Aloevera may cause hypersensitivity reaction.It may cause a risk of bleeding. Can cause heart irregularities can cause electrolyte imbalance. It may cause abdominal cramping. It is contraindicated in acute and chronic abdominal pain ulcerrative colitis regional ielitis. Intenstinalobstruction acute appendicitis in kidney disease or liver diseases.If you use alovera for constipation for more than ten days it causes constipation and dependency.It causes thrombocytopenia and purpura. It causes hepatitis liver toxicity. It may cause colorectal carcinoma. It may cause hypokalaemia. It should not be used with cardiac glycosides antithrombotics aspirin clopidogrel warfarinn heparine.It causes hives. It causes hypoglycemia with insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs.It causes muscular weakness.It has synergestic action with garlic onion tulips.It is used in burns frostbite in HPV warts.
I have done research on aloe Vera against diabetics And I have got result that aloe Vera reduces the chances of post diabetics complications as well as it reduces the blood glucose level but never cause hypoglycemia only it reduces to a normal value
Healing properties: Glucomannan, a mannose-rich polysaccharide, and gibberellin, a growth hormone, interacts with growth factor receptors on the fibroblast, thereby stimulating its activity and proliferation, which in turn significantly increases collagen synthesis after topical and oral Aloe vera. Aloe gel not only increased collagen content of the wound but also changed collagen composition (more type III) and increased the degree of collagen cross linking. Due to this, it accelerated wound contraction . Laxative effects: Anthraquinones present in latex are a potent laxative. It increases intestinal water content, stimulates mucus secretion and increases intestinal peristalsis. Antiviral and antitumor activity: These actions may be due to indirect or direct effects. Indirect effect is due to stimulation of the immune system and direct effect is due to anthraquinones. The anthraquinone aloin inactivates various enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella zoster and influenza. In recent studies, a polysaccharide fraction has shown to inhibit the binding of benzopyrene to primary rat hepatocytes, thereby preventing the formation of potentially cancer-initiating benzopyrene-DNA adducts. An induction of glutathione S-transferase and an inhibition of the tumor-promoting effects of phorbol myristic acetate has also been reported which suggest a possible benefit of using aloe gel in cancer. Moisturizing and anti-aging effect: Mucopolysaccharides help in binding moisture into the skin. Aloe stimulates fibroblast which produces the collagen and elastin fibers making the skin more elastic and less wrinkled. It also has cohesive effects on the superficial flaking epidermal cells by sticking them together, which softens the skin. The amino acids also soften hardened skin cells and zinc acts as an astringent to tighten pores. Its moisturizing effects has also been studied in treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure where aloe vera gel gloves improved the skin integrity, decreases appearance of fine wrinkle and decreases erythema.21 It also has anti-acne effect. Antiseptic effect: Aloe vera contains 6 antiseptic agents: Lupeol, salicylic acid, urea nitrogen, cinnamonic acid, phenols and sulfur. They all have inhibitory action on fungi, bacteria and viruse
It has got anti inflammatory activity. It has got ulcer healing property.Hypolipidemic activity.It has got immunomodulatory activity.It is anticancerdrug.It has complementactivity.( it destructs intravascular bacteria).It has got antibacterial activity.It is antifungal . It has got antiviral action.It has got sun protective properties.The latex form should not be used orally by anyone with inflammatory bowel disease.It is contraindicated in pregnancyand in children.Long term use of lattex could result in potassium deficiency.Aloe must not be used with laxative as it potentiates the action of laxatives.Abitter yellow substance in the bundle sheath is purgative and laxative and must be removed while processing when laxative effect is not needed.
Very good information shared by Dr. Ankit Agarwal...yes it is very good in Diabetes...it is also have Vrana ropaka properties...also work in skin disease as Dr. Deepak said. There are 3 types of Aloe vera in pharmacopeia : 1) Curaccao aloes 2) Socotrine aloes 3) Cape aloes. Guna: Guru, Snigdha, Pichhil Rasa - Katu Vipaka - Katu Virya - Sheeta its Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshna it is Kaphapitta hara, Shotha hara (kumari + Haridra mix it and apply the hot lepa of this over the shotha and over the Vrana also and it is also useful in Plihavriddhi), Vedanasthapana, and Vrana ropana. In alpa matra it is Deepan, Pachan, Bhedan and it is Yakrita uttejaka. In more amount of dose it is Virechaka and Krimighna. It is Raktashodhaka, Mutral, Vrishya. It increases the rakta samvahan towards garbhashaya which causes constriction of the garbhashaya and cause Aartavjanan and Garbhastrava...so don't use in pregnant woman. It has Jwarghna property also. The patra majja has the Balya and Brihan properties. It is useful in Mutrakrichhra, Shukradaurbalya, Udar roga, Yakrita-Pliha vriddhi, Udarshool, Gulma, Vibandha. In raj avarodha the varti of kumari is placed in yoni to treat the avarodha. For Aartavajanan use it during the raj kala before 7 days of menses starts.
Aloe vera A shott review Indian medical journal article by Amar Sutrjuse DGSapale Resham vasani.Www.ncbi .hlm .hih .gov. Please read the article in detail you will get lot of information onit. Dr Shalendra please read it. Thank you.
widely use to treat Skin disease Diabetes Digestive Problems...studies showed.
Further I am finding a method to use aloe Vera topically on skin that will slowly reduce glucose level
It is from international study . They are proved by research on alovera.
I also done research on aloe vera...I made a ointment from aloe vera and 3 other drugs for diabetic foot ulcer...it showed very good result
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✍️✍️Late Effects Of Blood And Marrow Transplantation ___________________________________________ Abstract Hematopoietic cell transplantation is a curative treatment for a variety of hematologic diseases. Advances in transplantation technology have reduced early transplant-relatedmortality and expanded application of transplantation to older patients and to a wider variety of diseases. Management of late effects after transplantation is increasingly important for a growing number of long-term survivors that is estimated to be half a million worldwide. Many studies have shown that transplant survivors suffer from significant late effects that adversely affect morbidity, mortality, working status and quality of life. Late effects include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and endocrine systems, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, gonads, liver and kidneys, infertility, iron overload, bone diseases, infection, solid cancer, and neuropsychological effects. The leading causes of late mortality include recurrent malignancy, lung diseases, infection, secondary cancers and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The aim of this review is to facilitate better care of adult transplant survivors by summarizing accumulated evidence, new insights, and practical information about individual late effects. Further research is needed to understand the biology of late effects allowing better prevention and treatment strategies to be developed. Introduction Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative treatment for a variety of hematologic diseases.1 The safety of HCT has improved over the decades,2 indications for HCT have expanded to older patients,3 and almost all patients are able to find suitable allogeneic donors by the growing use of cord blood4 and haploidentical transplantation.5 These current conditions have contributed to a growing number of HCT survivors, estimated to be half a million worldwide.6 Patients who are disease-free at two or five years after HCT have a greater than 80% subsequent 10-year survival rate,7–10 but many studies show that HCT survivors suffer from significant late effects that adversely affect morbidity, mortality, working status and quality of life.7–13 A prospective observational study of 1022 survivors who underwent HCT between 1974 and 1998 showed that 66% of the survivors had at least one chronic condition and 18% had severe or life-threatening conditions.14 A retrospective study of 1087 contemporary survivors also showed that the cumulative incidence of any non-malignant late effect at five years after HCT was 45% among autologous and 79% among allogeneic recipients, and 2.5% of autologous and 26% of allogeneic recipients had three or more late effects.15 Life expectancy among 5-year survivors remained 30% lower compared with the general population, regardless of their current ages and years since HCT.9 The leading causes of excess deaths in 5-year survivors included secondary malignancies (27%) and recurrent disease (14%), followed by infections (12%), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) (11%), cardiovascular diseases (11%), and respiratory diseases (7%).9 The aim of this review is to facilitate better care of adult HCT survivors by summarizing accumulated evidence, new insights, and practical information about individual late effects (Figure 1). Recurrent disease and chronic GvHD are not discussed and readers are referred to