Some medications, like those used in adults and children with kidney failure. Excess amount of alcohol which can stop your liver from producing glucose. Any disorder that affect the liver, kidney and heart. Some eating disorders such as anorexia Pregnancy.
Medications. Taking someone else's oral diabetes medication accidentally is a possible cause of hypoglycemia. ... Excessive alcohol drinking. ... Some critical illnesses. ... Insulin overproduction. ... Hormone deficiencies.
बिना कुछ खाए पीए लगातार कठिन कार्य करने से अक्सर होयपोग्लाशिया हो जाता है। मेंने अपने 50 वर्ष के चिकित्साकर्मभ्याश में ऐसे अनेक रोगियों को देखा है। फिर जब उन्होंने गुलुकोज 5% आई वी लगाने से लाभ मिलता है।
Causes include.. Taking more dose of insulin and diabetes medication.. Increased physical activity or work with out eating proper diet.. Drinking alcohol. Eating less than normal. Skipping a meal These can lead to hypoglycemia..in Diabetics..
Excess fasting, malnutrition, hormonal imbalance and drug induced.
No nutritious food... lifestyle affect s... anxiety...no content ment... inhalation techniques to study...junk food..no proper time late night effect of melatonin... minimum..no hygiene
Fasting for long periods Taking insulin injections Alcoholism
Hypoglycemia causes -Excessive alcohol drinking. -Insulin over production. Hormone deficiency.
Fasting Hormone deficiency
Excess amount of alcohol consumption , pregnancy, anorexia some medicine which effect kidney function
Cases that would interest you
- Login to View the image
*Restless leg syndrome (RLS* ☝ *Today about*☝ Definition Restless leg syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom disease(WED) is a common cause of painful legs. The leg pain of restless leg syndrome typically eases with motion of the legs and becomes more noticeable at rest. Restless leg syndrome also features worsening of symptoms and leg pain during the early evening or later at night. Restless leg syndrome Restless leg syndrome is often abbreviated RLS; it has also been termed shaking leg syndrome. Night time involuntary jerking of the legs during sleep is also known as periodic leg/limb movement disorder. History The first known medical description of RLS was by Sir Thomas Willis in 1672. Willis emphasized the sleep disruption and limb movements experienced by people with RLS. Initially published in Latin (De Anima Brutorum, 1672) but later translated to English (The London Practice of Physick, 1685), The term “fidgets in the legs” has also been used as early as the early nineteenth century. Subsequently, other descriptions of RLS were published, including those by Francois Boissier de Sauvages (1763), Magnus Huss (1849), Theodur Wittmaack (1861), George Miller Beard (1880), Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1898), Hermann Oppenheim (1923) and Frederick Gerard Allison (1943). However, it was not until almost three centuries after Willis, in 1945, that Karl-Axel Ekbom (1907–1977) provided a detailed and comprehensive report of this condition in his doctoral thesis, Restless legs: clinical study of hitherto overlooked disease. Ekbom coined the term “restless legs” and continued work on this disorder throughout his career. He described the essential diagnostic symptoms, differential diagnosis from other conditions, prevalence, relation to anemia, and common occurrence during pregnancy. Epidemiology Except perhaps in Asian populations, RLS is a common disorder, occurring in about 10% of the population. The age-adjusted prevalence of RLS determined by telephone interviews in a random population of 1803 adults in Kentucky was 10%. A Canadian survey of 2019 adults estimated the prevalence of RLS symptoms at 17% for women and 13% for men. A population-based survey in West Pomerania, Germany, of 4107 subjects found an overall 10.6% prevalence. Using standardized questions in face-to-face interviews, Rothdach et al. reported an overall prevalence of 9.8% in 369 participants ages 65-83 years in Augsburg, Germany. In a study from Japan, 4612 participants living in urban residential areas were assessed for a single symptom of RLS by a self-administered questionnaire of the following two items: (1) Have you ever been told you jerk your legs or kick sometimes and (2) have you ever experienced sleep disturbance due to a creeping sensation or hot feeling in your legs? The prevalence of RLS ranged from 3% in women ages 20-29 years to 7% in women ages 50-59 years and correlated with age. In contrast to the first three studies, RLS had a higher prevalence in men than women, with the difference reaching significance in those 40-49 years old; in men there was no positive correlation with age. Face-to-face interviews of 157 consecutive individuals ages 55 years and older participating in a health screening program and 1000 consecutive individuals ages 21 years and older from a primary health care center in Singapore yielded much lower prevalence data. Using IRLSSG criteria, the prevalence of RLS in this predominantly Asian population was 0.6% in the