Informative and educative post. WHO and others organization has worked hard to vaccinate each and every child in single day . In india we have started this vaccination in the year 1995 ( I may be wrong ) And still continue with vaccination to each and every child under 5 yrs of age to the status of polio free nation.
Informative Sir... The efforts of Bill and Melinda Gates to this cause has been beautiful, as rich multi-billionairres they hv truly contributed to society by helping to eradicate a disease that could have ruined the lives of so many children and families.
Very informative sir
INFORMATIVE AND NICE UPDATE
Valuable information Sir
Thank you doctor @Dr. Parveen Yograj for sharing this. Very informative.
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According to the World Health Organization , waterborne diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY (disability- adjusted life year) global burden of disease , and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842,000 deaths per year, is attributable to a lack of safe drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene (summarized as WASH ).  Overview The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer to diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors . Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria , many of which are intestinal parasites , or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses . (In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as " organisms ", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection.) Yet other important classes of water- borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites. Typical examples include certain Nematoda , that is to say "roundworms". As an example of water-borne Nematode infections, one important waterborne nematodal disease is Dracunculiasis . It is acquired by swallowing water in which certain copepoda occur that act as vectors for the Nematoda. Anyone swallowing a copepod that happens to be infected with Nematode larvae in the genus Dracunculus , becomes liable to infection. The larvae cause guinea worm disease .  Another class of waterbornemetazoan pathogens are certain members of the Schistosomatidae , a family of blood flukes . They usually infect victims that make skin contact with the water.  Blood flukes are pathogens that cause Schistosomiasis of various forms, more or less seriously affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide.  Long before modern studies had established the germ theory of disease , or any advanced understanding of the nature of water as a vehicle for transmitting disease, traditional beliefs had cautioned against the consumption of water, rather favouring processed beverages such as beer , wine and tea . For example, in the camel caravans that crossed Central Asia along the Silk Road , the explorer Owen Lattimore noted, "The reason we drank so much tea was because of the bad water. Water alone, unboiled, is never drunk. There is a superstition that it causes blisters on the feet."  Socioeconomic impact Waterborne diseases can have a significant impact on the economy, locally as well as internationally. People who are infected by a waterborne disease are usually confronted with related costs and not seldom with a huge financial burden. This is especially the case in less developed countries. The financial losses are mostly caused by e.g. costs for medical treatment and medication, costs for transport, special food, and by the loss of manpower. Many families must even sell their land to pay for treatment in a proper hospital. On average, a family spends about 10% of the monthly households income per person infected.  Infections by type of pathogen Protozoan Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Amoebiasis (hand-to-mouth) Protozoan ( Entamoeba histolytica ) (Cyst-like appearance) Sewage , non- treated drinking water , flies in water supply, saliva transfer (if the other person has the disease) Abdominal discomfort, fatigue , weight loss, diarrhea , bloating , fever Cryptosporidiosis (oral) Protozoan ( Cryptosporidium parvum ) Collects on water filters and membranes that cannot be disinfected , animal manure , seasonalrunoff of water. Flu-like symptoms , watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, substantial loss of weight, bloating , increased gas, nausea Cyclosporiasis Protozoan parasite ( Cyclospora cayetanensis ) Sewage , non- treated drinking water cramps , nausea, vomiting , muscle aches, fever, and fatigue Giardiasis (fecal- oral) (hand-to- mouth) Protozoan ( Giardia lamblia ) Most common intestinal parasite Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks, leaks, groundwater contamination, campgrounds where humans and wildlife use same source of water. Beavers and muskrats createponds that act as reservoirsfor Giardia. Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating , and flatulence Microsporidiosis Protozoan phylum ( Microsporidia ), but closely related to fungi Encephalitozoon intestinalis has been detected in groundwater , the origin of drinking water  Diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals. Bacterial Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Botulism Clostridium botulinum Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision , difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea . Death is usually caused by respiratory failure . Campylobacteriosis Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni Drinking water contaminated with feces Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever . Usually lasts 2–10 days. Cholera Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea , cramps , nosebleed , rapid pulse , vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours. E. coli Infection Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli ) Water contaminated with the bacteria Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness. M. marinum infection Mycobacterium marinum Naturally occurs in water, most cases from exposure in swimming poolsor more frequently aquariums ; rare infection since it mostly infects immunocompromised individuals Symptoms include lesions typically located on the elbows, knees, and feet (from swimming pools ) or lesions on the hands ( aquariums ). Lesions may be painless or painful. Dysentery Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonella with the most common being Shigella dysenteriae Water contaminated with the bacterium Frequent passage of feces with blood and/ or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood. Legionellosis(two distinct forms: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever) Caused by bacteria belonging to genus Legionella (90% of cases caused by Legionella pneumophila ) Legionella is a very common organism that reproduces to high numbers in warm water;  but only causes severe disease when aerosolized.  