other reviews.16–20 Figure 1. Download figure Open in new tab Download powerpoint Figure 1. Late effects of blood and marrow transplantation. Cardiovascular diseases Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) after HCT include cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, valvular dysfunction, arrhythmia, pericarditis, and coronary artery disease.21 Their cumulative incidences were 5%–10% at ten years after HCT,22–24 accounting for 2%–11% of mortality among long-term survivors.8,9,25 The incidence of CVD and its associated mortality were 1.4–3.5-fold higher compared with the general population.8,9,24,25 HCT survivors are more likely to have conventional risk factors such as dyslipidemia and diabetes than the general population.26 Early diagnosis and treatment of modifiable risk factors is important. We usually treat hypertension more than 140/90 mmHg on 2 separate visits or more than 130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes or renal disease.27 The first step is lifestyle modification including weight reduction, dietary sodium reduction and regular physical activity, followed by initiating antihypertensive drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Anthracycline exposure and chest radiation are the major risk factors for CVD after HCT.21 Several studies showed that dexrazoxane, ACE inhibitors, ARBs and beta-blockers can prevent anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy in the non-HCT setting.28–32 Once cardiomyopathy is established, it is important to initiate appropriate treatment. ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers have been effective in improving left ventricular function.33 Pulmonary diseases Non-infectious late complications of the lung include bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) and pulmonary hypertension. BOS represents chronic GvHD of the lung, and is characterized by the new onset of fixed airflow obstruction after allogeneic HCT.34 According to the strict 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) diagnostic criteria for chronic GvHD, incidence of BOS was 5.5% and its prevalence was 15% among patients with chronic GvHD.35 Symptoms of BOS include dyspnea on exertion, cough and wheezing, but early BOS may be asymptomatic until significant lung function is lost.36 One study showed rapid decline in %FEV1 during the six months before BOS diagnosis, with a lower %FEV1 at diagnosis associated with worse survival.37 In our practice, we perform pulmonary function tests every three months including %FEV1 and FEV1/FVC among patients with active chronic GvHD. When testing shows significant new airflow obstruction, we repeat testing every month until stability is confirmed.38 Plasma matrix metalloproteinase 3 levels39 and parametric response mapping from CT scans40 might be useful diagnostic tests for BOS but these have not yet entered clinical practice. Standard treatment of BOS is prednisone at 1 mg/kg per day, followed by a taper to reach a lower, alternate-day regimen.38 A multicenter prospective study showed that addition of FAM (inhaled fluticasone propionate at 440 μg twice a day, azithromycin at 250 mg taken 3 days per week, and montelukast at 10 mg nightly) to prednisone treatment stabilized pulmonary function in 70% of patients with newly diagnosed BOS and permitted systemic steroid exposure to be reduced.41 Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a disorder involving bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli, the lumen of which become filled with buds of granulation tissue consisting of fibroblasts.42 Clinical symptoms include dry cough, shortness of breath, and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage is performed to exclude infection. Lung biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis, but an empiric diagnosis is often based on radiographic findings of diffuse, peripheral, fluffy infiltrates consistent with airspace consolidation. Pulmonary function testing shows restrictive changes and low diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide. The incidence of COP is 2%–10%,43,44 and it is strongly associated with acute and chronic GvHD.45 COP usually responds within 5–7 days to prednisone at 1 mg/kg per day, which is continued for one month followed by a slow taper over five months because COP can often recur. Small case series suggest potential benefits of macrolides for treatment of COP.46 Pulmonary hypertension is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication after HCT, with a reported prevalence of 2.4%.47 The most common symptoms are hypoxia, tachypnea, dyspnea, and acute respiratory failure,48 and if untreated, pulmonary hypertension can result in a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure and death. Since initial symptoms are non-specific, it is likely to be underdiagnosed after HCT. Although cardiac catheterization is the gold standard for diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension, high-resolution chest computed tomography and echocardiography are non-invasive and useful diagnostic modalities. The most common types are pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, sometimes associated with transplant-associated microangiopathy and inherited or acquired hemolytic anemia.48 First-line therapies are supplemental oxygen and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, followed by inhaled nitric oxide, diuretics, bipyridine inotropes and after-load reducing agents.48 Endocrine diseases Major late effects in the endocrine system include thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and adrenal insufficiency. Hypothyroidism occurs in 30% of patients by 25 years after HCT.49 Risk factors include age under ten years, conditioning containing radiation, busulfan or cyclophosphamide, and hematologic malignancies.49,50 The international guidelines recommend checking serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels every year.21 For patients who received radiolabeled iodine antibody therapy, thyroid function should be checked earlier starting at three and six months after HCT, and other times as clinically indicated. Standard criteria are used to initiate replacement therapy for hypothyroidism. Some patients develop hyperthyroidism after HCT as a rare complication.51 Diabetes occurs in 8%–41% of patients after allogeneic HCT and in 3% of patients after autologous HCT.15,52,53 Its incidence after allogeneic HCT is 3.65 times higher compared with their siblings.54 Initial treatment is therapeutic lifestyle counseling, but many patients require hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Dyslipidemia occurs in 9%–61% of HCT survivors.53,55 Despite no established consensus for management of dyslipidemia after HCT, our practice is to initiate therapeutic lifestyle counseling followed by statin therapy when LDL cholesterol exceeds 130–190 mg/dL according to the estimated risk of CVD, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines56 and the recently suggested approach after allogeneic HCT.57 The 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines do not specify the targeted levels for LDL cholesterol, and addition of statin therapy is based on calculated risk for future cardiovascular events.58 Addition of omega-3-acid ethyl esters or fibrate is considered when fasting triglycerides exceed 200–499 mg/dL. Adrenal insufficiency occurs in 13% of patients after allogeneic HCT and 1% of patients after autologous HCT,15 and can be confirmed by a cortisol-stimulation test. Once adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, physiological glucocorticoid replacement and a very slow terminal taper is needed. Patients should carry notification that they have adrenal insufficiency to alert emergency medical providers. For chronic GvHD therapy, the risk of adrenal insufficiency is lower with alternate-day administration of corticosteroids than with daily dosing,59 although patients with brittle diabetes need daily dosing to allow for optimal glucose control. Male gonadal dysfunction and infertility Hypogonadism is common after HCT. Impaired spermatogenesis, erectile dysfunction, low testosterone, and low libido occur in male patients. Erectile dysfunction and low libido have been associated with both physical and psychosocial factors.60,61 Testosterone replacement may be considered for patients with low testosterone levels and has improved sexual function, libido and bone mass, although monitoring prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels is necessary.62,63 Azoospermia occurred in 70% of male patients, and spermatogenesis recovered in 90% of patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide alone, in 50% of patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide plus busulfan or thiotepa, and in 17% of patients conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI).64 Semen banking or cryopreservation of testicular tissue should be discussed before HCT with patients desiring fertility. Female gonadal dysfunction, infertility and pregnancy Ovarian insufficiency, vaginal changes and low libido occur in female patients. A historical study showed that ovarian failure occurred in more than 90% of female patients after HCT and recovered in 92% of patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide alone, but only in 24% of patients conditioned with cyclophosphamide and TBI.65 A pilot study showed that only 10% of patients had ovarian failure after reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT.66 The use of hormone replacement therapy for premature ovarian failure should be