Wonderful post again dear Sunil. Everyone should go through this post which is very important in day to day practice. Nice summary dear Sunil. Thanks again for your valuable share. Keep going on and on.
NICE ILLUSTRATION OPHTGALMIC MANIFESTIONS OF THROTOXICOSIS NO SIGNS LID RETACTION SOFT TISSUE SWELLING CHARACTERISED BY PROPTOSIS CORNEAL INVOLEMENT VISUAL LOSS DUE TO OPTIC NEUROPATHY FEATURES OF THYROTOXICOSIS ARE PALPATATATIONS TREMORS SWEATING WEIGHT LOSS DIAHROEA INCREASED APETITE
Nicely elaborated common thyroid problems In a glance and their complications, treatment and their importance . Thanks for the post
Respected Dr.,what do you think about,nowadays in cities especially 80-90 %(not in rurals) of females are suffering from hypothyroidism,(as if flood )may be some hidden factor is triggering this disorder.do you agree with me or not .thank you Dr. for giving detailed and easy description on thyroid disorder.
Very nice update on thyroid
Thank u sir .
Good summarized about THYROID
Nice post Dr Sunilkumar,well explained!
Thanks ji Doctor Saheb for your valuable information...no stress... pomegranat es... for hormones balancing...til jeera...greens...rock salt... nutritious diet... only alkaline diet...helps also please.. thanks ji
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Autoimmune Diseases: Types, Symptoms, Causes and More........Check it Out...! ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------- What is an autoimmune disease? An autoimmune disease is a condition in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your body. The immune system normally guards against germs like bacteria and viruses. When it senses these foreign invaders, it sends out an army of fighter cells to attack them. Normally, the immune system can tell the difference between foreign cells and your own cells. In an autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakes part of your body — like your joints or skin — as foreign. It releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells. Some autoimmune diseases target only one organ. Type 1 diabetes damages the pancreas. Other diseases, like lupus, affect the whole body. CAUSES Why does the immune system attack the body? Doctors don’t know what causes the immune system misfire. Yet some people are more likely to get an autoimmune disease than others. Women get autoimmune diseases at a rate of about 2 to 1 compared to men — 6.4 percent of women vs. 2.7 percent of men . Often the disease starts during a woman’s childbearing years (ages 14 to 44). Some autoimmune diseases are more common in certain ethnic groups. For example, lupus affects more African-American and Hispanic people than Caucasians. Certain autoimmune diseases, like multiple sclerosis and lupus, run in families. Not every family member will necessarily have the same disease, but they inherit a susceptibility to an autoimmune condition. Because the incidence of autoimmune diseases is rising, researchers suspect environmental factors like infections and exposures to chemicals or solvents might also be involved . A “Western” diet is another suspected trigger. Eating high-fat, high-sugar, and highly processed foods is linked to inflammation, which might set off an immune response. However, this hasn’t been proven . Another theory is called the hygiene hypothesis. Because of vaccines and antiseptics, children today aren’t exposed to as many germs as they were in the past. The lack of exposure could make their immune system overreact to harmless substances . BOTTOM LINE: Researchers don’t know exactly what causes autoimmune diseases. Diet, infections, and exposure to chemicals might be involved. COMMON AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES 14 common autoimmune diseases There are more than 80 different autoimmune diseases . Here are 14 of the most common ones. 1. Type 1 diabetes The pancreas produces the hormone insulin, which helps regulate blood sugar levels. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. High blood sugar can damage blood vessels, as well as organs like the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the immune system attacks the joints. This attack causes redness, warmth, soreness, and stiffness in the joints. Unlike osteoarthritis, which affects people as they get older, RA can start as early as your 30s . 3. Psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis Skin cells normally grow and then shed when they’re no longer needed. Psoriasis causes skin cells to multiply too quickly. The extra cells build up and form red, scaly patches called scales or plaques on the skin. About 30 percent of people with psoriasis also develop swelling, stiffness, and pain in their joints . This form of the disease is called psoriatic arthritis. 4. Multiple sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) damages the myelin sheath — the protective coating that surrounds nerve cells. Damage to the myelin sheath affects the transmission of messages between your brain and body. This damage can lead to symptoms like numbness, weakness, balance issues, and trouble walking. The disease comes in several forms, which progress at different rates. About 50 percent of people with MS need help walking within 15 years after getting the disease. 