older (1 male) and 0.1% (1 female) in the younger cohorts. In the Kentucky and Singapore studies, there was no gender difference; however, in the two German studies, the prevalence was higher in women and in the Japanese study it was higher in men. The Canadian study reported a significantly higher occurrence of bedtime leg restlessness in women. Types Restless legs syndrome (RLS) can be either primary or secondary, and the causes vary. Primary RLS is a neurological disorder. Although the majority of people with RLS begin to experience symptoms in their middle years, some may have signs of the problem in childhood. Their symptoms may slowly progress for years before becoming a regular occurrence. Secondary RLS tends to be more severe than the primary type and stems from another underlying condition, including the following: Anemia or low blood-iron levels Folate deficiency Nerve damage due to diabetes or other conditions Kidney disease or dialysis Attention deficit disorder (ADD) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Pregnancy Rheumatoid arthritis Parkinson’s disease Risk factors RLS/WED can develop at any age, even during childhood. The disorder is more common with increasing age and more common in women than in men. Restless legs syndrome usually isn’t related to a serious underlying medical problem. However, RLS/WED sometimes accompanies other conditions, such as: Peripheral neuropathy: This damage to the nerves in your hands and feet is sometimes due to chronic diseases such as diabetes and alcoholism. Iron deficiency: Even without anemia, iron deficiency can cause or worsen RLS/WED. If you have a history of bleeding from your stomach or bowels, experience heavy menstrual periods or repeatedly donate blood, you may have iron deficiency. Kidney failure: If you have kidney failure, you may also have iron deficiency, often with anemia. When kidneys don’t function properly, iron stores in your blood can decrease. This, with other changes in body chemistry, may cause or worsen RLS/WED. Causes The cause of restless leg syndrome is unknown in most people. However, restless leg syndrome has been associated with Pregnancy, Obesity, Smoking, Iron deficiency and anemia, Nerve disease, Polyneuropathy (which can be associated with hypothyroidism, heavy metal toxicity, toxins, and many other conditions), Other hormone diseases such as diabetes, and Kidney failure (which can be associated with vitamin and mineral deficiency). Some drugs and medications have been associated with restless leg syndrome including: Caffeine, Alcohol, H2-histamine blockers (such as ranitidine [Zantac] and cimetidine [Tagamet]), and certain antidepressants (such as amitriptyline [Elavil, Endep]). Occasionally, restless leg syndrome run in families. Recent studies have shown that restless leg syndrome appears to become more common as a person ages. Also, poor venous circulation of the legs (such as with varicose veins) can cause restless leg syndrome. Symptoms The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group described the following symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS): Strange itching, tingling, or “crawling” sensations occurring deep within the legs; these sensations may also occur in the arms. A compelling urge to move the limbs to relieve these sensations Restlessness — floor pacing, tossing and turning in bed, rubbing the legs Symptoms may occur only with lying down or sitting. Sometimes, persistent symptoms worsen while lying down or sitting and improve with activity. In very severe cases, the symptoms may not improve with activity. Other symptoms of RLS include the following: Sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness Involuntary, repetitive, periodic, jerking limb movements that occur either in sleep or while awake and at rest; these movements are called periodic leg movements of sleep or periodic limb movement disorder. Up to 90% of people with RLS also have this condition. In some people with RLS, the symptoms do not occur every night but come and go. These people may go weeks or months without symptoms (remission) before the symptoms return again. Complications Restless legs syndrome rarely results in any serious consequences. However, in some cases severe and persistent symptoms can cause considerable mental distress, chronic insomnia, and daytime sleepiness. In addition, since restless legs syndrome (RLS) is worse when resting, people with severe RLS may avoid daily activities that involve long periods of sitting, such as going to movies or traveling long distances. Diagnosis and test There’s no single test for diagnosing restless legs syndrome. A diagnosis will be based on your symptoms, your medical and family history, a physical examination, and your test results. Your GP should be able to diagnose restless legs syndrome, but they may refer you to a neurologist if there’s any uncertainty. There are four main criteria your GP or specialist will look for to confirm a diagnosis. These are: an overwhelming urge to move