Interstitial (in-tur-STISH-ul) lung disease describes a large group of disorders, most of which cause progressive scarring of lung tissue. The scarring associated with interstitial lung disease eventually affects your ability to breathe and get enough oxygen into your bloodstream. Interstitial lung disease can be caused by long-term exposure to hazardous materials, such as asbestos. Some types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, also can cause interstitial lung disease. In some cases, however, the causes remain unknown. Once lung scarring occurs, it's generally irreversible. Medications may slow the damage of interstitial lung disease, but many people never regain full use of their lungs. Lung transplant is an option for some people who have interstitial lung disease. Symptoms The primary signs and symptoms of interstitial lung disease are: Shortness of breath at rest or aggravated by exertion Dry cough.By the time symptoms appear, irreversible lung damage has often already occurred. Nevertheless, it's important to see your doctor at the first sign of breathing problems. Many conditions other than interstitial lung disease can affect your lungs, and getting an early and accurate diagnosis is important for proper treatment. Causes Bronchioles and alveoli in the lungs Bronchioles and alveoli in the lungsOpen pop-up dialog box Interstitial lung disease seems to occur when an injury to your lungs triggers an abnormal healing response. Ordinarily, your body generates just the right amount of tissue to repair damage. But in interstitial lung disease, the repair process goes awry and the tissue around the air sacs (alveoli) becomes scarred and thickened. This makes it more difficult for oxygen to pass into your bloodstream. Interstitial lung disease can be triggered by many different things — including airborne toxins in the workplace, drugs and some types of medical treatments. In most cases, the causes are unknown. Occupational and environmental factors Long-term exposure to a number of toxins and pollutants can damage your lungs. These may include: Smoking Silica dust Asbestos fibers Grain dust Bird and animal droppings Radiation treatments Indoor hot tubs Some people who receive radiation therapy for lung or breast cancer show signs of lung damage months or sometimes years after the initial treatment. Medications Many drugs can damage your lungs, especially: Chemotherapy drugs. Drugs designed to kill cancer cells, such as methotrexate (Otrexup, Trexall, others) and cyclophosphamide, can also damage lung tissue. Heart medications. Some drugs used to treat irregular heartbeats, such as amiodarone (Nexterone, Pacerone) or propranolol (Inderal, Innopran), may harm lung tissue. Some antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin (Macrobid, Macrodantin, others) and ethambutol (Myambutol) can cause lung damage. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs, such as rituximab (Rituxan) or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), can cause lung damage. Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of many lung conditions. All interstitial lung diseases affect the interstitium, a part of your lungs. The interstitium is a lace-like network of tissue that goes throughout both lungs. It supports your lungs' tiny air sacs, called alveoli. Normally, the interstitium is so thin that it doesn’t show up on X-rays or CT scans. Types of Interstitial Lung Disease All forms of interstitial lung disease cause the interstitium to thicken. This can happen from inflammation, scarring, or a buildup of fluid. Some forms of ILD last a short time (acute); others are long-term (chronic) and don’t go away. Some types of interstitial lung disease include: Interstitial pneumonia. Bacteria, viruses, or fungi can infect the interstitium. A bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common cause. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This makes scar tissue grow in the interstitium. Experts don’t know what causes it. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. This is an interstitial lung disease that often affects people with autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This happens when dust, mold, or other things that you breathe irritate your lungs over a long time. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). COP is a pneumonia-like interstitial lung disease without an infection. You might bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Acute interstitial pneumonitis. This is a sudden, severe interstitial lung disease. People who have it often need to be connected to a machine called a ventilator that breathes for them. Desquamative interstitial pneumonitis. This is an interstitial lung disease that partly results from smoking. Sarcoidosis. This causes interstitial lung disease along with swollen lymph nodes. It can also affect your heart, skin, nerves, and eyes. Asbestosis. This is an interstitial lung disease caused by breathing asbestos, a fiber used in building materials. Interstitial Lung Disease Symptoms The most common symptom of all forms of interstitial lung disease is shortness of breath. Almost everyone with ILD will have breathlessness, which can get worse over time. Other symptoms of interstitial lung disease include: Cough, which is usually dry and doesn’t bring up mucus. Weight loss, most often in people with COP or BOOP. With most forms of ILD, shortness of breath develops slowly (over months). If you have interstitial pneumonia or acute interstitial pneumonitis, your symptoms will come on quickly (in hours or days). Interstitial Lung Disease Causes and Risks The cause of most interstitial lung disease is unknown. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi can cause interstitial pneumonia. You can also get ILD if you regularly breathe in things that can bother your lungs. These include: Asbestos Bird proteins (such as from exotic birds, chickens, or pigeons) Coal dust or various other metal dusts from working in mining Grain dust from farming Silica dust Talc It’s rare, but certain drugs can cause ILD: Some antibiotics, like nitrofurantoin Some anti-inflammatory drugs, like rituximab Chemotherapy drugs like bleomycin Heart medications such as amiodarone Anyone can get interstitial lung disease, but some things can put you at higher risk: Age. Adults are much more likely to get ILD, but children can, too. Autoimmune disease like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Genetics. Some conditions are passed down among family members. Smoking Radiation treatments for cancer Interstitial Lung Disease Diagnosis People with interstitial lung disease usually go to the you because of shortness of breath or a cough. You will probably use imaging tests of your lungs to find out the problem. Chest X-ray. A simple chest X-ray is the first test for most people with a breathing problem. Chest X-rays in people with interstitial lung disease may show fine lines in the lungs. CT scan. A CT scan takes multiple X-rays of the chest, and a computer creates detailed images of the lungs and surrounding structures. These tests can usually find interstitial lung disease. High-resolution CT scan. If your doctor thinks you have an interstitial lung disease, certain CT scan settings can get better-quality images of your interstitium. This can help diagnose you. Lung function test. You sit in a sealed plastic booth and breathe through a tube to measure your total lung capacity, which might be reduced if you have ILD. You may also be less able to transfer oxygen from your lungs into your blood. Lung biopsy. Looking at lung tissue under a microscope is often the only way for a you to know which type of interstitial lung disease you have. Lung tissue is collected in a procedure called a lung biopsy, which can be done several ways: Bronchoscopy. You will run a tube called an endoscope through your mouth or nose and into your airways. Tiny tools on the endoscope can take a sample of lung tissue. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). You will make small cuts to insert tools that take samples from multiple areas of lung tissue. Open lung biopsy (thoracotomy). In some cases, you might need traditional surgery with a large incision in the chest to get a lung biopsy. Treatments for Interstitial Lung Disease The treatment you get depends on the type of ILD you have and its cause. Antibiotics. These treat most interstitial pneumonias. Pneumonias caused by a virus usually get better on their own. Pneumonias caused by a fungus are rare but are treated with antifungal drugs. Corticosteroids. In some forms of interstitial lung disease, inflammation in your lungs causes damage and scarring. Corticosteroids cause your immune system’s activity to slow. This lessens the amount of inflammation in your lungs and the rest of your body. Inhaled oxygen. If you have low oxygen levels because of interstitial lung disease, inhaled oxygen may help your symptoms. Regular use of oxygen might also protect your heart from damage caused by low oxygen levels. Lung transplant. In advanced interstitial lung disease that has severely impaired you, you may need a lung transplant. Most people who have a lung transplant for interstitial lung disease make large gains in their quality of life and their ability to exercise. Azathioprine (Imuran). This drug also slows down the immune system. It’s not shown to improve interstitial lung disease, but some studies suggest it might help. N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst). This potent antioxidant may slow the decline of lung function in some forms of interstitial lung disease. You’ll take it in combination with other treatments. Other drugs are considered controversial for interstitial lung disease treatment, including: Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) Cyclosporine Methotrexate Nintedanib (Ofev) Pirfenidone (Esbriet) These medicines affect the way your immune system works.
