Young stroke.2 miscarriage. Needs young stroke work up including vasculitis screening,ANA,ANA profile,test for thrombophilia including protein C ,protein S,antithrombin 111,cardiolipin ,beta 2 glycoprotein, fasting homocysteineANCA,Angiotensinconverting enzyme,MRI angiogram or CT angio,Cardiac evaluation. Inaddition to the present med add DVT prophylaxis,physio.Further management after the young stroke work up.
Long standing diabetic with on regular insulin Event of hemiplegia is CVA Known cerebrovascular complications of diabetics Here area involved is pan cerebral infarct as in periventricular and white matter in parietal temporal and occipital lobes lt side This pt can only be treated by conservative line Keeping vitals under control and bsl by regular insulin with titration 9f units As bsl are likely to rise as pt need to receive heavy doses of steroids and anticoagulants Inj clexan o.6bd Inj prednisolone 30mg iv inj solumedrol drip Inj Ceftriaxozone bd If any response seen start physiotherapy
This is stroke in young Need detail evaluation with underlying diabetes may be a risk factors Also need to look for any syndrome Clinical presentation slight different than of classical stroke, raised suspicion about same..!! Look for 2ndry causes leading to stroke
NEED'S.. NEUROLOGICAL EVALUATION & WORK OUT.. IN.. DETAILS.. ..WITH.. NEUROLOGISTS OPINION FOR.. MANAGEMENT..
Adv CT ANGIO and. Complete neuro workup required.
MR angio ...do a ANA profile cause stroke at that young age is unlikely. Also check for procoagulant states ...serum homocystiene levels.
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A 5 yr old girl presented with severe headache and vomiting for the past 4 hours. Her mother denies any history of trauma to the head. She seems to have limp in her gait recently, mainly supporting herself with her right leg. no delay in milestones. Has anemia since age 3 years. What is your opinion? What is diagnosis for marked area?Dr. Rajesh Hirani2 Likes21 Answers
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38yrs/M with K/c/o CAD with HTN was on irregular treatment for past 3mnths presented to casualty after 8hrs of onset of weakness of left sided upper and lower limbs along with Mild difficulty in breathing. O/e - Patient drowsy,arousable, localising pain,Pupils - B/l Assymetrical non reactive,Vitals unremarkable,CNS - Left sided hemiplegic, extensor plantar on left side,GCS - E3VAM4-5. KINDLY INTERPRET CT AND MRI BRAIN AND SUGGEST MANAGEMENT PLAN TOO?Dr. Prashant Ved1 Like16 Answers
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12yrs male child presented in ER in drowsy condition with complaints of Right sided hemiplegia,slurred speech,facial deviation,restlessness. This child has a Renal stone for 4yrs for which he is taking treatment in village.USG whole abdomen awaited. O/e - Afebrile,pupils B/l NS/NR,GCS-13/15 Bp - 180/90mmhg Pr - 92/mt Spo2 - 98% Chest - Clear,P/A - Soft non tender Diagnosis and suggest course of management please,What could be the reason for haemorrhage??Dr. Prashant Ved4 Likes24 Answers
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ABC OF : NAIL DISORDERS. ( I ). MAY BE USEFUL. *** ANONYCHIA is the absence of nails, an anomaly, which may be the result of a congenital ectodermal defect, ichthyosis, severe infection, severe allergic contact dermatitis, self-inflicted trauma, Raynaud phenomenon, lichen planus, epidermolysis bullosa, or severe exfoliative diseases....... *** PSORIASIS can also affect the fingernails and toenails, leading to thick fingernails with pitting, ridges in the nails, nail lifting away from the nail bed, and irregular contour of the nail....... *** LICHEN PLANUS of the nails can cause brittle or split nails, and the affected nails may have ridges running lengthwise....... *** FUNGAL nail infections are common infections of the fingernails or toenails that can cause the nail to become discolored, thick, and more likely to crack and break. Infections are more common in toenails than fingernails.....by some dermatophytes, Candida (Monilia) species, etc....... The technical name for a fungal nail infection is “ONYCHOMYCOSIS.”....... *** SPOON-SHAPED or spooning fingernails refers to a concavity in the fingernail itself, resulting in a depression in the nail that gives an appearance of a spoon shape to the entire nail. This growth disturbance in the nail is known as KOILONYCHIA....... In particular, koilonychias is associated with IRON DEFICIENCY. *** Fingernails are made by living skin cells....... So a skin condition such as eczema may lead to fingernail ridges. Skin dryness can also cause these ridges. If the body is low in protein, calcium, zinc.......or vitamin A, a deficiency can sometimes be revealed by ridges in the fingernails. ** HORIZONTAL RIDGES run from side to side on nails and are often referred to as BEAU'S LINES may be a sign of previous injury, underlying health conditions, or in rare cases, arsenic poisoning....... Horizontal ridges can be caused by trauma to the nail and may be deep or discolored. The can also indicate malnutrition, psoriasis or a thyroid problem....... ** VERTICAL RIDGES are usually harmless and a consequence of ageing.......nail injury, or trauma, or underlying medical conditions....... *** The ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIAS (EDs) are genetic disorders affecting the development or function of the teeth, hair, nails and sweat glands....... ** ED is not a single disorder, but a group of closely related conditions of which more than 150 different syndromes have been identified....... *** Nail CLUBBING, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs. ... Hippocrates