individualized based on the patient age, severity of menopausal symptoms, low bone density, risk of breast cancer, clotting predisposition and liver abnormalities.67 Since efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in preserving fertility in cancer patients is controversial,68,69 cryopreservation of oocytes, ovarian tissue, or embryos should be discussed with patients desiring fertility.70 The largest study of pregnancy after HCT showed that 0.87% of patients or their partners had pregnancies after allogeneic HCT, and 0.36% of those after autologous HCT.71 We generally recommend that women wait 2–5 years after HCT before attempting conception since rates of relapse are generally highest in the first two years after HCT. Another concern is the theoretical risk of recurrent malignancy because of disturbance of the graft-versus-leukemia effect, and some cases of recurrent chronic myeloid leukemia after conception have been reported.71 Pregnancy outcomes are generally good with no increase in the risk of fetal malformations, although these pregnancies are considered high risk because of higher maternal risks of pregnancy complications.71 Iron overload Iron overload is rare after autologous HCT72 but common after allogeneic HCT.73,74 Previous prospective studies showed that 30%–60% of long-term survivors of allogeneic HCT had elevated serum ferritin levels and 25%–50% had elevated liver iron concentration on T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).73,74 Since serum ferritin does not specifically reflect iron overload and can be elevated in hepatic and systemic inflammation, additional testing is required if the ferritin is elevated. We favor transferrin saturation, which is widely available and defined as the ratio of serum iron concentration divided by total iron-binding capacity.75 Normal transferrin saturation is less than 50% in males and less than 45% in females. Patients with iron overload usually have saturation more than 60%. HFE genotyping is considered in patients with a family history of hemochromatosis and in patients of Northern or Western European ethnicity. When saturation is not elevated, other etiologies for an elevated ferritin including inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and alcoholism should be ruled out. The most accurate test of tissue iron concentration is liver biopsy, but the procedure is invasive and may cause serious complications. Thus, T2* MRI and other modalities (FerriScan and superconducting quantum interference device) have been increasingly used.76 Importantly, liver tests are often normal among long-term survivors with iron overload, so hepatitis and GvHD should also be considered when results of liver tests are elevated.77 Iron overload may cause cardiomyopathy. Studies of thalassemia patients showed that cardiomyopathy typically took more than ten years to be clinically evident,78 and that many patients improved with intensive chelation therapy.79 Although a prospective study and a meta-analysis showed no statistical association of liver iron concentration with mortality after allogeneic HCT,80,81 our practice is to start phlebotomy of 5 mL/kg or 250–300 mL every 3–4 weeks as long as hematocrit is more than 35% until serum ferritin falls below 1000 ng/mL. Deferasirox, an oral chelating agent, is considered for patients with anemia precluding phlebotomy. Liver diseases Late liver diseases include chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia and focal nodular hyperplasia.77 Hepatitis B-infected patients have an increased risk of fulminant liver failure. One study reported a 35% risk of HBV reactivation after HCT even among patients with isolated anti-HBc antibodies, mostly during steroid treatment for GvHD.82 Patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies have an increased risk of HBV reactivation. Antiviral prophylaxis using entecavir or lamivudine will prevent almost all fulminant cases if initiated before the start of conditioning regimens in patients with positive blood HBV DNA levels.83 Patients with latent HBV (i.e. anti-HBc+/HBV DNA−) should be monitored monthly with HBV DNA levels after HCT and antiviral treatment should be initiated when viremia is detected.83 Hepatitis C virus infection in HCT survivors almost always results in chronic hepatitis.84,85 Typically, asymptomatic elevation of alanine aminotransferase occurs 2–4 months after HCT, coinciding with tapering of immunosuppressive medications. There may be little liver-related mortality in the first ten years after HCT,84 but liver cirrhosis occurs later with a cumulative incidence of 4%–24% at 20 years.85,86 A large retrospective study showed that hepatitis C-infected patients had an increased risk of 2-year non-relapse mortality due to hepatic problems and bacterial infection.87 Antiviral therapy for HCV has not been given early after HCT, but may improve both oncological and hepatic outcomes after HCT.88 Ribavirin and interferon-based therapy have been used for patients who have discontinued all immunosuppressive medications without active GvHD, but it can cause pancytopenia and GvHD. Recently, highly effective and well tolerated direct acting antiviral agents with more than 90% rates of sustained virological response have been developed, and interferon-free regimens are now the treatments of choice.89,90 Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a rare liver condition characterized by a widespread benign transformation of the hepatic parenchyma into small regenerative nodules.77 This process is usually asymptomatic unless portal hypertension develops. Focal nodular hyperplasia occurs in 12% of HCT survivors, and possibly reflects sinusoidal injury caused by myeloablative conditioning regimens.91 Kidney diseases Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as an elevated serum creatinine level, or a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for three months or longer.92 CKD occurs in approximately 20% of HCT recipients.93–95 There are three major etiologies of CKD after HCT: thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), nephrotic syndrome and idiopathic CKD. Other etiologies include persistent acute kidney injury and BK virus nephropathy.96 Whenever possible, renal biopsy should be considered to accurately diagnose the etiology of CKD and to provide appropriate management.97 Thrombotic microangiopathy occurs in 2%–21% of patients after HCT, and is characterized by renal dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, neurological dysfunction, hemolytic anemia with schistocytes, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and decreased haptoglobin.98,99 Risk factors of TMA include TBI, calcineurin inhibitors, and acute and chronic GvHD.100–102 TMA-related kidney injury often improves with tapering or stopping calcineurin inhibitors, but full renal function is rarely restored.103 In some cases TMA did not improve until GvHD was treated.104 Efficacy of plasma exchange is limited.105 Nephrotic syndrome occurs in 6%–8% of patients after allogeneic HCT.106,107 Membranous nephropathy comprised 61% of cases, and minimal change disease comprised 22% of cases, with a median onset of 14 months and eight months after HCT, respectively.108 Mechanisms of membranous nephropathy are thought to be formation of immune complexes through allo- or auto-antibodies recognizing antigens expressed by the podocyte, while T cells are implicated with minimal change disease.109 Nephrotic syndrome after HCT is often associated with chronic GvHD and tapering of immunosuppressive medications. Initial treatment is prednisone 1 mg/kg/day in addition to calcineurin inhibitors. Complete response was observed in 90% of patients with minimal change in disease, but only in 27% of patients with membranous nephropathy.108 Refractory cases may be treated with rituximab or mycophenolate mofetil.110 Idiopathic CKD comprises most cases of CKD. Risk factors include acute GvHD, chronic GvHD, acute kidney injury, long-term use of calcineurin inhibitors and previous autologous HCT,94,111 suggesting that GvHD, accompanying treatment and inflammatory conditions may have pathogenic roles in this entity. Associations of TBI with risk of CKD have been controversial.94,112 ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been used to treat CKD and hypertension associated with CKD.113 Bone diseases Late complications of bone include osteopenia, osteoporosis and avascular necrosis (AVN).114 Osteoporosis has been reported in as many as 50% of HCT recipients.115,116 The diagnoses of osteopenia and osteoporosis are made by measuring T-scores with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A T-score between −1.0 and −2.5 indicates osteopenia, and a T-score less than −2.5 or presence of a fragility fracture indicates osteoporosis.117 Multiple risk factors are implicated including chemotherapy, radiation, corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, vitamin D deficiency, and gonadal failure.116,118 Bone loss occurs within 6–12 months after HCT, and recovery of bone mineral density (BMD) begins from the lumber spine, followed by a slower recovery in the femoral neck. The use of corticosteroids is the strongest risk factor for osteoporosis. General preventative recommendations include adequate intake of calcium of 1200 mg per day or over and vitamin D of 1000 IU (25 μg) per day or over, regular weight-bearing exercise, and avoidance of smoking and excessive alcohol. Bisphosphonates are the primary treatment for bone loss.119 Patients who are taking 5 mg or more daily prednisone-equivalent steroids for three months or more