that destroy the nearby cells which help to prevent tumors. Also, it slows down the division of cancer cells. Phytic Acid: Phytic acid slows down the progression of tumors. ￼ Beans contains a lot of antioxidants and cells which prevent cancer 5 Types of Cancer that May be Prevented by Beans 1. Prostate Cancer According to National Cancer Institute, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death by cancer in men. Prostate cancer develops in a gland in male reproductive part, prostate. Beans contain antioxidant components which fight the free radicals that can lead to oxidative damage on a cellular level, including cancer. As per the BBC reports, inositol pentakisphosphate, a compound in beans block tumor growth. 2. Colorectal Cancer Colorectal or colon cancer develops in the colon or rectum of large intestine. Beans rich with fibre and resistant starch enter large intestine where bacteria ferment them into a small chain of fatty acids such as butyrate. This acid performs number of cancer-preventive actions inside the colon such as increasing the production of detoxification enzymes and halting cancer cell growth. According to Polyp Prevention Trial, data indicated that eating more beans can prevent the recurrence of colon polyps. ￼ Inositol pentakisphosphate, a compound in beans block tumor growth; Image credit: Istock 3. Breast Cancer Beans have flavonoids and compounds which contain anti-cancer properties. According to American Institute for Cancer Research, "for every 10 grams of fiber (about a half cup of beans), breast cancer risk is decreased by seven percent". Data from Nurses Health Study of 2005 revealed that countries with the greatest consumption of beans had the lowest breast cancer mortality rates. 4. Renal (Kidney) Cancer Kidney cancer is also known as renal cancer. People suffering from this cancer need to strictly follow a healthy diet. Their diet should involve the most basic and beneficial items such as the green vegetables and fruits. A few vegetables such as beans, particularly play a massive role in terms of preventing the possibility of cancer. They are very important because they provide sufficient energy and nutrients to prevent deficiencies, help in optimising health, and reduce the risk of various diseases. ￼ Image credit: Istock 5. Gastric Cancer Gastric or stomach cancer are most common in our country. People with gastric cancer are recommended to have fiber and protein rich diet. As mentioned earlier, beans with more fiber can make gastric cancer patients feel full as suggested by doctors. Patients should avoid eating too much of it at a time. It is advisable to consume it with some soft and bland foods. The versatile functioning of this food may actually prevent risks of these five kinds of cancer. It is a big source of protein for vegetarians. Enjoy your bean diet with salads, tacos and rice. According to a renowned health coach Shilpa Arora, "along with beans, one should include more green veggies which in totality prevent cancer cell growth and leadsDr. Tapan Kumar Sau3 Likes7 Answers