5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) Although doctors in the 1800s first described lupus as a skin disease because of the rash it produces, it actually affects many organs, including the joints, kidneys, brain, and heart . Joint pain, fatigue, and rashes are among the most common symptoms. 6. Inflammatory bowel disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term used to describe conditions that cause inflammation in the lining of the intestines. Each type of IBD affects a different part of the GI tract. Crohn’s disease can inflame any part of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus. Ulcerative colitis affects only the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. 7. Addison’s disease Addison’s disease affects the adrenal glands, which produce the hormones cortisol and aldosterone. Having too little of these hormones can affect the way the body uses and stores carbohydrates and sugar. Symptoms include weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood sugar. 8. Graves’ disease Graves’ disease attacks the thyroid gland in the neck, causing it to produce too much of its hormones. Thyroid hormones control the body’s energy usage, or metabolism. Having too much of these hormones revs up your body’s activities, causing symptoms like nervousness, a fast heartbeat, heat intolerance, and weight loss. One common symptom of this disease is bulging eyes, called exophthalmos. It affects up to 50 percent of people with Graves’ disease . 9. Sjögren’s syndrome This condition attacks the joints, as well as glands that provide lubrication to the eyes and mouth. The hallmark symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome are joint pain, dry eyes, and dry mouth. 10. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, thyroid hormone production slows. Symptoms include weight gain, sensitivity to cold, fatigue, hair loss, and swelling of the thyroid (goiter). 11. Myasthenia gravis Myasthenia gravis affects nerves that help the brain control the muscles. When these nerves are impaired, signals can’t direct the muscles to move. The most common symptom is muscle weakness that gets worse with activity and improves with rest. Often muscles that control swallowing and facial movements are involved. 12. Vasculitis Vasculitis happens when the immune system attacks blood vessels. The inflammation that results narrows the arteries and veins, allowing less blood to flow through them. 13. Pernicious anemia This condition affects a protein called intrinsic factor that helps the intestines absorb vitamin B-12 from food. Without this vitamin, the body can’t make enough red blood cells. Pernicious anemia is more common in older adults. It affects 0.1 percent of people in general, but nearly 2 percent of people over age 60 . 14. Celiac disease People with celiac disease can’t eat foods containing gluten — a protein found in wheat, rye, and other grain products. When gluten is in the intestine, the immune system attacks it and causes inflammation. Celiac disease affects about 1 percent of people in the United States . A larger number of people have gluten sensitivity, which isn’t an autoimmune disease, but can have similar symptoms like diarrhea and abdominal pain. SYMPTOMS Autoimmune disease symptoms The early symptoms of many autoimmune diseases are very similar, such as: fatigue achy muscles swelling and redness low-grade fever trouble concentrating numbness and tingling in the hands and feet hair loss skin rashes Individual diseases can also have their own unique symptoms. For example, type 1 diabetes causes extreme thirst, weight loss, and fatigue. IBD causes belly pain, bloating, and diarrhea. With autoimmune diseases like psoriasis or RA, symptoms come and go. Periods of symptoms are called flare-ups. Periods when the symptoms go away are called remissions. BOTTOM LINE: Symptoms like fatigue, muscle aches, swelling, and redness could be signs of an autoimmune disease. Often symptoms come and go over time. SEE A DOCTOR When to see a doctor See a doctor if you have symptoms of an autoimmune disease. You might need to visit a specialist, depending on the type of disease you have. Rheumatologists treat joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome. Gastroenterologists treat diseases of the GI tract, such as celiac and Crohn’s disease. Endocrinologists treat conditions of the glands, including Graves’ and Addison’s disease. Dermatologists treat skin conditions such as psoriasis. DIAGNOSIS Tests that diagnose autoimmune diseases No single test can diagnose most autoimmune diseases. Your doctor will use a combination of tests and an assessment of your symptoms to diagnose you. The antinuclear antibody test (ANA) is often the first test that doctors use when symptoms suggest an autoimmune disease. A positive test means you likely have one of these diseases, but it won’t confirm exactly which one you have. Other tests look for specific autoantibodies produced in certain autoimmune diseases. Your doctor might also do tests to check for the inflammation these diseases produce in the body. BOTTOM LINE: A positive ANA blood test can show that you have an autoimmune disease. Your doctor can use your symptoms and other tests to confirm the diagnosis. TREATMENT How are autoimmune diseases treated? Treatments can’t cure autoimmune diseases, but they can control the overactive