should have screening BMD tests for osteoporosis, and bisphosphonate treatment may be indicated until corticosteroid treatment is discontinued or for up to five years.120 Second-line treatment includes calcitonin, raloxifene, denusomab, romosozumab, and blosozumab, though their reported use in HCT recipients is limited and adverse effects may be more prominent than with the bisphosphonates. Avascular necrosis occurs in 4%–19% of HCT survivors with a cumulative incidence of 3%–10% at five years after HCT.121,122 AVN causes severe bone pain and bone destruction, causing significant impairment in quality of life. AVN typically affects the femoral heads, but sometimes affects other joints such as the knee and shoulders.21 Risk factors for AVN include corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, older age and TBI conditioning.114 When AVN is suspected, diagnostic MRI should be performed. Early involvement of an orthopedic specialist is important for management of AVN, including conservative treatment, joint-preserving surgery and joint replacement surgery.21,114 Infectious diseases All HCT survivors have some degree of immunodeficiency, particularly during the first year after HCT.123 If patients are able to stop immunosuppressive medications without GvHD or recurrent disease, many recover adequate immune function by one year after HCT. Patients with chronic GvHD, however, remain immunodeficient and have a high risk of infections. Common late infections are caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, encapsulated bacteria, fungi, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus, and respiratory viruses. Patients may report more frequent episodes of upper respiratory infections and sinusitis. All patients should receive prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii for at least one year after HCT or until 3–6 months after all immunosuppressive medication is discontinued, whichever occurs later. The preferred drug is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but dapsone or atovaquone could be substituted for patients who are allergic to or intolerant of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In particular, patients with chronic GvHD are highly susceptible to encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis due to low levels of opsonizing antibodies, low CD4+ T-cell counts, poor reticuloendothelial function and suppressive effects of immunosuppressive medications on phagocytosis. Vaccination against these bacteria is recommended.124 Efficacy of vaccination in increasing antibody levels has been shown in several prospective studies.125,126 Chemoprophylaxis is always recommended due to the unpredictable protection provided by vaccination. The first-line drug is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, but if it is not tolerated, penicillin or azithromycin is substituted until 3–6 months after discontinuation of all immunosuppressive medications. Invasive fungal infection occurs in 1% of patients after autologous HCT and in 6%–8% of patients after allogeneic HCT.127 GvHD and long-term use of corticosteroids have been a major risk factor associated with onset of invasive fungal infection.128 As recommended in the European guidelines, mold prophylaxis with posaconazole or voriconazole may be considered for patients with GvHD requiring high-dose corticosteroid treatment.129 Varicella-zoster virus-seropositive patients should receive prophylaxis with acyclovir or valacyclovir during the first year after HCT or until six months after discontinuation of immunosuppressive medications. A standard dose of acyclovir is 800 mg twice daily,130 but some studies showed that 200 mg once daily was effective in preventing VZV reactivation.131 Acyclovir should be started empirically if the patient presents with an acute abdomen or hepatitis typical of fulminant visceral VZV infection.132 CMV monitoring in blood is continued beyond 100 days after HCT until one year for patients at risk of late CMV disease, including CMV-seropositive patients receiving high-dose corticosteroids, those who have already experienced CMV reactivation, and cord blood transplantation.133 Pre-emptive therapy is usually considered for CMV levels of 250 IU/mL or more (equivalent to ≥1000 copies/mL) or a positive antigenemia test. Community-acquired respiratory virus infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after HCT. The most frequent viruses include rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), human metapneumovirus, and influenza viruses as these frequently cause lower respiratory tract disease associated with 12%–100% mortality.134 An immunodeficiency scoring index can predict severity of RSV infection.135 Aerosolized ribavirin showed efficacy in treating lower tract RSV after HCT.136 Combination therapy with immunomodulators such as intravenous immunoglobulin or palivizumab has been seen to have variable success.137 Treatment for PIV infection has not been established. Efficacy of ribavirin has been limited for patients with lower respiratory tract infection of PIV.138 Novel drugs such as a recombinant sialidase fusion protein and a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase inhibitor are under investigation.138 Solid cancers There is an increased risk of solid cancers following both autologous and allogeneic HCT compared with the general population. The cumulative incidence is 1%–6% at ten years after HCT, and continues to rise over time without a plateau.139–142 The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid, but rates are also elevated in esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues compared with the general population.143 Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GvHD and prolonged immunosuppressive medications beyond two years are well-documented risk factors for many types of cancers.143 All HCT recipients should be advised of the risk of second cancers and should be encouraged to undergo recommended screening tests based on their predisposition.143 The 5-year overall survival rates after diagnosis of solid cancers varied by cancer site, with 88%–100% for thyroid, testis and melanoma, approximately 50% for breast, mouth, soft tissue and female reproductive organs, and 20% or less for bone, lower gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system.144 These rates were similar to those of de novo cancers, except that rates were lower for female reproductive organs, bone, colorectum, and central nervous system, although further studies are warranted to confirm this observation. There is emerging evidence that human papilloma virus (HPV) is involved in the pathogenesis of squamous cell cancer after HCT.145,146 The efficacy of HPV vaccination in preventing squamous cell cancer after HCT remains to be determined in prospective studies.147 Neuropsychological effects Neuropsychological effects after HCT are being increasingly recognized and include, among others, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and neurocognitive deficits. Depression occurs in 12%–30% of HCT survivors and is more frequent in female patients, younger patients and those with poor social support, history of recurrent disease, chronic pain, and chronic GvHD.148 Post-traumatic stress disorder occurs in 28% of patients at six months after HCT and may persist for 5%–13% of cases, although its risk factors are not yet clear.148–150 Neurocognitive deficits, so called “chemo brain”, have adverse functional impacts on HCT survivors who return to work and daily activities that require short-term memory, information-processing speed, multitasking and co-ordination.151 Neuropsychological tests can help identify neurocognitive deficits. Most evidence is derived from studies of breast cancer survivors, with estimated rates of deficits ranging from 16% to 50% up to ten years after treatment.152,153 Potential mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced neurocognitive changes include cytokine and immune dysregulation, damage to DNA and telomere length through cytotoxic agents, oxidative stress and hormonal changes.154 In cases of HCT survivors, there may be additional deficits derived from neurological complications including nervous system infection (HHV-6, fungi, etc.), immune-mediated damage, and toxicities of calcineurin inhibitors such as TMA and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. A prospective observational study showed that neurocognitive function declined substantially at 80 days after HCT, returned to pre-transplantation levels at one year, and continued to improve between one and five years after HCT, except for motor dexterity and verbal learning and retention.155 Mostly mild, neurocognitive dysfunction according to the Global Deficit Score persisted at five years in 42% of long-term survivors.155 Rehabilitation programs have succeeded in improving neurocognitive functions,156 and methylphenidate and modafinil have demonstrated variable efficacies to improve neurocognitive function in non-HCT cancer patients.157,158 Efficacies of these interventions remaine to be determined among HCT survivors. Influence of newer practices on late effects An understanding of the influence of newer practices such as cord blood transplantation, non-TBI or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens and older patients on the incidence and severity of late effects awaits longer follow up. For example, TBI is associated with an increased risk of many late effects such as cardiovascular diseases, COP, hypothyroidism, diabetes, dyslipidemia, infertility, TMA-related kidney injury, bone density