21 year old primigravida presented in casualty in labor, 9 months amenorrhea (not sure of dates), no antenatal visits. Baby born by vaginal delivery. Pictures are attached. Identify the conditions and what could be the causes?

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it's a case of anencephaly and spinal dysraphism.neural tube defects can be prevented by folic acid supplementation even before pregnancy when the couple plan to have a child.

Agree with u mam
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Anencephaly with open neural tube defeat. That's why all Anc visits r imp. Folic acid 5 mg daily till 3 mths. Folic acid def leads neural tube defect It could have been easy termination if pt would have gone for 1st trimester USG scan

This baby has got both cranial_anencephaly NTD and spinal NTD. Prevention: Periconceptional folate supplementation, FA 5mg/day ,Avoid antiFA therapeutic s like Anti epileptic drugs like phenytoin ,& drugs like methotrexate. Causes Fa and B12 r essential for rapid cell replication, and DNA & RNA synthesis. Early embryo is vulnerable to FA deficiency and its relative deficiency leads to failure of post translational methylation of neural cell cytoskeleton ,essential for neuronal differentiation. It is a result of gene environment interaction defect. Needs proper AN screening during before 16 wks of GA.

anencephaly type of neural tube defect. causes genetetic, mat illness/infectn, smoking, alcohol, uncontrolled dm/HT, folate defi. that's why we started folic acid even bf conception.

Open neural tube defect , Anencephaly with Spina bifida . Cause could be , Folic acid deficiency H/o intake of indigenous drugs Chromosomal abnormalities Environmental factors Maternal hyperthermia Insulin depending Diabetes Mellitis in mother It can be diagnosed in early pregnancy by ultrasound , Maternal serum alpha feto proteins and by Amniotic alpha feto proteins levels

Taking this discussion further-a 28 yr old female presents with backpain and MRI is s/o tethered cord with dorsal lipoma.What do you call this defect?How do you manage it?

spinabifida occulta
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This case shows importance of antenatal visits and ultrasound. This should be used to educate the patients why these are important.

Right sir
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Open neural tube defect that is occipital meningomyelocele with spinal dysraphoism and anencephaly. Genetic abnormality or due to folic acid deficiency. Start folic acid supplement 3 months before planing for pregnancy.

Anencephaly with open neural tube defect

anencephaly-incompatible with life.quite rarely seen.

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