immune response and bring down inflammation. Drugs used to treat these conditions include: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) and naproxen (Naprosyn) immune-suppressing drugs Treatments are also available to relieve symptoms like pain, swelling, fatigue, and skin rashes. Eating a well-balanced diet and getting regular exercise can also help you feel better. BOTTOM LINE: The main treatment for autoimmune diseases is with medications that bring down inflammation and calm the overactive immune response. Treatments can also help relieve symptoms. BOTTOM LINE The bottom line More than 80 different autoimmune diseases exist. Often their symptoms overlap, making them hard to diagnose. Autoimmune diseases are more common in women, and they often run in families. Blood tests that look for autoantibodies can help doctors diagnose these conditions. Treatments include medicines to calm the overactive immune response and bring down inflammation in the body.Dr. V Srivastava6 Likes6 Answers
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27 year male epigastric / chest discomfort weakness anxiety tachycardia Lean & thin built can't tolerate cold wt. loss please guideDr. Rajendra Bagadia4 Likes8 Answers
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I saw a 17 year old girl 165 cm tall weighing 55 kg (BMI 20.2) - reasonably fit and energetic - doing well academically. She was diagnosed to have a subclinical hypothyroid state in 2017 (see reports) and was observed. Interim, she was diagnosed to have PCOD with minor menstrual irregularities. She has atopy with high IgE and sensitivity to dust and cold. A follow up TSH and FT4 done recently (see reports) showed slight worsening of values and anti-TPO came out to be rather high. She has a lowish Hb 12.3 of normocytic normochromic type. Does this girl need to be treated with replacement LT4? If no, how frequently should her TFT's be monitored? If yes, what dose of LT4 would you start with?Dr. Debashis Chatterjee1 Like4 Answers
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Friends today I am discussing about a problem known as Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy. Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that affects the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck that makes thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones control how your body uses energy, so they affect the way nearly every organ in your body works—even the way your heart beats. The thyroid is a small gland in your neck that makes thyroid hormones. Sometimes the thyroid makes too much or too little of these hormones. Too much thyroid hormone is called hyperthyroidism and can cause many of your body’s functions to speed up. “Hyper” means the thyroid is overactive. Too little thyroid hormone is called hypothyroidism and can cause many of your body’s functions to slow down. “Hypo” means the thyroid is underactive. If you have thyroid problems, you can still have a healthy pregnancy and protect your baby’s health by having regular thyroid function tests and taking any medicines that your doctor prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of your baby’s brain and nervous system. During the first trimester—the first 3 months of pregnancy—your baby depends on your supply of thyroid hormone, which comes through the placenta . At around 12 weeks, your baby’s thyroid starts to work on its own, but it doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone until 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy. Two pregnancy-related hormones—human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen—cause higher measured thyroid hormone levels in your blood. The thyroid enlarges slightly in healthy women during pregnancy, but usually not enough for a health care professional to feel during a physical exam. Thyroid problems can be hard to diagnose in pregnancy due to higher levels of thyroid hormones and other symptoms that occur in both pregnancy and thyroid disorders. Some symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism are easier to spot and may prompt your doctor to test you for these thyroid diseases. Another type of thyroid disease, postpartum thyroiditis, can occur after your baby is born. Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy Some signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism often occur in normal pregnancies, including faster heart rate, trouble dealing with heat, and tiredness. Other signs and symptoms can suggest hyperthyroidism: fast and irregular heartbeat shaky hands unexplained weight loss or failure to have normal pregnancy weight gain Causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is usually caused by Graves’ disease and occurs in 1 to 4 of every 1,000 pregnancies in the United States.1 Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder. With this disease, your immune system makes antibodies that cause the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone. This antibody is called thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin, or TSI. Graves’ disease may first appear during pregnancy. However, if you already have Graves’ disease, your symptoms could improve in your second and third trimesters. Some parts of your immune system are less active later in pregnancy so your immune