was probably the first to document clubbing as a sign of disease, and the phenomenon is therefore occasionally called "Hippocratic fingers"..... ** Lung cancer is the most common cause of clubbing. Clubbing often occurs in heart and lung diseases that reduce the amount of oxygen in the blood. ... Heart defects that are present at birth (congenital) Chronic lung infections that occur in people with bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, or lung abscess....... *** While the NAIL BITING and picking seems to be such a common problem, the psychological and medical research does not agree on the exact motivation for the action. However, it suggests that nail biting can be the result of STRESS, VARIOUS MEDICAL DISORDERS, LEARNED BEHAVIORS, OR JUST PLAIN HABIT....... *** SPLINTER HEMORRHAGES : They run in the direction of nail growth. They are named splinter hemorrhages because they look like a splinter under the fingernail. The hemorrhages may be caused by tiny clots that damage the small capillaries under the nails. Splinter hemorrhages can occur with infection of the heart valves (endocarditis)....... *** YELLOW TOENAILS in an infection by a fungus that attacks the nails..... or, in some cases, they may be a sign of skin cancer. The fungal infection is caused most often by dermatophytes, which eat keratin to grow....... One of the MOST COMMON CAUSES of YELLOW NAILS is a FUNGAL INFECTION. As the infection worsens, the nail bed may retract, and nails may thicken and crumble. In rare cases, yellow nails can indicate a more serious condition such as SEVERE THYROID DISEASE, LUNG DISEASE, DIABETES or PSORIASIS....... *** WHILE NAILS ( LEUKONYCHIA ) : CAUSES : Iron deficiency anemia. Cirrhosis of liver. Kidney disease. Heart failure. Diabetes. Problems with the digestion of proteins. An excessive loss of proteins in the intestines. zinc deficiency........etc....... *** RED NAILS :- CAUSES : LUPUS patients get quirky, angular blood vessels in their nail folds. PSORIASIS starts in the nails up to 10 percent of the time and CAUSES SPLITTING and PITTING of the nail bed. HEART DISEASE can turn the nail beds red....... ** If the NAIL BED is RED, it could be caused by a high content of fatty acids and cholesterol, due to an excess of dairy products, sugar and salt in the diet. This can lead to an underactive liver and blocked arteries....... To keep the system healthy by replacing refined foods with wholegrain rice and bread, and flush out the system with plenty of fresh vegetables and at least five glasses of water a day....... *** HALF PINK and HALF WHITE nails can be a sign of kidney disease....... *** BRITTLE NAILS :- CAUSES : AGING. CHEMICAL/TOXIN EXPOSURE. LONG-TERM USE OF NAIL POLISH AND POLISH REMOVE. LOW HUMIDITY ENVIRONMENT. MALNUTRITION. NAIL-PATELLA SYNDROME. PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO WATER. TRAUMA. ** B complex vitamins (especially biotin), calcium, and zinc have all been implicated. There are other medical conditions which can cause brittle nails such as ANEMIA (low blood count), THYROID DISORDERS, and skin disorders such as LICHEN PLANUS and PSORIASIS. ** ONYCHOSCHIZIA includes splitting, brittle, soft or thin nails. Onychoschizia is MORE COMMON IN WOMEN. Only VERY RARELY are INTERNAL DISEASE or VITAMIN DEFICIENCIES the reason (IRON DEFICIENCY is the MOST COMMON).......Dr. Puranjoy Saha36 Likes33 Answers
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May be useful for General practitioners and Medical Students. Common Nail Findings associated with diseases. 1. BEAU'S Lines- These are transverse grooves or depressions parallel to the lunula. Caused by the conditions that cause the nail to grow slowly or even cease to grow for short intervals. The point of arrested growth is seen as a transverse groove. Often associated with - infections (Typhus, Acute Rheumatic Fever, AIDS) -Protein deficiency -Pellagra -Raynauds disease -Diabetes -Hypothyroidism -Hypocalcemia -Chronic Pancreatitis 2. MEES' Bands- White transverse line or band parallel to lunula resulting from poisoning or systemic illness.seen in -Chronic arsenic poisoning -Hodgkins disease -CHF -Leprosy 3. LINDSAY'S Nails- also called half & half nails. Proximal portion of Nail bed is whitish whereas distal part is red or pink. commonly associated with -Chronic Renal Failure -Azotemia 4. TERRY'S Nails - are white nail beds to within 1 to 2 mm of distal border of nail associated with -Hepatic Failure -Cirrhosis -Hypoalbuminemia -Chronic CHF -Hyoerthyroidism 5. SPLINTER HAEMORRHAGE. These are formed by extravasation of blood from longitudinal nail bed blood vessels to adjacent troughs. These are most often related to local, light trauma. Classically associated with -Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis. May be seen in -Leukemia -Vasculitis -Rheumatoid Arthritis -SLE 6. KOILONYCHIA - Spoon Nail is a dystrophic state in which the nail plate thins and a cup like depression. develops. Commonly associated with - Iron deficiency Anemia. 7. CLUBBING - Angle between the normal nail bed and finger is approx 160 degrees and nail bed is firm. This angle is referred to as LOVIBOND'S angle. When clubbing develops, this angle straightens out to be greater than 180 degrees & nail bed becomes spongy and has a bullous shape with exaggerated horizontal and longitudinal curvature. Most commonly associated with -Congenital Cyanotic Heart Disease -Cystic Fibrosis -Mesothelioma of Pleura -Pulmonary Neoplasms -Bronchogenic Carcinoma. 8. PITTING of Nails is seen in Psoriasis. SOURCE. TEXTBOOK OF PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS. MARK. H. SWARTZ.Dr. Majid Mustafa Sheikh30 Likes23 Answers