your legs, usually with an uncomfortable sensation such as itching or tingling your symptoms occur or get worse when you’re resting or inactive your symptoms are relieved by moving your legs or rubbing them your symptoms are worse during the evening or at night Blood tests Your GP may refer you for blood tests to confirm or rule out possible underlying causes of restless legs syndrome. For example, you may have blood tests to rule out conditions such as anaemia, diabetes and kidney function problems. It’s particularly important to find out the levels of iron in your blood because low iron levels can sometimes cause secondary restless legs syndrome. Low iron levels can be treated with iron tablets. Sleep tests If you have restless legs syndrome and your sleep is being severely disrupted, sleep tests such as a suggested immobilisation test may be recommended. The test involves lying on a bed for a set period of time without moving your legs while any involuntary leg movements are monitored. Occasionally, polysomnography may be recommended. This is a test that measures your breathing rate, brain waves and heartbeat throughout the course of a night. The results will confirm whether you have periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS). Treatment and medications Treatment for RLS is targeted at easing symptoms. In people with mild to moderate restless legs syndrome, lifestyle changes, such as beginning a regular exercise program, establishing regular sleep patterns, and eliminating or decreasing the use of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco, may be helpful. Treatment of an RLS-associated condition also may provide relief of symptoms. Other non-drug RLS treatments may include: Leg massages Hot baths or heating pads or ice packs applied to the legs Good sleep habits A vibrating pad called Relaxis Medications may be helpful as RLS treatments, but the same drugs are not helpful for everyone. In fact, a drug that relieves symptoms in one person may worsen them in another. In other cases, a drug that works for a while may lose its effectiveness over time. Drugs used to treat RLS include: Dopaminergic drugs, which act on the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. Mirapex, Neupro, and Requip are FDA-approved for treatment of moderate to severe RLS. Others, such as levodopa, may also be prescribed. Benzodiazepines, a class of sedative medications, may be used to help with sleep, but they can cause daytime drowsiness. Narcotic pain relievers may be used for severe pain. Anticonvulsants, or antiseizure drugs, such as Tegretol, Lyrica, Neurontin, and Horizant. Although there is no cure for restless legs syndrome, current treatments can help control the condition, decrease symptoms, and improve sleep. Lifestyle and home remedies Making simple lifestyle changes can help alleviate symptoms of RLS/WED. Try baths and massages: Soaking in a warm bath and massaging your legs can relax your muscles. Apply warm or cool packs: Use of heat or cold, or alternating use of the two, may lessen your limb sensations. Try relaxation techniques: such as meditation or yoga. Stress can aggravate RLS/WED. Learn to relax, especially before bedtime. Establish good sleep hygiene: Fatigue tends to worsen symptoms of RLS/WED, so it’s important that you practice good sleep hygiene. Ideally, have a cool, quiet, comfortable sleeping environment; go to bed and rise at the same time daily; and get adequate sleep. Some people with RLS/WED find that going to bed later and rising later in the day helps in getting enough sleep. Exercise: Getting moderate, regular exercise may relieve symptoms of RLS/WED, but overdoing it or working out too late in the day may intensify symptoms. Avoid caffeine: Sometimes cutting back on caffeine may help restless legs. Try to avoid caffeine-containing products, including chocolate and caffeinated beverages, such as coffee, tea and soft drinks, for a few weeks to see if this helps.Dr. Shailendra Kawtikwar9 Likes16 Answers
- Login to View the image
g cramps most commonly affect the calf muscle. • Leg cramps typically only last a few minutes, but the pain can last for 24 hours. • Older people and pregnant women are more prone to leg cramps than others. • Most often, leg cramps are no cause for concern and have no medical significance. • Dehydration , flat feet and alcoholism are potential factors involved in leg cramps. • If stretching does not help, some doctors advise taking quinine. • Supporting your toes when you sleep can help prevent cramps. • When diagnosing leg cramps, a doctor will rule out other more serious conditions first. • Some medications can increase the likelihood of cramps, including diuretics, salbutamol and statins. Fast facts on leg cramps Rate this article Public / Patient 353 total ratings Health Professionals 81 total ratings SPORTS MEDICINE / FITNESS REHABILITATION / PHYSICAL THERAPY PAIN / ANESTHETICS Recommended Related News Additional information Article last updated on Thu 10 December 2015. Visit our Sports Medicine / Fitness category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Sports Medicine / Fitness. All references are available in the References tab. References Citations What is Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT)? Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an inherited condition that affects the peripheral nervous system, causing the arms and legs to become weaker over time. READ MORE Low Bad Cholesterol Tied To Cancer Risk US researchers suggest there is an underlying mechanism that affects both cancer and low LDL (so-called 'bad') cholesterol, because they found low LDL cholesterol in people with no history... READ MORE Leg Pain Can Mean Heart Danger, Expert Says The story of how one man's back problems and leg pain ended up saving his life, as they ended up being signs of peripheral arterial disease. READ MORE Plantar flexion: Function, anatomy, and injuries Plantar flexion is a term that describes the motion of pointing the foot downwards. Learn about the muscles involved in this posture and possible injuries. READ MORE Exercise Improves Mobility And Fitness For Patients With Parkinson's Exercise, including resistance training, stretching, and treadmill use may boost muscle strength, gait speed, and overall fitness for patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), suggests a new... READ MORE RELATED COVERAGE Comments (23) ADD A COMMENT Harsha NOVEMBER 16, 2011 1:45 AM i'm suffering from severe thigh cramps since 3 months. i'm a diabetic patient. pain killars are not working for me. please someone solve my problem. i very often get pains even if i climb steps or walk for a distance. Reply Keith C JULY 14, 2012 10:15 AM I am awakened perhaps three times during a nite of 5 - 6 Hours of trying to find a restful nite so I am not following asleep the next day at work. Anyone having these same symptoms? Help me please!!!! Reply View all Last updated Thu 10 Dec 2015 Overview | Causes of leg cramps | Tests and diagnosis | Treatment | Prevention Leg cramps , also known as night leg cramps , especially calf-muscle cramps, are fairly common. Some people experience cramps in the muscles of their feet, as well as their thigh muscles. In most cases these types of cramps occur while the individual is sleeping or resting. The following article will investigate the causes, diagnosis, prevention and treatments of leg cramps. What are leg cramps? Cramps are generally not a sign of an underlying condition. Leg cramps are sudden, painful involuntary contractions of a leg muscle. The cramp usually only lasts a few minutes, sometimes a few seconds. Rarely though, they can last up to 10 minutes. Sometimes the pain is so severe that the patient is woken up and has a tender muscle for up to 24 hours afterwards. In most cases the reason for leg cramps is never found, and they are considered harmless. Sometimes, however, they may be linked to an underlying disorder, such as diabetes or peripheral artery disease . As we get older we become more prone to experiencing leg cramps - about 1 in 3 people over the age of 60 years and half of people over 80 has regular leg cramps. Pregnant women tend to have night leg cramps more often than non-pregnant women. Approximately 40% of people who get leg cramps do so at least three times a week; in some cases they occur daily. Causes of leg cramps Unknown causes (idiopathic leg cramps) - in the majority of cases there is no underlying cause and we don't really know why it happens. On theory is that when a muscle tightens for a prolonged period, resulting in the muscle being shortened, it is stimulated to contract, causing it to go into a spasm (cramp) if it contracts further. This occurs more commonly while we are sleeping - our natural sleep position is with the knees slightly bent and the feet pointing downwards (shortening the calf muscle). The fact that stretching helps cure the problem makes the theory more compelling. Secondary causes - sometimes the leg cramps are caused by an underlying disease, situation or activity, including: Exercise - if a muscle is placed under severe stress or used for a long time a leg cramp may occur during the exertion or afterwards. Athletes and sportspeople commonly suffer from leg cramps, especially when having to work for longer than expected, as may happen in a soccer match that goes into extra time. If conditions are warm and the athlete has sweated profusely and lost a lot of sodium (salt), the risk of developing a muscle cramp is greater. Addison's disease Alcoholism or alcohol abuse Cirrhosis Dehydration Diarrhea Diuretics Electrolyte imbalance Flatfeet Gastric bypass surgery Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) Kidney failure, chronic Lead poisoning Sarcoidosis - a disease in which granulomatous (small growths or lumps) produces inflammation or swelling of the tissues in any part of the body. Muscle fatigue Motor neuron problems Oral contraceptives Parkinson's disease Peripheral artery disease (PAD) Pregnancy, especially in the