system makes less TSI. This may be why symptoms improve. Graves’ disease often gets worse again in the first few months after your baby is born, when TSI levels go up again. If you have Graves’ disease, your doctor will most likely test your thyroid function monthly throughout your pregnancy and may need to treat your hyperthyroidism.1 Thyroid hormone levels that are too high can harm your health and your baby’s. Pregnant woman having her blood drawn If you have Graves’ disease, your doctor will most likely test your thyroid function monthly during your pregnancy. Rarely, hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is linked to hyperemesis gravidarum —severe nausea and vomiting that can lead to weight loss and dehydration. Experts believe this severe nausea and vomiting is caused by high levels of hCG early in pregnancy. High hCG levels can cause the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone. This type of hyperthyroidism usually goes away during the second half of pregnancy. Less often, one or more nodules, or lumps in your thyroid, make too much thyroid hormone. Untreated hyperthyroidism during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage premature birth low birthweight preeclampsia—a dangerous rise in blood pressure in late pregnancy thyroid storm—a sudden, severe worsening of symptoms congestive heart failure Rarely, Graves’ disease may also affect a baby’s thyroid, causing it to make too much thyroid hormone. Even if your hyperthyroidism was cured by radioactive iodine treatment to destroy thyroid cells or surgery to remove your thyroid, your body still makes the TSI antibody. When levels of this antibody are high, TSI may travel to your baby’s bloodstream. Just as TSI caused your own thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone, it can also cause your baby’s thyroid to make too much. Tell your doctor if you’ve had surgery or radioactive iodine treatment for Graves’ disease so he or she can check your TSI levels. If they are very high, your doctor will monitor your baby for thyroid-related problems later in your pregnancy. An overactive thyroid in a newborn can lead to a fast heart rate, which can lead to heart failure early closing of the soft spot in the baby’s skull poor weight gain irritability Sometimes an enlarged thyroid can press against your baby’s windpipe and make it hard for your baby to breathe. If you have Graves’ disease, your health care team should closely monitor you and your newborn. How do doctors diagnose hyperthyroidism in pregnancy? Your doctor will review your symptoms and do some blood tests to measure your thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor may also look for antibodies in your blood to see if Graves’ disease is causing your hyperthyroidism. Learn more about thyroid tests and what the results mean. How do doctors treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy? If you have mild hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, you probably won’t need treatment. If your hyperthyroidism is linked to hyperemesis gravidarum, you only need treatment for vomiting and dehydration. If your hyperthyroidism is more severe, your doctor may prescribe antithyroid medicines, which cause your thyroid to make less thyroid hormone. This treatment prevents too much of your thyroid hormone from getting into your baby’s bloodstream. You may want to see a specialist, such as an endocrinologist or expert in maternal-fetal medicine, who can carefully monitor your baby to make sure you’re getting the right dose. Doctors most often treat pregnant women with the antithyroid medicine propylthiouracil (PTU) during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Another type of antithyroid medicine, methimazole , is easier to take and has fewer side effects, but is slightly more likely to cause serious birth defects than PTU. Birth defects with either type of medicine are rare. Sometimes doctors switch to methimazole after the first trimester of pregnancy. Some women no longer need antithyroid medicine in the third trimester. Small amounts of antithyroid medicine move into the baby’s bloodstream and lower the amount of thyroid hormone the baby makes. If you take antithyroid medicine, your doctor will prescribe the lowest possible dose to avoid hypothyroidism in your baby but enough to treat the high thyroid hormone levels that can also affect your baby. Antithyroid medicines can cause side effects in some people, including allergic reactions such as rashes and itching rarely, a decrease in the number of white blood cells in the body, which can make it harder for your body to fight infection liver failure, in rare cases Stop your antithyroid medicine and call your doctor right away if you develop any of these symptoms while taking antithyroid medicines: yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes, called jaundice dull pain in your abdomen constant sore throat fever If you don’t hear back from your doctor the same day, you should go to the nearest emergency room. You should also contact your doctor if any of these symptoms develop for the first time while you’re taking antithyroid medicines: increased tiredness or weakness loss of appetite skin rash or itching easy bruising If you are allergic to or have severe side effects from antithyroid medicines, your