loss, avascular necrosis, and secondary solid cancer.49,54,100,102,114,118,143,159,160 The use of non-TBI conditioning regimens might reduce the burden of these late effects among HCT survivors. Some studies found that cumulative incidences of late effects did not differ much after reduced-intensity regimens compared with myeloablative regimens,15,161 and reduced-intensity conditioning was associated with a higher risk of recurrent malignancy among patients with myeloid malignancy.162 One study showed that the risk of AVN was elevated after cord blood transplantation, but graft source had a limited influence on other long-term health status and QOL.163 Consensus guidelines for late effects and prevention behaviors Incidence, mortality, morbidity and management of individual late effects are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Recognizing the importance of managing late effects after HCT, the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), and the American Society for Bone Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) developed recommendations in 2006 for screening and prevention practices for HCT survivors.164 Consensus recommendations were up-dated in 2011 including other international transplant communities.21 The NIH convened working groups to formulate late effects initiatives in 2015.148,165–169 View inlineDownload powerpoint Table 1. Late effects after blood and marrow transplantation View inlineDownload powerpoint Table 2. Tests, preventive approaches and treatment of late effects. Despite higher levels of engagement with health care providers, HCT survivors had similar health and prevention behaviors as matched untransplanted controls, suggesting the need for further education of both HCT survivors and health practitioners.170 Major modifiable predictors of lower adherence to preventive care practices were concerns about medical costs and lack of knowledge.171 Conclusion While the number of HCT survivors is growing, there is no evidence that the burden of late effects is lessening. HCT survivors face myriad late effects that can limit their functioning, require prolonged or life-long medical treatment, reduce their quality of life and also shorten their survival. To the extent that the HCT procedure itself causes these late effects, the transplant community has a responsibility to appropriately monitor, treat and ultimately try to prevent late effects. Given the dispersion of survivors and the varied structure of health care, hematologists, oncologists, primary care physicians and medical subspecialists are all involved in providing this care. Further research is needed to understand the biology of late effects to help identify better prevention and treatment strategiesDr. V Srivastava3 Likes9 Answers
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A young male aged 18 yrs presented with complaints of pain abdomen and generalised weakness since a month....No h/o constipation, loose stools or bleeding was present...Stool FOBT was negative but he was having sevwre pallor....Comment on the approach to this patient....Dr. Hardik Ahuja6 Likes23 Answers
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Scientific HEALTH BENEFITS OF GREEN COCONUT WATER (SIXTY) Name- Cocos nucifera Family- Arecaceae Origin- South East Asia Other Names- Nariyal Pani (Hindi), Kobbari Bondam Neeru (Telugu), Tenkay Tannir (Tamil), Karikkin Vellam (Malayalam), YeLeneeru (Kannada), and Narikelera Pani (Bengali) Before we begin with the never-ending tale of coconut water benefits, let’s take a quick look at the biological aspects of this fruit. Ready? Vasco da Gama gave the coconut its name. The inhabitants called it ‘Coco,’ named after a scowling face or hobgoblin (the scary coconut’s ‘eyes,’ remember?). When this ‘coco’ arrived in England, the suffix ‘nut’ was added making it a ‘coconut.’ Interesting, right? But, coconut is not a ‘nut’ as many of us presume. It is actually a stone fruit found on the palm trees that grow well in the coastal tropical environments. This tree usually yields several hundreds of tender fruits every season, depending upon the species and the area. Coconut ‘water’ is actually the juice present inside the endosperm (interior cavity) of the young (about 5-7 months old) and tender coconut. This clear liquid is sweet and sterile and contains various essential compounds such as vitamins, minerals, sugars, electrolytes, amino acids, phytohormones, and cytokine. Each tender coconut may contain around 200 to 1000 ml of water, depending on the size and species. Any fruit that is younger than five months of age will be bitter and without any nutrients. On the other hand, mature coconuts have less water because their endosperm is thick with a white edible kernel. Let’s quickly move on to the interesting part without wasting any more time, shall we? How Can Coconut Water Help You Health Benefits 1. Promotes Cardiovascular Health 2. Improves Lipid Metabolism 3. Prevents Kidney Stones 4. Aids Digestion 5. Prevents And Treats Dehydration 6. Helps With Muscle Cramps 7. Strengthens Bones 8. Reduces Bloating 9. Aids Weight Loss 10. Helps With Diabetes 11. Lowers Blood Pressure 12. Treats Diarrhea 13. As An Electrolyte Replacement 14. As A Detoxifier 15. Beneficial After A Prolonged Workout Session 16. Balances pH Levels 17. Provides Instant Energy 18. Cures Hangovers 19. Relieves Headaches 20. Treats Alzheimer’s 21. Healthy Alternative To Caffeinated Drinks 22. Has Antimicrobial Properties 23. Boosts Immunity 24. Has Anti-tumor Properties 25. Eye Health 26. Relieves Stress 27. Cures Insomnia 28. Boosts Memory 29. Treats Gallstones 30. Fights Depression 31. Healthy Drink For Pregnant And Breastfeeding Moms 32. Helps Battle Free Radical Damage 33. Is Good For Babies 34. Reverses Chemotherapy Damage 35. Treats Constipation 36. Cures Crohn’s Disease 37. Alleviate Ulcerative Colitis 38. Heals A Leaky Gut 39. Reduces Fever 40. Cures Cholera 41. Cuts toxin activity in The Liver 42. Beneficial For Postmenopausal Symptoms 43. Cures Acid Reflux, GERD, And Gastritis 44. Increases Libido 45. Alleviate Glaucoma 46. Treats Hypothyroidism Skin Benefits 47. Moisturizes Skin 48. Reduces Signs Of Aging 49. Helps Reduce Pigmentation 50. Treats Skin Infections 51. Helps Reduce Acne 52. Cures Eczema 53. Works As A Natural Cleanser And Toner 54. Heals Skin Infections 55. Removes Sun Tan Hair Benefits 56. Stimulates Hair Growth 57. Adds Shine 58. Controls Dandruff 59. Treats Damaged Hair 60. Prevents Hair Loss Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Health Benefits Of Coconut Water Image: Shutterstock Did you know that coconut water was able to save many lives during the World War II? You might take this as a far-fetched idea, but there are more than one documented cases that prove coconut water’s importance as an emergency intravenous fluid during the 40s and 50s. The list has just begun. There are many health benefits of coconut water that you will be surprised to know, just like the one above. So, stay tuned. 1. Promotes Cardiovascular Health For a healthy heart, you need to eat nutritious food and exercise regularly. And now, you can add drinking coconut water to the list. Studies have shown that coconut water can reduce the risk of heart attacks, lower blood pressure, and hypertension ( 1 ). Tender coconut water, preferably fresh, can be had once a day to improve cardiovascular health. Caution— Coconut water might be low in calories, but the yield from one coconut can contain about five grams of sugar. Therefore, drinking too much coconut water is not recommended. Back To TOC 2. Improves Metabolism You probably know that improved metabolism means that you end up burning more calories. While there might be many things slugging your metabolism, coconut water isn’t one of them. In fact, it can give your metabolism quite the boost. One of the crucial things required for the proper metabolism of carbohydrates and fats into energy is manganese ( 2 ). This is why coconut water, a good source of manganese , helps improve metabolism. Back To TOC 3. Prevents Kidney Stones Prevention of kidney stones is one of the most effective health benefits of coconut water. Kidney stones can cause a lot of pain and may result in serious health issues. Drinking coconut water can help in preventing them. Kidney stones occur when there is an accumulation of crystals in your kidneys that should have been flushed out through urine. Research has shown that coconut water reduces the amount of crystals deposited in the kidneys, which significantly reduces the occurrence of kidney stones (3 ). Back To TOC 4. Aids Digestion It is common knowledge that ingesting fibers is essential for your digestive system to function properly. Coconut water is rich in fiber, which is why it helps with your digestive system. The water a single coconut yield contains about 9% of the amount of fiber that is required by your body in a single day (4 ). Back To TOC 5. Prevents And Treats Dehydration Dehydration occurs when the water content in your body drops. It is usually a result of not drinking enough water or losing water through excretion. Coconut water keeps you hydrated, which is why a lot of athletes use it as a post-workout drink. When you are dehydrated, you don’t just lose water; you lose essential salts and nutrients as well. Coconut water, which has high water content and is rich in nutrients, helps replenish your body ( 5 ). Back To TOC 6. Helps With Muscle Cramps Image: Shutterstock Muscle cramps can happen due to many reasons, and coconut water helps ease the discomfort. According to studies, potassium deficiency can result in