COPD chronic bronchitis Allergic bronchitis
Adv PFT DLCO to rule out obstructive airways disease, ILD, pneumoconiosis etc.
COPD Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Prevention is better than cure For most people with COPD, short-acting bronchodilator inhalers are the first treatment used. Bronchodilators are medicines that make breathing easier by relaxing and widening your airways. There are 2 types of short-acting bronchodilator inhaler: beta-2 agonist inhalers – such as salbutamol and terbutaline.
* Allergic bronchial ** COPD Pneumoconiosis Needs further investigation and evaluation to conclude and line of treatment. Till reports complied. Antihistamine orally. Steroid orally. Bronchodilator. Nebulization. BS antibiotics orally. Improve General health and smoking must be stopped.
? ALLERGIC BRONCHITIS.. ? ASTHMA.. ? COPD..EMPHYSEMA.. NEED'S .. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION WITH.. CXR..STUDY.. HEMOGRAM.. SPUTUM STUDY.. CBNAAT.. PFT .. TREAT WITH.. LEVOCETIRIZINE +MONTELUCAST.. DEFLAZACORT..SOS.. DOXOPHYLLINE.. BUDAMATE NEBULIZATION.. BS..ANTIBIOTICS .. SYMPTOMATIC T/T..WITH CLINICAL CORRELATION..
Smokers couch / Allergic bronchial asthma ? Pulmonary function test CBC ESR Sputum test for AFB HB A1 C Stop smoking Use Masks .. Good control of sugar Montalakast and Levocetrizine OD Butamide inhalation Job Shift if possible
ILD pneumoconiosis steroid bronchodiators
C O P D Ad spirometery TT Seroflo & Duoline rotacap inhalation through rotahaler sos Antibiotics orally at the time of attack Smoking should be reduced gradually He gets vocal cords affected due to smoking & some cold allergy leading pressure over recurrent laryngeal nerve that was cause for couldn’t speak So get his laryngoscopes done for any abnormally
COPD- Chronic bronchitis with acute exacerbation Treat with bronchodilators, steroids to reduce inflammation and short course of antibiotics to treat acute exacerbation. Oxygen if spo2 is low.
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Friends today I am discussing about a very serious problem most of the peoples have on change of weather. As weather is changing in these days here value of the content is important. Topic is Allergic bronchitis. Bronchitis is an inflammation in the lining of the bronchial tubes. These tubes in the lung carry air into the lungs from the mouth and nose. The swelling narrows the airway causing a cough and may make breathing more difficult. The irritation can also lead to increased production of mucus, which blocks the airway. Bronchitis can be classified as either allergic, non-allergic, or asthmatic, depending on its cause. Although the symptoms of bronchitis are similar regardless of the cause, there may also be differences, especially in how long a person will feel the effects of the condition. What is allergic bronchitis? Allergic bronchitis Allergic bronchitis occurs when an allergen inflamed the lining of the bronchial tubes. Allergic bronchitis involves inflammation of the bronchi caused by an allergen, or something to which you are allergic. Airway irritants, such as pollen, dust, and mold, can trigger symptoms. Cigarette smoking almost always causes allergic bronchitis. The symptoms of allergic bronchitis may last for a long time or keep recurring. Allergic bronchitis that lasts longer than three months is often called chronic bronchitis. This is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic bronchitis is almost always caused by cigarette smoking. Symptoms of allergic bronchitis include: a cough that produces mucus wheezing chest tightness tiredness Bronchitis can also lead to complications. For example, lung infection, such as pneumonia, can occur. In the most severe cases, pneumonia can lead to an infection in the bloodstream called septicemia. Septicemia is often life-threatening. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Click here to learn more about COPD. READ NOW Non-allergic bronchitis Non-allergic bronchitis occurs because of a viral or bacterial infection. For example, some people develop non-allergic bronchitis after a cold. Although anyone can develop non-allergic bronchitis, older adults have a higher risk of experiencing the condition. People with weakened immune systems and those who smoke also have a higher chance of developing bronchitis after an upper airway infection. Symptoms often improve within a few weeks and are less likely to recur than the symptoms of allergic bronchitis. Non-allergic bronchitis is sometimes called acute bronchitis, as symptoms may onset suddenly and are typically brief. Symptoms of non-allergic bronchitis might include: a cough that produces mucus chills fever