doctor may consider surgery to remove part or most of your thyroid gland. The best time for thyroid surgery during pregnancy is in the second trimester. Radioactive iodine treatment is not an option for pregnant women because it can damage the baby’s thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy Symptoms of an underactive thyroid are often the same for pregnant women as for other people with hypothyroidism. Symptoms include extreme tiredness trouble dealing with cold muscle cramps severe constipation problems with memory or concentration Woman with a coat shivering outdoors You may have symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as trouble dealing with cold. Most cases of hypothyroidism in pregnancy are mild and may not have symptoms. What causes hypothyroidism in pregnancy? Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is usually caused by Hashimoto’s disease and occurs in 2 to 3 out of every 100 pregnancies.1 Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune disorder. In Hashimoto’s disease, the immune system makes antibodies that attack the thyroid, causing inflammation and damage that make it less able to make thyroid hormones. How can hypothyroidism affect me and my baby? Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to preeclampsia—a dangerous rise in blood pressure in late pregnancy anemia miscarriage low birthweight stillbirth congestive heart failure, rarely These problems occur most often with severe hypothyroidism. Because thyroid hormones are so important to your baby’s brain and nervous system development, untreated hypothyroidism—especially during the first trimester—can cause low IQ and problems with normal development. How do doctors diagnose hypothyroidism in pregnancy? Your doctor will review your symptoms and do some blood tests to measure your thyroid hormone levels. Your doctor may also look for certain antibodies in your blood to see if Hashimoto’s disease is causing your hypothyroidism. Learn more about thyroid tests and what the results mean. How do doctors treat hypothyroidism during pregnancy? Treatment for hypothyroidism involves replacing the hormone that your own thyroid can no longer make. Your doctor will most likely prescribe levothyroxine , a thyroid hormone medicine that is the same as T4, one of the hormones the thyroid normally makes. Levothyroxine is safe for your baby and especially important until your baby can make his or her own thyroid hormone. Your thyroid makes a second type of hormone, T3. Early in pregnancy, T3 can’t enter your baby’s brain like T4 can. Instead, any T3 that your baby’s brain needs is made from T4. T3 is included in a lot of thyroid medicines made with animal thyroid, such as Armour Thyroid, but is not useful for your baby’s brain development. These medicines contain too much T3 and not enough T4, and should not be used during pregnancy. Experts recommend only using levothyroxine (T4) while you’re pregnant. Some women with subclinical hypothyroidism—a mild form of the disease with no clear symptoms—may not need treatment. Pregnant woman with a pill in one hand and a glass of water in the other Your doctor may prescribe levothyroxine to treat your hypothyroidism. If you had hypothyroidism before you became pregnant and are taking levothyroxine, you will probably need to increase your dose. Most thyroid specialists recommend taking two extra doses of thyroid medicine per week, starting right away. Contact your doctor as soon as you know you’re pregnant. Your doctor will most likely test your thyroid hormone levels every 4 to 6 weeks for the first half of your pregnancy, and at least once after 30 weeks.1 You may need to adjust your dose a few times. Postpartum Thyroiditis What is postpartum thyroiditis? Postpartum thyroiditis is an inflammation of the thyroid that affects about 1 in 20 women during the first year after giving birth1 and is more common in women with type 1 diabetes. The inflammation causes stored thyroid hormone to leak out of your thyroid gland. At first, the leakage raises the hormone levels in your blood, leading to hyperthyroidism. The hyperthyroidism may last up to 3 months. After that, some damage to your thyroid may cause it to become underactive. Your hypothyroidism may last up to a year after your baby is born. However, in some women, hypothyroidism doesn’t go away. Not all women who have postpartum thyroiditis go through both phases. Some only go through the hyperthyroid phase, and some only the hypothyroid phase. What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis? The hyperthyroid phase often has no symptoms—or only mild ones. Symptoms may include irritability, trouble dealing with heat, tiredness, trouble sleeping, and fast heartbeat. Symptoms of the hypothyroid phase may be mistaken for the “baby blues”—the tiredness and moodiness that sometimes occur after the baby is born. Symptoms of hypothyroidism may also include trouble dealing with cold; dry skin; trouble concentrating; and tingling in your hands, arms, feet, or legs. If these symptoms occur in the first few months after your baby is born or you develop postpartum depression , talk with your doctor as soon as possible. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? Postpartum thyroiditis is an autoimmune condition similar to Hashimoto’s disease. If you have postpartum thyroiditis, you may have already had a mild form of autoimmune thyroiditis that flares up after you give birth. Woman holding her baby. Postpartum thyroiditis may last up to a year after your baby is born. How do doctors diagnose postpartum thyroiditis? If you have symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis, your doctor will order blood tests to check your thyroid hormone levels. How do doctors treat postpartum thyroiditis? The hyperthyroid stage of postpartum thyroiditis rarely needs treatment. If your symptoms are bothering you, your doctor may prescribe a beta-blocker, a medicine that slows your heart rate. Antithyroid medicines are not useful in postpartum thyroiditis, but if you have Grave’s disease, it may worsen after your baby is born and you may need antithyroid medicines. You’re more likely to have symptoms during the hypothyroid stage. Your doctor may prescribe thyroid hormone medicine to help with your symptoms. If your hypothyroidism doesn’t go away, you will need to take thyroid hormone medicine for the rest of your life. Is it safe to breastfeed while I’m taking beta-blockers, thyroid hormone, or antithyroid medicines? Certain beta-blockers are safe to use while you’re breastfeeding because only a small amount shows up in breast milk. The lowest possible dose to relieve your symptoms is best. Only a small amount of thyroid hormone medicine reaches your baby through breast milk, so it’s safe to take while you’re breastfeeding. However, in the case of antithyroid drugs, your doctor will most likely limit your dose to no more than 20 milligrams (mg) of methimazole or, less commonly, 400 mg of PTU. Thyroid Disease and Eating During Pregnancy What should I eat during pregnancy to help keep my thyroid and my baby’s thyroid working well? Because the thyroid uses iodine to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for you while you’re pregnant. During pregnancy, your baby gets iodine from your diet. You’ll need more iodine when you’re pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day.1 Good sources of iodine are dairy foods, seafood, eggs, meat, poultry, and iodized salt—salt with added iodine. Experts recommend taking a prenatal vitamin with 150 micrograms of iodine to make sure you’re getting enough, especially if you don’t use iodized salt.1 You also need more iodine while you’re breastfeeding since your baby gets iodine from breast milk. However, too much iodine from supplements such as seaweed can cause thyroid problems. Talk with your doctor about an eating plan that’s right for you and what supplements you should take. Learn more about a healthy diet and nutrition during pregnancy . Homeopathy provides remedies which treat not just the above symptoms but the person as a whole. Sepia Officinalis: Used when the patient presents with the following symptoms. Weak, slightly yellow appearance Tendency to faint, especially when in cold temperatures Extreme intolerance to cold, even in warm surroundings Increased irritability Hair loss Increased menstrual flow that occurs ahead of schedule Constipation Increased desire for pickles and acidic foodstuff Calcarea Carbonica: This popular medicine is useful when patients present with the following symptoms. Fat, flabby, fair person Increased intolerance to cold Excessive sweating, especially in the head Aversion to fatty foods Peculiar food habits including craving for eggs, chalk, pencils, lime, Increased menstruation that is also prolonged and is associated with feet turning cold Lycopodium Clavatum: Useful in patients who present with these symptoms: Physically weakened Increased irritability Excessive hair fall Face is pale yellow with blue circles around the eyes Craving for foods that are hot and sweet Acidity that is worse in the evenings Gastric issues including excessive flatulence Constipation with painful, hard, incomplete stooling Graphites: Presenting symptoms where Graphites are mainly used include: Obesity Intolerance to cold Depressed emotionally, timid, indecisive, weeping, listening to music Bloated, gassy abdomen Chronic constipation with hard, painful stooling process Lodium: Good appetite but lose weight quickly Tendency to eat at regular intervals Excessive warmth and need to stay in a cool environment Anxiety about present Excessive palpitations Lachesis Mutus: These patient present with the following symptoms: Feeling extremely hot, so inability to wear tight clothes Generally sad with no inclination to do any work Tendency to stay aloof and alone Excessive talkativeness Women around menopausal ageDr. Rajesh Gupta15 Likes30 Answers