later stages Some medications, including diuretics, salbutamol (used for treating asthma ), and statins (used to lower blood lipid levels) Type 2 diabetes Tests and diagnosis A GP (general practitioner, primary care physician) will ask the patient about symptoms, when they occur, as well as examining his/her legs and feet. Questions will be related to how severe the pain is, where the pain is located, how long it lasts, and whether the leg cramps affect their quality of life (sleep, moods, etc). The doctor will also ask about other possible symptoms, such as inflammation, numbness or pins and needles. The aim here is to either rule out or identify any possible underlying cause. Treatment If there is no underlying cause the leg cramps will probably get better without treatment. Stretching exercises - if the cramp is in the calf muscle: Straighten the leg and bend the ankle backwards, thus stretching the calf muscle. Walk on tiptoes for a few minutes. Stand about one meter from a wall with your feet flat on the ground. Lean forward against the wall with your arms outstretched, but don't lift your heels (keep your heels on the ground). Stay like that for about ten seconds and gently return to an upright position. Repeat about 5 to 10 times. Some people find that these stretching exercises not only help them get over a leg cramp episode, but also that help reduce how often they occur. Typically, a patient would do these exercises two or three times a day. Painkillers are normally too slow acting to be useful for leg cramps. Painkillers - although painkillers can be effective in reducing pain, they take time to work. By the time they start working the leg cramp is probably gone. Therefore, they are probably not very useful. If an individual had a severe leg cramp and the muscle is tender afterwards, an OTC (over-the-counter, non prescription required) painkiller may help. Quinine - some preliminary studies have found that a number of people benefit from taking quinine. There is no information yet about quinine's safety and long-term effectiveness. Some doctors may recommend quinine if the stretching has not helped, attacks are frequent, and/or the patient's quality of life is being undermined by the leg cramps. A course of treatment usually lasts from four to six weeks - the patient takes the medication just before going to bed. Pregnant women should not take quinine. Individuals who had a previous reaction to quinine, those with previous hemolytic anemia , optic neuritis, and/or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency should not take quinine. As the quinine dosage is very low, side effects are rare. In rare cases the patient may develop a blood disorder. Some patients may develop cinchonism after long-term quinine therapy, which may cause vomiting, nausea, vision and/or hearing problems and dizziness. Patients with leg cramps on quinine therapy are usually monitored closely. Prevention Stretching exercises - these may help reduce the number of times leg cramps occur. Supporting your toes when lying down or asleep: Lying on your back - prop up your feet with a pillow/cushion. Lying on your front - let your feet hang over the end of the bed. Bedding - keep blankets and sheets loose. This helps prevent your feet and toes from pointing downwards during sleep. Stay hydrated - as dehydration may increase the risk of leg cramps, drinking plenty of fluids may help prevent them. Exercise - if you embark on an exercise program, make sure it is suitable for you and that your progress is gradual. If you want to prevent leg cramps from occurring, do not over-exert yourself, or train for prolonged periods. Footwear - people with flat feet and other structural problems may be more susceptible to leg cramps. Proper footwear may help.Dr. Tapan Kumar Sau2 Likes12 Answers
- Login to View the image
19 yr male presented with Complaint of loss of sensation on forearm, b/l hands & feet and no sweating over effected Part from 1 year Pt. Went to skin specialist 6 month ago and got treatment for hensen's disease for 7 month but no relief... Now came to us... Mala normal Urine normal Nidra normal Agni mandh Diet vegetarian No history of alcohol and smoke No family history of leprosy Kindly give your valuable opinion...Dr. Jagjit Singh0 Like11 Answers
- Login to View the image
65yr elderly man agriculturalist by occupatio, presented with history of flexion deformity of both hands. able to stretch the fingers partly with pain and difficulty. What is the diagnosis and treatment?Dr. Lambodar Bhat10 Likes65 Answers
- Login to View the image
Male, 52 years, this type of bilateral lesions for last 8 - 10 yrs with history of exaggeration off and on. History of smoking more than 30 years, alcohol last 5 years . No history of chewing tobacco. Presented with recently detected T2DM, Plasma Glucose levels F 278 mg / dl, PP 398 mg / dl, HbA1C 9.8 % . CBC, LFT, RFT, TSH, URIC ACID, BUN , CREATININE and PSA levels are within normal limit. Dx and management.Dr. Puranjoy Saha10 Likes15 Answers