muscle spasms. A diet rich in potassium ensures that your muscles stay in perfect order ( 6 ). Excessive exercising can also cause muscle cramps, which can be eased by the consumption of electrolytes. Coconut water, which replenishes lost water and potassium, can be a perfect substitute for any energy drink ( 7 ). Back To TOC 7. Strengthens Bones Although our bones are made up mostly of calcium, we need some nutrients to maintain bone strength and density. There have been several studies about the impact of coconut water on bones. The results have been favorable ( 8 ). Coconut water contains a significant amount of calcium that is necessary for healthy bones . It also has magnesium that builds bone strength. Back To TOC 8. Reduces Bloating Bloating is usually gas-related. But it can also be caused due to high sodium intake, which coconut water can reduce. Coconut contains a high amount of potassium, which helps counteract the effects of sodium (9 ). Back To TOC 9. Aids Weight Loss Weight loss is one of the most amazing benefits of drinking coconut water. Consuming empty calories is one the main reasons you tend to put on weight. Aerated drinks and other sugary drinks can make you pile on calories and leave you feeling hungry. If you are seeking an alternative, coconut water is an excellent substitute. Coconut water is a good source of dietary fiber (10 ). Fiber does not get digested by your body, so it stays in your system longer and keeps you feeling full. This is why you rarely feel hungry, and eat less. [ Read: Coconut For Weight Loss With 4 Weeks Diet Plan ] Back To TOC 10. Helps With Diabetes Wondering if people with diabetes can have this sweet and delicious drink? Research says yes! Certain studies have concluded that the water from mature coconuts can have an antidiabetic effect (11 ). People with diabetes are very susceptible to excessive blood clotting, which puts them at risk (12 ). Not only does coconut water help reduce blood sugar, but it also prevents the occurrence of blood clots. Caution— With the intake of coconut water, diabetics should monitor their blood sugar for signs of hypoglycemia. Back To TOC 11. Lowers Blood Pressure Coconut water has a direct effect on blood pressure. Studies have shown that it can help in lowering blood pressure and hypertension. It also reduces cholesterol and prevents blood clots. Coconut water exhibits antithrombotic effects, which means it helps prevent blood clots (13 ). It also reduces cholesterol, which can have an enormous impact on your blood pressure by clogging up your arteries (14 ). Back To TOC 12. Treats Diarrhea Coconut water is a must-have liquid for those suffering from diarrhea. It will prevent the need for hospitalization by replacing the fluid loss from the GI (Gastrointestinal) tract ( 15 ). Interestingly, this humble liquid has a higher osmolarity than that of the WHO recommended ORS solution due to the presence of essential chemical compounds such as amino acids, minerals, enzymes, and fatty acids. Being very low in sodium and chlorides, but high in sugars and amino acids also makes coconut water a well-balanced fluid replacement for diarrhea. Back To TOC 13. As An Electrolyte Replacement Coconut water is also a workable short-term replacement for human blood plasma ( 16 ). 100 ml of coconut water contains about 250 mg of potassium and 105 mg of sodium that help replenish electrolyte deficiency in the patient’s body. This is the sole reason why coconut water was popular during the World War II. Back To TOC 14. As A Detoxifier Image: Shutterstock We all know that detoxification is an important process for the proper functioning of our body. This process helps flush out harmful components from our organs, making us healthy from inside out. But did you know that dehydration is also a significant contributor to the build-up toxins in our body? Yes, it is, because inadequate hydration leads to hampered functioning of kidneys and livers, the detoxifying organs, thus giving way to the accumulation of toxins in the body. What can we do about it? The solution is all clear, my dear. Stay hydrated. And what can be a better hydration alternative than our precious coconut water? Our body is capable of cleansing and detoxing on its own, provided it has all the essential nutrients and hydration, and coconut water contains every required nutrient including potassium and sodium. Back To TOC 15. Beneficial After A Prolonged Workout Session Image: iStock Replace your energy drinks with coconut to stay hydrated even after a long work-out session. Coconut water is rich in essential potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium which helps natural replenishment of lost electrolytes in the body. Also, they assist in maintaining proper fluid balance (17 , 18 ). Back To TOC 16. Balances pH Levels Many toxins and chemical compounds present in the environment and foods make your body pH levels highly acidic which can eventually lead to joint pain, chemical sensitivity, heartburn, weight gain, diabetes, and immune deficiency. This is where coconut water comes into play. Coconut water has an amazing alkalizing effect which helps restore a healthy pH in the body. So, next time you face a disturbing acidity and heartburn, don’t think before sipping on this tasty drink. Back To TOC 17. Provides Instant Energy Image: iStock Are you still relying on that bottled energy drink after a sunny day? Don’t. Because now you have a better reason to switch to coconut water instead. A glass of fresh coconut water contains about 5 mg of natural sugar that has better energy-boosting effects than that of energy drinks, at a much lower price ( 19 ). The same glass is also rich in about 294 mg of potassium, which is essential for energy production in the cells. Back To TOC 18. Cures Hangovers Consume coconut water next time you go overboard with the alcohol. Having coconut water helps settle your stomach, reducing frequent urination and the urge to puke. It also helps provide the much-required hydration and nutrients that are lost courtesy alcohol. Also, the antioxidants present in this revitalizing drink fight oxidative stress that occurs due to too much alcohol in our system (20 ). Make your hangover drink by using coconut water, ripe mangoes, lemon juice and mint. Here’s how: What You Need 2 cups fresh coconut water 2 cups grated ripe mangoes 2 fresh mint sprigs 1/2 cup ice What You Need To Do Make a smoothie by blending all the ingredients and have it fresh to get rid of that annoying hangover. Back To TOC 19. Relieves Headaches Image: Shutterstock Dehydration is one of the major triggers for headaches, and coconut water is touted to be one of the best natural remedies for instant hydration. Migraine patients have low levels of magnesium and coconut water with their high levels of magnesium helps reduce the frequency of migraine attacks ( 21 ). Back To TOC 20. Treats Alzheimer’s Coconut water is being seen as one of the new possible treatments for neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s. In one study, it was found that trans-zeatin, a cytokinin present in coconut water, has high prevention powers against brain cell damage. It also helps cure impairments in memory (22 ). Back To TOC 21. Healthy Alternative To Caffeinated Drinks Image: iStock Having fresh coconut water in the place of your regular morning and evening tea is a good option. It keeps you energized for the day without compromising on taste. Containing only 19 calories per 100 grams. coconut water is also high in nutrients like iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin C. So what are you waiting for? Back To TOC 22. Has Antimicrobial Properties Coconut water has natural antimicrobial peptides that are effective in fighting harmful bacteria like E.coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and P. aeruginosa (23 ). While E.coli, the multi-drug resistant bacterium, is the universal inhabitant of the human digestive tract, B. subtilis and S. Aureus cause food poisoning. On the other hand, P. Aeruginosa is a potent human pathogen that can be found in milk, milk products, fruits, and vegetables. Back To TOC 23. Boosts Immunity Trust coconut water for an active immune system. Every 100 grams of coconut water contains 2.4 mg of vitamin C that is required for the production of antibodies to fight any foreign invasion. It also helps clean your body of the existent toxins and germs, making you healthy from inside out. Coconut water also successfully beats cold viruses (24 , 25 ). Back To TOC 24. Has Anti-tumor Properties Many researchers have concluded that having coconut water regularly can help in the treatment of a tumor. Coconut water has yet another essential cytokinin gibberellins (GAs) that contain anti-tumor properties (26 , 27 ). Back To TOC 25. Eye Health Image: Shutterstock Coconut water can be your best bet to ensure goog eyesight. Our body needs a significant amount of Vitamin B1 for an improved brain and eye health. It strengthens eye muscles and betters night vision ( 28 ). Every cup of coconut water contains around 0.7 mg of Thiamine (Vitamin B1), so you need to have two cups to meet the recommended daily requirement of 1.4 mg. Back To TOC 26. Relieves Stress Office, traveling, family problems—a number of reasons can cause stress. Drinking a glass of fresh coconut water is a very refreshing method to kill high tension levels. Coconut water contains a fair amount of vitamin B5, B6, and folate, that help reduce stress levels (29 ). Folate (vitamin B9) also helps trigger the release of serotonin, the mood-boosting hormone (30 ). Back To TOC 27. Cures Insomnia Tired