Pontiac fever produces milder symptoms resembling acute influenza without pneumonia . Legionnaires' disease has severe symptoms such as fever , chills , pneumonia (with cough that sometimes produces sputum ), ataxia , anorexia , muscle aches, malaiseand occasionally diarrhea and vomiting Leptospirosis Caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira Water contaminated by the animal urine carrying the bacteria Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The second phase then occurs involving meningitis , liver damage (causes jaundice ), and renal failure Otitis Externa (swimmer's ear) Caused by a number of bacterial and fungal species. Swimming in water contaminated by the responsible pathogens Ear canal swells, causing pain and tenderness to the touch Salmonellosis Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness . Symptoms include diarrhea , fever , vomiting, and abdominal cramps Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Ingestion of water contaminated with feces of an infected person Characterized by sustained fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), profusesweating ; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium , and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots", small red spots on the abdomen and chest. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio alginolyticus , and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Can enter wounds from contaminated water. Also acquired by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters . Symptoms include abdominal tenderness, agitation, bloody stools, chills, confusion, difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), delirium, fluctuating mood, hallucination, nosebleeds, severe fatigue, slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.  Viral Disease and Transmission Viral Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus Manifests itself in improperly treated water Symptoms include fever , myalgia , lethargy , gastrointestinal symptoms , cough , and sore throat Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Can manifest itself in water (and food) Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue , fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression . Poliomyelitis (Polio) Poliovirus Enters water through the feces of infected individuals 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with delirium , headache , fever , and occasional seizures , and spastic paralysis , 1% have symptoms of non- paralytic aseptic meningitis . The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysisor death Polyomavirus infection Two of Polyomavirus : JC virus and BK virus Very widespread, can manifest itself in water, ~80% of the population has antibodies to Polyomavirus BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplantpatients. JC virus infects the respiratory system , kidneys or can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain (which is fatal).  Algal Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Desmodesmus infection desmodesmusDr. Tapan Kumar Sau11 Likes22 Answers
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how would you approach a dog bite involving the vermillion border?Dr. Vaishali Chand4 Likes24 Answers
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A 3m baby having this lesion since 4d. Spot the diagnosis. differentials and treatment.Dr. Raghavendra Rao1 Like16 Answers
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### 13 years old girl... Can't walk...since 2 years... Has to be lifted for toilet...Growth is also not at par with her peers... Before 2 years she was absolutely fine...she used to go to school even... seems to be a case of poliomyelitis or GBS...how to approach this case ??? How to rule out poliomyelitis ??? What are the necessary investigations required in this case ???Dr. Shofique Anowar24 Likes40 Answers
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Today is World TB Day We all are having a big question that can we eradicate TB from world?? And my Answer is Yes!!! Why Not?? Nothing is Impossible.... Even Impossible it self says I'm Possible..... We have already eradicated Polio and Smallpox... We we work with more enthusiasm and dedication then definitely we can make this world free from TB. I would like to give you the Global Scenario of TB 47% decline in Incidence of TB in between 2000-2014 42% Decline in Prevalence of TB since 1990-2014 Fragile approach to MDR TB WHO have started END TB Strategy in 2014 and we are also the part of this strategy with other state members of WHO END TB Strategy have target to achieve 1. Reduction in no. of TB Death by 95% 2. Reduction in no. of Incidence rate by 90% In India we are working to combat TB since 1997 with RNTCP at ground level with DOTS Therapy Under RNTCP they have covered more then 1 billion cases across 632 Districts across the country Under RNTCP now government supplied LED based florescent microscope for better detection of TB causing organism. Government also focused on Rapid Molecular Diagnostic Tool. So, Its clear that our health policy is evolving with time and we are not stick to the traditional diagnostic tools and strategies. In 2014, government of India also started Joint TB Monitoring Mission with National and International experts. They have suggested that India needs fund of 1500 crore per year to achieve the targets of END TB strategy of WHO Last week on 16th March in National Health Policy 2017, Govt. already increased the Public Health Budget from 1.2% to 2.5% of GDP, Which is even more then India's Defense Expenditures. Current Global Trend in decline of Global TB Incidence Rate is only 2% And we need 17% of decline rate to achieve the targets of END TB strategy of WHO. Which is difficult! But Not Impossible.... Last week government also came with National Strategy Plan for TB elimination 2017-2025. In this plan they came with 4 strategy 1. Detect - Early Detection 2. Treat - Complete treatment for all cases, including MDR TB 3. Prevent - Preventive Measures 4. Build - Build and strengthen enabling policy, empowering infrastructure and human resources Now, they more focused on Early detection of hidden cases, Ice Burgs of TB patients, Preventive Measures and Multi Sectoral Coordination. In END TB strategy, Swaccha Bharat Abhiyan will play a key role, as we know poor sanitation and poor hygiene is the biggest risk factor for TB. And the most beautiful part of this plan is TB Elimination Board will chaired by PMO itself, they will track the progress of TB elimination. In Ayurveda we have studied the Rajyakshama, we can correlate with TB at some extent, In my view if we integrate AYUSH and DOTS Therapy then we can give more broader support to the patient, we can prevent the MDR TB. As an Ayurvedic Physician and a Public Health Professional I strongly recommend to be more focused on Health Education, Awareness Program and Integrated Approach of DOTS + AYUSH at ground level. Thanks and Regards Dr. Hemant Adhikari (BAMS, MPH) Brahm AyurvedDr. Hemant Adhikari8 Likes18 Answers