Oral Candidiasis

This is oral candidiasis, also called oral thrush, which is caused by a fungal infections involving the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent is Candida albicans ( but, can be C. glabrata Or C. tropicalis also)which actually is an asymptotic inhabitant in half of the healthy adults. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your “beneficial flora” and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans which may lead to an opportunistic infection. The mucosal surfaces primarily affected by candidiasis are the oral cavity, esophagus, angles of the mouth, and genitals. Overgrowth of Candida is protected against by local T cells and interleukin-17 Thus, when immunity is compromised, growth proceeds unchecked and leads to infection, notably in patients who are on immunosuppressive therapy, infected by HIV, or have diabetes. Candidiasis in the mouth, throat, or esophagus is usually treated with antifungal medications such as clotrimazole, miconazole, or nystatin. If treatment is not working amphotericin B may be used.

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Please accept our privacy terms Healthline.com uses cookies to improve your site experience and to show you personalized advertising. To learn more, please read our Privacy Policy. ACCEPTMore information SUBSCRIBE Everything You Need to Know About Oral Thrush  Medically reviewed by Karen Gill, M.D. — Written by Anna Giorgi — Updated on April 24, 2019 Symptoms Causes Is thrush contagious? Diagnosis Treatment Home remedies Pictures Breastfeeding Babies Adults Risk factors Complications Prevention Diet If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How this works. Share on Pinterest Overview Oral thrush happens when a yeast infection develops inside your mouth. It’s also known as oral candidiasis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, or simply thrush. Oral thrush most often occurs in infants and toddlers. It causes white or yellowish bumps to form on the inner cheeks and tongue. Those bumps usually go away with treatment. The infection is typically mild and rarely causes serious problems. But in people with weakened immune systems, it can spread to other parts of the body and cause potentially serious complications. Symptoms of oral thrush In its early stages, oral thrush may not cause any symptoms. But as the infection gets worse, one or more of the following symptoms may develop: white or yellow patches of bumps on your inner cheeks, tongue, tonsils, gums, or lips slight bleeding if the bumps are scraped soreness or burning in your mouth a cotton-like sensation in your mouth dry, cracked skin at the corners of your mouth difficulty swallowing a bad taste in your mouth a loss of taste In some cases, oral thrush can affect your esophagus, though this is uncommon. The same fungus that causes oral thrush can also cause yeast infections in other parts of your body. Learn more about the symptoms of oral thrush and other types of yeast infections. Causes of oral thrush Oral thrush and other yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans (C. albicans). It’s normal for a small amount of C. albicans to live in your mouth, without causing harm. When your immune system is working properly, beneficial bacteria in your body help keep C. albicans under control. But if your immune system is compromised or the balance of microorganisms in your body is disrupted, the fungus can grow out of control. You may develop an overgrowth of C. albicans that causes oral thrush if you take certain medications that reduce the number of friendly microorganisms in your body, such as antibiotics. Cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can also damage or kill healthy cells. This makes you more susceptible to oral thrush and other infections. Conditions that weaken your immune system, such as leukemia and HIV, also increase the risk of developing oral thrush. Oral thrush is a common opportunistic infection in people with HIV. Diabetes can contribute to oral thrush as well. Uncontrolled diabetes weakens your immune system and causes high blood sugar levels. This creates favorable conditions for C. albicans to grow. Is oral thrush contagious? If you have oral thrush, it’s possible to pass the fungus that causes this condition on to someone else if you kiss them. In some cases, that person might develop oral thrush. The fungus that causes oral thrush also causes yeast infections in other body parts. It’s possible for you to pass the fungus from one part of your body to another part of someone else’s body. If you have oral thrush, a vaginal yeast infection, or a penile yeast infection, you can potentially pass the fungus to your partner through vaginal sex, anal sex, or oral sex. If you’re pregnant and you have a vaginal yeast infection, you can potentially pass the fungus to your baby during delivery. If you have a breast yeast infection or nipple yeast infection, you can pass the fungus to your baby while breastfeeding. Your baby can also transmit the fungus to you if they breastfeed when they have oral thrush. When C. albicans is passed from one person to another, it doesn’t always cause oral thrush or other types of yeast infection. Also, because C. albicans is so common in our environment, developing a yeast infection does not mean you necessarily caught it from someone else. Learn about some of the factors that can raise your risk of developing an infection when someone passes this fungus to you. Diagnosis of oral thrush Your doctor may be able to diagnose oral thrush simply by examining your mouth for the characteristic bumps that it causes. In some cases, your doctor may take a biopsy of the affected area to confirm the diagnosis. To perform a biopsy, they will scrape off a small portion of a bump from your mouth. The sample will then be sent to a laboratory to be tested for C. albicans. If your doctor suspects that you have oral thrush in your esophagus, they may use a throat swab culture or endoscopy to confirm the diagnosis. To perform a throat swab culture, your doctor uses a cotton swab to take a tissue sample from the back of your throat. They then send this sample to a laboratory for testing. To perform endoscopy, your doctor uses a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it. They insert this “endoscope” through your mouth and into your esophagus to examine it. They may also remove a sample of tissue for analysis. Treatment for oral thrush To treat oral thrush, your doctor may prescribe one or more of the following medications: fluconazole (Diflucan), an oral antifungal medication clotrimazole (Mycelex Troche), an antifungal medication that’s available as a lozenge nystatin (Nystop, Nyata), an antifungal mouthwash that you can swish in your mouth or swab in your baby’s mouth itraconazole (Sporanox), an oral antifungal medication that’s used to treat people who don’t respond to other treatments for oral thrush and people with HIV amphotericin B (AmBisome, Fungizone), a medication that’s used to treat severe cases of oral thrush Once you begin treatment, oral thrush usually goes away within a couple of weeks. But in some cases, it can return. For adults who have recurring cases of oral thrush with no known cause, their healthcare provider will evaluate them for underlying medical conditions that might be contributing to thrush. Infants may have several episodes of oral thrush in their first year of life. @Kumar Himanshu @Manoj Maurya

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Thnx dr for sharing..

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@ candidial thrush

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