of battling sleeplessness? Try having coconut water before going to bed and watch yourself dozing off to sleep. This natural ingredient contains GABA, a neurotransmitter that has a relaxing, anti-convulsive, and anti-anxiety effect on the body, aiding a good sleep (31 ). Back To TOC 28. Boosts Memory Fasten the learning process of your kids with the help of coconut water. Several studies have concluded that coconut water helps increase memory owing to the presence of glutamic acid, an amino acid that is essential for improved memory retention and recall ( 32 ). Back To TOC 29. Treats Gallstones Drink coconut water to flush out the accumulated gallstones from your body. Coconut water is rich in malic acid, which when paired with magnesium helps in the breakdown of gallstones. Back To TOC 30. Fights Depression It might sound surprising, but coconut water is found to be useful in the treatment of depression. Coconut water has a high magnesium content (a whopping 60 mg per cup) that is clinically proven to fight symptoms of depression (33 ). Having this refreshing drink daily promotes a healthy state of mind, uplifting the mood. Back To TOC 31. Healthy drink For Pregnant And Breastfeeding Moms Image: Shutterstock Coconut water plays a crucial role in the overall health and development of the body during pregnancy. Regular consumption of coconut water helps address typical pregnancy discomforts such as fatigue, dehydration, muscle spasms, cramps, poor blood circulation, and blood pressure. Its soothing nature helps calm digestive tract, relieving morning sickness, nausea, acid reflux, and constipation. Coconut water contains a trace of lauric acid, an immune-boosting compound, which is also found in the breast milk ( 34 ). This is why breastfeeding mothers are advised to have a good quantity of coconut water. Back To TOC 32. Helps Battle Free Radical Damage This refreshing drink also contains antioxidants that help scavenge free radicals that cause harm to our organ system (35 ). If left free, these radicals can start chain reactions in the body by robbing electrons which eventually leads to cell death. Back To TOC 33. Is Good For Babies Give your baby essential vitamins and minerals such as calcium, vitamin C, riboflavin, potassium, magnesium, iron, and manganese without spending much. The innumerable medicinal properties of coconut water fight microbes, relieving your baby of gastrointestinal problems like ulcer, indigestion, diarrhea, flatulence, and vomiting. This natural water also assists in the treatment of urinary tract infections and bilious fever. You can start giving your baby coconut water soon after you put them on solid foods, i.e. around 6-8 months. Caution—Coconut water is not advisable for infants below six months due to an increased risk of allergic reactions. Back To TOC 34. Reverses Chemotherapy Damage Coconut water helps in the speedy recovery of the damage done by chemotherapy. This natural water is rich in electrolytes that help oxygenate the blood which further helps restore the WBC count, ANC count, hemoglobin, and platelets. The antimicrobial properties of coconut water can kill microbes inside of cancer cells turning them back to normal cells. Back To TOC 35. Treats Constipation Image: Shutterstock Coconut water, being a natural laxative, is touted to be an excellent cure for constipation. It contains a high amount of dietary fiber that ensures stool formation ( 36 , 37 ). Also, the cleansing property of this water regulates the bowel movement in the body. Back To TOC 36. Cures Crohn’s Disease Patients suffering from Crohn’s disease lose a lot of body fluids due to severe diarrhea. Thus, providing them with a healthy dose of added electrolytes is a good option. And what can be better than a glass of coconut water? Coconut water is a natural source of electrolytes with added benefits of natural sugars and amino acids sans artificial coloring (38 ). Back To TOC 37. Alleviate Ulcerative Colitis Tender coconut water with its healing properties is highly effective in treating digestive disorders like ulcerative colitis. Regular consumption of coconut water soothes the mucous membranes of the colon and the rectum, reducing the swelling in them (39 ). Here’s how you can consume it to relieve stomach ulcer: What You Need 3-4 drumsticks One glass of coconut water One teaspoon honey What You Need To Do 1. Boil the drumsticks in water for about 10 minutes and extract its juice. 2. Add the extracted juice to a glass of coconut water and mix honey with it. 3. Have this juice once a day for best results. Back To TOC 38. Heals A Leaky Gut Drink coconut water religiously to get rid of a leaky gut. It contains a good quantity of lauric acid that helps heal digestive tract, relieving you of intestinal gas, and the Leaky Gut Syndrome (40 ). Being a carminative, it also helps improve the nutrient absorbing ability of the digestive tract. Back To TOC 39. Reduces Fever Image: Shutterstock One can make use of coconut water’s cooling and calming property to relieve burning sensations due to high fever ( 41 ). It also helps normalize the body temperature that goes up because of fever. Back To TOC 40. Cures Cholera Coconut water is a boon to those suffering from cholera due to the high content of potassium and magnesium. It helps bring back the much-required electrolyte balance in the body ( 42 , 43 ). For best results, squeeze the quarter of a lemon in a glass of coconut water and have it twice in a day till the symptoms subside. Back To TOC 41. Cuts toxin activity in the Liver Many studies have confirmed that the hepatoprotective properties make coconut water an ideal ingredient for liver (44 ). Also, this natural water has powerful antioxidants that reduce the toxin activity in the liver. Back To TOC 42. Beneficial For Postmenopausal Symptoms Having fresh coconut water daily can help cure the postmenopausal symptoms relieving you from the pain and discomfort ( 45 ). Back To TOC 43. Cures Acid Reflux, GERD, And Gastritis For a better stomach health, make sure you have one glass of fresh coconut water every morning and evening. Coconut water, being high in potassium and electrolytes, is beneficial in treating acid reflux, GERD and gastritis. It helps neutralize the excess acid in the stomach, soothing your pain. Back To TOC 44. Increases Libido Did you know that coconut water can help you increase sex drive? Manuscripts and tales from Thailand and the Pacific nations give coconut water the reputation of being a potent aphrodisiac for both men and women ( 46 ). Back To TOC 45. Alleviate Glaucoma Having coconut water is touted to be a natural remedy for glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye disorder where small blood vessels and the optic nerve gets damaged due to elevated pressure in the eye. Coconut water helps reduce the production of the aqueous humor by blocking adrenaline-like substances ( 47 ). This, in a way, reduces the pressure in the eye for about 2 and a half hours. Back To TOC 46. Treats Hypothyroidism Coconut water is also beneficial in the treatment of hypothyroidism. It is a natural diuretic, thus supporting the proper functioning of the thyroid gland (48 ). Coconut water, being rich in healthy fats, also increases the body’s metabolic rate and helps in the energy production. All these factors eventually help cure hypothyroidism. With this, we wind up almost all the health benefits of this natural drink. Let’s just jump to the next exciting section without much ado. C’mon. Back To TOC Skin Benefits Of Coconut Water Image: Shutterstock Acne? Wrinkles? Tan? Name any skin trouble and you will find a solution for it in our very own coconut water. Just see how: 47. Moisturizes Skin The key to great skin is proper hydration. The sun, pollution, and harsh soaps can strip your skin of its natural moisture, and leave it dry. Applying coconut water is a great way to hydrate your skin. Coconut water is a great moisturizer for every skin type (49 ). It is lightweight, so it hydrates your skin without making it greasy. How To Use A face mask made out of coconut water and lemon juice can be the perfect non-greasy way to infuse your skin with some much-needed moisture. What You Need 2 tablespoons coconut water ½ teaspoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon honey (optional) What You Have To Do 1. Place the coconut water in a bowl, and add the lemon juice to it. If your skin is dry, add honey. Stir to combine all the ingredients. 2. Soak a couple of cotton balls in the concoction, and massage it into your skin using gentle, circular motions. 3. Keep it on for 30 minutes, and then rinse with cold water. How Often Should You Do This This face mask can be used on alternate days. Caution—Lemon juice may dry out your skin, so make sure you adjust the quantity according to your skin type. Oily skin can get away with more of it, since it helps control oil. But, those with normal or dry skin should use less lemon juice, and add honey to the mask for an extra boost of moisture. Back To TOC 48. Reduces Signs Of Aging Wrinkles, fine lines, and age spots are bound to appear as your skin ages. But with proper care, these signs of aging can be delayed . If you are seeking a surefire way to reduce fine lines and wrinkles, you might want to give coconut water a try. Coconut water contains cytokines that help promote cell growth (50 ). This helps your skin repair faster, as well as reduce the damage that has been caused. How To Use Mature skin tends to be dry. The potent combination of coconut water and yogurt exfoliates and moisturizes the skin, and reduces signs of aging. What You Need 1 tablespoon coconut water 2 tablespoons plain yogurt What You Have To Do 1. Place the yogurt in a bowl. Add the coconut water, and stir till the ingredients are combined. 