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*Hypothyroidism* *☝ all about☝* – also called underactive thyroid – is the most common thyroid disorder. It happens when your thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough thyroid hormone, which is essential because thyroid hormone helps regulate important body processes, such as your metabolism. But with low thyroid function, these body processes slow down. Pathophysiology The hormones produced by the thyroid gland are T3 and T4. These hormones have an action on almost all parts of the body. The secretion of these hormones is regulated by TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone that is secreted by the pituitary gland. The secretion of thyroid hormone occurs only from this particular gland. The presence of iodine and amino acid tyrosine are a must for the production of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism and low levels of the thyroid hormones can occur if there is a deficiency of iodine for thyroid or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The hypothalamus of the brain secretes TRH thyroid releasing hormone which acts on the pituitary gland and initiates the release of TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone. TSH then acts directly on the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones T3 and T4. The normal functioning of the thyroid (healthy thyroid) is regulated by negative feedback mechanism where the levels of thyroid hormones increase or decrease under the influence of TSH. Causes Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: This autoimmune disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Medications: Certain medications, such as lithium, can cause hypothyroidism. Pregnancy: Hypothyroidism can develop during or after pregnancy. Treatment for hyperthyroidism: People who have hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) are treated with radioactive iodine therapy, which impairs thyroid function and can cause hypothyroidism. Thyroid surgery: If your thyroid gland is removed, you can’t make thyroid hormone, so you’ll need to take thyroid hormone replacement. Radiation therapy: Radiation used for the treatment of cancer in the head or neck, lymphoma, or leukemia, may slow or halt the production of thyroid hormone. This will almost always lead to hypothyroidism. Risk factors There are two main factors to consider – age and sex. The chances of being hypothyroid increase with age, and they are greater if an individual is a woman. You have a family history of thyroid disease or any autoimmune disease You have type 1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, or other autoimmune disorders As mentioned in the causes section medications and thyroid surgery also a major risk factors Signs and Symptoms in adults Women who are over age 60, as well as men who are aging, should look out for these potential symptoms of hypothyroidism: Weight gain Fatigue Sensitivity to cold temperatures Depression Dry skin Thinning hair Heavy menstrual periods (in women) Trouble sleeping Difficulty concentrating Pain or swelling of the joints Constipation High cholesterol levels Muscle weakness Signs and symptoms in Children and teen Symptoms of hypothyroidism in children and teens are similar to symptoms in adults and can include: Poor growth or short stature Delayed puberty Slow reaction time Weight gain Coarse, dry hair or skin Muscle cramps Delayed mental development Increased menstrual flow for girls Signs and Symptoms in Infants Symptoms of hypothyroidism in infants may include: Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) Frequent choking Puffy face Constipation Complications Heart disease and stroke Hypothyroidism can lead to insulin resistance The myxedema coma Goiter Mental health issues Peripheral neuropathy Low levels of thyroid hormone can interfere with ovulation, which impairs fertility Birth defects Diagnosis and test Medical evaluation Your doctor will complete a thorough physical exam and medical history. They’ll check for physical signs of hypothyroidism, including: Dry skin Slowed reflexes Swelling A slower heart rate In addition, your doctor will ask you to report any symptoms you’ve been experiencing, such as fatigue, depression, constipation, or feeling constantly cold. Blood test There are several types of blood tests – the most definitive one is called the TSH test (thyroid-stimulating hormone). However, in some cases, physicians may refer to the free thyroxine or T4, free T4 index, or total T4 to aid in the diagnosis. TSH Test A thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH is a blood test that measures the amount of T4 (thyroxine) that the thyroid is being signaled to make. If you have an abnormally high level of TSH, it could mean you have hypothyroidism. 0.4 mU/L to 4.0 mU/L is considered the reference range (there may be a slight variation depending on the laboratory), TSH >4.0/mU/L with a low T4 level indicates hypothyroidism. T4 (thyroxine) Test The thyroid gland produces T4 (thyroxine). The free T4 and the free T4 index are blood tests that, in combination with a TSH test, can let your physician know how your thyroid is functioning. Anti-thyroid Microsomal Antibodies Testing A third hypothyroid test is for anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies—anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO). These antibodies, which are produced by the immune system, may attack thyroid cells. If a blood test determines their presence, it shows that there has been thyroid damage which could potentially lead to hypothyroidism. Differentiation of Hypothyroidism Primary hypothyroidism Primary hypothyroidism is due to disease in the thyroid; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is increased. The most common cause is autoimmune. It usually results from Hashimoto thyroiditis and is often associated with a firm goiter or, later in the disease process, with a shrunken fibrotic thyroid with little or no function. The 2nd most common cause is post-therapeutic hypothyroidism, especially after radioactive iodine therapy or surgery for hyperthyroidism or goiter. Secondary hypothyroidism Secondary hypothyroidism occurs when the hypothalamus produces an insufficient thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or the pituitary produces insufficient TSH. Sometimes, deficient TSH secretion due to deficient TRH secretion is termed tertiary hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism Subclinical hypothyroidism is elevated serum TSH in patients with absent or minimal symptoms of hypothyroidism and normal serum levels of free T4. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is relatively common; it occurs in more than 15% of elderly women and 10% of elderly men, particularly in those with underlying Hashimoto thyroiditis. Treatment and medication Medications Hypothyroidism is a lifelong condition. For many people, medication reduces or alleviates symptoms. Hypothyroidism is best treated by using levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl). This synthetic version of the T4 hormone copies the action of the thyroid hormone your body would normally produce. The medication is designed to return adequate levels of thyroid hormone to your blood. Once hormone levels are restored, symptoms of the condition are likely to disappear or at least become much more manageable. Animal extracts that contain thyroid hormone are available. These extracts come from the thyroid glands of pigs. They contain both T4 and triiodothyronine (T3). If you take levothyroxine, you’re only receiving T4. But that’s all you need because your body is capable of producing T3 from the synthetic T4. These alternative animal extracts are often unreliable in dosing and haven’t been shown in studies to be better than levothyroxine. For these reasons, they aren’t routinely recommended. Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy The main goal is to compensate for the lack of hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. In most cases, an affected individual will take a daily dose of T4 (or T3 and T4) in a pill taken orally. But it’s important to understand that every patient’s therapy may be different. There is no cookie-cutter dosage or treatment plan when it comes to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. How the body absorbs the hormones, along with the number of hormones needed to help the body function properly is very varied. Prevention Taking iodine supplements can prevent hypothyroidism. Exercises and alternative therapies may prove more than effective in minimizing symptoms of thyroid imbalance than traditional treatments. Get a screening test every five years if you are 50 years old or older. Get regular screenings if you: Have Type 1 diabetes Have infertility (females) Take certain medications Natural remedies Do not use non-stick cookware Eliminate Soy: Soy restrains functions of the thyroid, imbalances hormones & it has been appeared to cause goiters Balance Estrogen Levels: Excessive consumption of estrogen slows down the thyroid organ. This implies disposing of anti-conception medication, expanding the fiber in the eating routine & keeping away from all non- organic meats. Adhere to an Alkaline Diet: This is greatly useful when curing any severe issue. Exercise: Find a physical movement activity that is fun & does it regularly. Iodine: The thyroid requires iodine to work appropriately & loads of individuals now experience the ill effects of iodine lacks. To test yourself, put some iodine on your stomach. In case it vanishes in 12 hours, at that point you are lacking iodine. Continue including iodine in increased amounts, until it doesn’t vanish in a 12-14 hours’ time. This works because of the way that the body trans-dermally absorbs iodine at the rate at which it is required. Avoid all types of fluoride Move for natural diet: To enable the body to recuperate itself, take away the loads on its immune system. This implies every single processed food, synthetic flavors, hues, additives, white sugar, white flour, table salt, hydrogenated oils, aluminum and etc. ought to be removed from the diet chart. Organic food is perfect. Chlorophyll: Including chlorophyll gives fundamental copper, oxygenates the body, adds healthy RBC’s, and in general helps with skin health. Chlorophyll is a safe strategy for the oral supplement of copper. Pears and Apples: Pears help most when combined with or mixed with apple juice. Try this pear juice formula, and drink it routinely. Zinc and Selenium: Studies demonstrate that serious zinc or selenium insufficiencies would cause diminished thyroid levels. Never take zinc first thing in the stomach. Brazil nuts are high in both zinc and selenium. Coconut Oil: Buy natural, fresh squeezed, coconut oil from a health store. Take around 1 teaspoon every day. You can likewise use it in cooking, yet be cautioned that it smokes at low cooking temperatures, so it should just be utilized for low-warm cooking. Coconut oil speeds up the digestion improve thyroid hormone generation and cut down candida yeast. Avoid Canola Oil: Canola oil meddles with the generation of thyroid hormones, among its numerous risks. Treat canola oil like the evil, genetically engineered hereditarily designed poison.Dr. Shailendra Kawtikwar10 Likes10 Answers