Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites that are spread to people through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquito vectors. Of the 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly. Globally over 3.2 billion people are at risk of malaria. In 2015, there were an estimated 214 million malaria cases and some 438 000 malaria deaths. Malaria is a public health problem in India. 561 cases died in 2014, 440 in 2013 and 519 in 2012. ICMR and IMA should do post mortem analysis of all 561 cases to learn lessons. About 95% population in the country resides in malaria endemic areas and 80% of malaria reported in the country is confined to areas consisting 20% of population residing in tribal, hilly, difficult and inaccessible areas. Young children, pregnant women are most vulnerable. Under 5 are particularly susceptible to infection, illness and death. More than two thirds (70%) of all malaria deaths occur in this age group. Increased malaria prevention and control measures are dramatically reducing the malaria burden in many places. Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria reduces disease and prevents deaths. It also contributes to reducing malaria transmission. Access to diagnostic testing and treatment should be seen not only as a component of malaria control but as a fundamental right of all populations at risk. Artemisinin-based combination therapies remain effective in almost all settings, as long as the partner drug in the combination is locally effective. Long-lasting insecticidal nets provide personal protection against mosquito bites. They can be used as protection for people most at risk of malaria, such as young children and pregnant women. The nets are effective for 2-3 years, depending on the model and conditions of use. The full potential of indoor residual spraying is obtained when at least 80% of houses in targeted areas are sprayed. Indoor spraying with insecticides kills the mosquito vector and is effective for 3–6 months, depending on the insecticide used and the type of surface on which it is sprayed. For pregnant women WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester. The mosquito bite between dusk and dawn. WHO recommends protection for all people at risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control. Two forms of vector control – insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying – are effective in a wide range of circumstances Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the preferred form of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for public health programmes. In most settings, WHO recommends LLIN coverage for all people at risk of malaria. The most cost-effective way to achieve this is by providing LLINs free of charge, to ensure equal access for all. In parallel, effective behaviour change communication strategies are required to ensure that all people at risk of malaria sleep under a LLIN every night, and that the net is properly maintained. For pregnant women WHO recommends intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, at each scheduled antenatal visit after the first trimester. In 2012, WHO recommended Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention as an additional malaria prevention strategy. The strategy involves the administration of monthly courses of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to all children under 5 years of age during the high transmission season. Much of the success in controlling malaria is due to vector control. Vector control is highly dependent on the use of pyrethroids, which are the only class of insecticides currently recommended for ITNs or LLINs. 28. Malaria-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and India are causing significant concern due to high levels of malaria transmission and widespread reports of insecticide resistance. The use of 2 different insecticides in a mosquito net offers an opportunity to mitigate the risk of the development and spread of insecticide resistance. WHO recommends that all cases of suspected malaria be confirmed using parasite-based diagnostic testing (either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test) before administering treatment. Results of parasitological confirmation can be available in 30 minutes or less.
Very nice and helpful informative
Nice post , Thanks
Nice post Dr Shashank
OMG such a lengthy read anyways very helpful information DR thanks
Very nice and helpful information. Thanks.
helpful info. . . . Thanks for sharing,Dr. .
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#CAP2020 MALARIA & HOMEOPATHIC MGMT :- Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites. The parasites are spread to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, called "malaria vectors." There are 5 parasite species that cause malaria in humans, and 2 of these species – P. falciparum and P. vivax – pose the greatest threat. Malaria is an acute febrile illness. In a non-immune individual, symptoms usually appear 10–15 days after the infective mosquito bite. The first symptoms – fever, headache, and chills – may be mild and difficult to recognize as malaria. If not treated within 24 hours, P. falciparum malaria can progress to severe illness, often leading to death. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one or more of the following symptoms: severe anaemia, respiratory distress in relation to metabolic acidosis, or cerebral malaria. In adults, multi-organ failure is also frequent. In malaria endemic areas, people may develop partial immunity, allowing asymptomatic infections to occur. Transmission:- In most cases, malaria is transmitted through the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. There are more than 400 different species of Anopheles mosquito; around 30 are malaria vectors of major importance. All of the important vector species bite between dusk and dawn. The intensity of transmission depends on factors related to the parasite, the vector, the human host, and the environment. Anopheles mosquitoes lay their eggs in water, which hatch into larvae, eventually emerging as adult mosquitoes. The female mosquitoes seek a blood meal to nurture their eggs. Each species of Anopheles mosquito has its own preferred aquatic habitat; for example, some prefer small, shallow collections of fresh water, such as puddles and hoof prints, which are abundant during the rainy season in tropical countries. Transmission is more intense in places where the mosquito lifespan is longer (so that the parasite has time to complete its development inside the mosquito) and where it prefers to bite humans rather than other animals. The long lifespan and strong human-biting habit of the African vector species is the main reason why approximately 90% of the world's malaria cases are in Africa. Transmission also depends on climatic conditions that may affect the number and survival of mosquitoes, such as rainfall patterns, temperature and humidity. In many places, transmission is seasonal, with the peak during and just after the rainy season. Malaria epidemics can occur when climate and other conditions suddenly favour transmission in areas where people have little or no immunity to malaria. They can also occur when people with low immunity move into areas with intense malaria transmission, for instance to find work, or as refugees. Human immunity is another important factor, especially among adults in areas of moderate or intense transmission conditions. Partial immunity is developed over years of exposure, and while it never provides complete protection, it does reduce the risk that malaria infection will cause severe disease. For this reason, most malaria deaths in Africa occur in young children, whereas in areas with less transmission and low immunity, all age groups are at risk. INVESTIGATIONS :- Serology detects antibodies against malaria parasites, using either indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serology does not detect current infection but rather measures past exposure. OTHERS INCLUDE Quantitative buffy coat(QBC) — Antigen detection: RDTs - Serology test: ELISA, IFA — Molecular diagnosis: PCR Other: complete blood count, blood chemical tests of liver function and renal function. COMPLICATIONS:- additional tests will be useful in determining whether the patient has uncomplicated or severe manifestations of the malaria infection. Specifically, these tests can detect severe anemia, hypoglycemia, renal failure, hyperbilirubinemia, and acid-base disturbances. HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES:- ARSENIC ALBUM CALC ARS FERRUM PHOS PSORINUM SULPHUR BELLADONA CHINNINUM SULP EUPHATORIUM VERATRUM ALBUM RHUS TOX CHINA NATRUM MUR NUX VOMICA PULSATILLA ABIES NIGRA ARG NIT NAT SULP NEEM EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUSDr. Jayita Tyagi0 Like1 Answer