2. Using a brush, apply the pack on your face. 3. Keep it on for 15 minutes, and rinse it with cold water. Yogurt has lactic acid, a gentle but effective exfoliator (51 ). It helps improve the appearance of your skin by removing dead cells and moisturizing it, leaving it smooth and supple. How Often Should You Do This You may use this face pack once or twice a week. Back To TOC 49. Helps Reduce Pigmentation Image: Shutterstock There might be a number of products out there that claim to reduce pigmentation , but they are either ineffective or full of harmful chemicals. If you are seeking a natural alternative, coconut water can help with blemishes, tan, and discolored skin. Research has shown that vitamin C can help remove pigmentation (52 ). This is why coconut water, which is a naturally rich source of vitamin C , works well in reducing tan and blemishes ( 53 ). How To Use Coconut water, when used with the fuller’s earth (multani mitti), can help reduce pigmentation. What You Need 1 tablespoon fuller’s earth 1 ½ tablespoons coconut water What You Have To Do 1. Combine the Fuller’s earth and the coconut water to make a thin paste. 2. Apply the paste on the pigmented areas, or your entire face. 3. Keep it on for 15 minutes, and rinse with cold water. How Often Should You Do This This face pack can be used once or twice a week. Back To TOC 50. Treats Skin Infections Your skin is always susceptible to bacteria and fungi, and they can cause skin infections that may result in rashes or irritated skin. Coconut water can help you prevent and treat them. Tender coconut water has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties, which is why its topical application helps treat skin infections ( 54 ). How To Use The topical application of coconut water over the infected area can help reduce the symptoms and treat the infection. Back To TOC 51. Helps Reduce Acne If acne is the bane of your existence, you have probably tried a number of ways to get rid of it. One ingredient that is easy to overlook is coconut water. Yes, your favorite summer beverage can double up as a treatment for acne. Acne is caused when the follicles in your skin get clogged by oil, which is then attacked by bacteria to cause swelling (55 ). Due to the antibacterial properties that coconut water possesses, its application can help reduce acne ( 56 ). How To Use A toner, made with coconut water and honey, will not only help reduce acne, but will also leave you with smooth skin. What You Need ½ cup coconut water 1 teaspoon honey What You Have To Do 1. Stir the honey into the coconut water. 2. Soak a cotton ball into the potion, and dab it on cleansed face. 3. Leave it on for 10 minutes and wipe it off with a washcloth. Honey is another antibacterial agent ( 57 ). It also has anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce swelling and soothe your skin. How Often Should You Do This You may use this every day as a part of your CTM routine. Back To TOC 52. Cures Eczema Coconut water is a great natural remedy for skin diseases like eczema. Having two to three glasses of this natural drink is a great way to hydrate your skin without running behind all the costly cosmetics. It is rich in essential nutrients like potassium, lauric acid, antioxidants, and cytokinins that helps maintain a youthful skin. Coconut water also helps balance the pH levels of the body. And all these factors indirectly makes coconut water an ideal treatment for eczema. Back To TOC 53. Works As A Natural Cleanser And Toner Image: Shutterstock Hey you! Are you still searching for that perfect toner online? Don’t. I have a natural ingredient that works thousand times better without looting you. Yes, I’m talking about our beloved coconut water which when used as a cleanser and toner helps you get rid of the stubborn dirt and impurities of the day without causing any fuss. You can even add a few drops of lemon juice for added skin lightening effect. Note: Those looking for removal of dark spots should mix coconut water and rose water and use it as a face cleanser two to three times a day. Back To TOC 54. Heals Skin Infections Our skin is prone to the worst damage during the summers and the monsoons. Infections, random acne pop-ups, redness, itching—there are various ways in which our skin takes a hit. What can you do about them? Well, I suggest you make use of the healing properties of coconut water. It has antiviral, antimicrobial and antifungal properties that helps tackle various degrees of skin infections. Simply apply some fresh coconut water on the affected skin with the help of a clean cotton ball. Back To TOC 55. Removes Sun Tan Tired of using every brand available to lighten the dark tan marks? Why don’t you go natural for once? Coconut water when mixed with fuller’s earth (multani mitti) makes the best tan-removal home remedy. Apply it on the affected area and let it dry before wiping it off with warm water. Use it thrice a week for two months and see it for yourself. Back To TOC Hair Benefits Of Coconut Water Image: Shutterstock This might be the last benefit section, but it is no way the least concerned one. Every woman complains on how she has been losing thousands of her beloved strands every day, and how she has been using the best product in the market to no avail. It is time you turned to coconut water. It is cheap, easily available, and highly effective when it comes to hair troubles. Keep reading to know how. 56. Stimulates Hair Growth The state of your hair often reflects the state of your overall health. Lack of certain nutrients can stunt hair growth or cause hair fall. Coconut water, a treasure trove of medicinal properties, helps provide nutrients that can help your hair grow. Potassium is an element that is essential for hair growth ( 58 ). Coconut water stimulates hair growth because it is a rich source of potassium (59 ). How To Use Massaging coconut water into your scalp on a regular basis can help with hair growth. What You Need ½ cup coconut water What You Have To Do 1. Using cotton balls or even your fingers, massage coconut water into your scalp. 2. Leave it on overnight, and wash with a gentle shampoo. How Often Should You Do This You may massage your scalp with coconut water on alternate days. Note: Also, massaging your scalp can be very beneficial in improving the health of your hair. It increases blood circulation to your scalp, which strengthens your roots and reduces hair fall (60 ). Back To TOC 57. Adds Shine If you’re looking for an all-natural way to condition your hair and boost shine, you don’t need to look further than coconut water. Coconut water infuses your hair with moisture and deep conditions it ( 61 ). It leaves your hair bouncier, glossier, and shinier. How To Use The best way to condition your hair with coconut water is to use it as a hair rinse. What You Need 1 cup coconut water What You Have To Do 1. Shampoo your hair as usual, and rinse thoroughly. 2. Dilute the coconut water with three to four mugs of tap water, and use it as your final rinse. How Often Should You Do This You can rinse your hair with coconut water as often as you shampoo. Back To TOC 58. Controls Dandruff Nobody likes a scaly, flaky, white scattered scalp. So it won’t be wrong to consider dandruff one of the most embarrassing conditions; especially when it is quite visible and you are wearing a dark shirt. Thankfully, coconut water has anti-fungal properties that helps reduce the scalp itchiness and dandruff within no time ( 62 ). It also helps soothe the inflamed scalp, making it smooth and hydrated. What You Need 10 teaspoons coconut water 1/2 teaspoon neem oil What You Need To Do 1. Mix the two ingredients and gently massage your scalp with it. 2. Leave it on for at least an hour before washing it off with lukewarm water. 3. Use this treatment twice a week for best results. Back To TOC 59. Treats Damaged Hair Image: Shutterstock Chemically fried hair. Those who like to dye their hair would easily relate to this term. Here, your hair looks as if they have been robbed off their natural moisture making it fried and wiry. Definitely unappealing. But don’t you worry. You can now make your red, brown, or even electric blue hair look natural with the help of coconut water. It helps tame the dry and frizzy hair without causing any more harm to the already damaged hair. What You Need 2 tablespoons coconut water 1 tablespoon yogurt What You Need To Do 1. Mix the two ingredients and massage your hair and scalp with it. 2. Let it stay there for an hour and wash it off using a mild shampoo and conditioner. 3. Use this technique twice a week for best results. Note: Alternatively, you can also use other beneficial ingredients like apple cider vinegar, banana or avocados for a anti-frizz hair mask. Back To TOC 60. Prevents Hair Loss Finding strands of hair circling your hair brush can be quite a painful sight to watch. This is the stage that actually prompts you to act. Thankfully, nature has a solution for every problem. And here, we are talking about the great coconut water. This natural water can also help you address the serious issue of hair loss/alopecia by ensuring proper blood circulation in the scalp. It enhances the density of the hair, further strengthening the hair follicles. This helps stop the bulk hair fall. So don’t forget to add coconut water to your daily routine for healthy and flowing hair.Dr. Tapan Kumar Sau6 Likes8 Answers
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