What is asthmatic bronchitis? Asthmatic bronchitis Asthmatic bronchitis can occur in people who already have asthma as an underlying condition. Like bronchitis, asthma is a lung condition that can cause breathing difficulties. Asthma can also cause inflammation of the bronchi, but can also lead to narrowing of the muscles around the airways. When bronchitis and asthma occur together, and symptoms overlap, the condition is often known as asthmatic bronchitis. Inflammation that triggers symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis might occur in someone who has underlying asthma after exposure to certain substances, such as pollen, pollution, and cigarette smoke. Some people also develop asthmatic bronchitis because of a change in weather or exercise routine. People with asthmatic bronchitis respond to these environmental triggers by releasing leukotrienes. These are inflammatory molecules. Leukotrienes cause a series of reactions, including narrowing of the airway. Symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis may include: coughing excess mucus production wheezing shortness of breath Diagnosis A doctor will diagnose allergic bronchitis based on several factors. They will review the medical history of the individual with suspected allergic bronchitis, as well as perform a physical exam, usually ask questions to determine how long symptoms have been occurring. The physician may use a chest X-ray to rule out some other causes of breathing problems, such as pneumonia. They may also request blood tests to help determine if an infection is present. The patient may also receive a pulmonary function test. This involves the individual blowing into a special device called a spirometer. The device measures how much air a person can exhale, and how quickly. The test helps doctors to identify the presence of lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. Treatment Treatments for allergic and asthmatic bronchitis are often similar and may include the following: Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are medications that relax the muscles around the airways. As the muscles relax, the airways dilate or widen, often making breathing easier. People take bronchodilators through a metered dose inhaler. Both short-acting and long-acting bronchodilators are available. Short-acting bronchodilators act quickly to decrease symptoms, but the effects do not last. Long-acting bronchodilators do not reduce symptoms as quickly but control symptoms for a longer period. Steroids Steroids may also be used to treat allergic bronchitis. Steroids decrease inflammation in the bronchi. This action reduces coughing and may help air-flow in the lungs. Although steroids can be an intravenous or oral medication, a physician will often administer them through an inhaler in cases of bronchitis. This allows for quicker and more effective delivery of the drugs to the area that requires treatment. Mucolytics A mucolytic drug is a medication that makes the mucus thinner and less sticky. This making it easier to expel mucus from the lungs by coughing. People can take mucolytics either orally or through a nebulizer. A nebulizer is a device that changes a liquid medication into an aerosol. A person can then inhale this aerosol. Oxygen therapy In some instances, allergic bronchitis can interfere with the efficiency of oxygen flow into and out of the lungs. People with severe allergic bronchitis may have decreased levels of oxygen in the blood. If oxygen levels are low, a doctor may prescribe oxygen therapy. This can help restore oxygen levels to normal. Pulmonary rehabilitation classes People with chronic allergic bronchitis may benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation classes. Pulmonary rehabilitation classes involve supervised exercise, along with education on how to breathe better and manage allergic bronchitis. These classes show people how to decrease exposure to allergens that may trigger symptoms. Acute non-allergic bronchitis often does not require treatment. Doctors treat asthmatic bronchitis in a similar way to allergic bronchitis, with bronchodilators, steroids, and oxygen as needed. However, acute non-allergic bronchitis may also be treated with antibiotics if caused by a bacterial infection, though this is uncommon. In some cases, a doctor may also prescribe leukotriene modifiers to treat asthmatic bronchitis. These work by interfering with the chemical reactions that cause the symptoms of asthmatic bronchitis. Home remedies humidifier A humidifier can moisten the air and loosen mucus. Many of the treatments for allergic bronchitis require a prescription. However, there are also steps a person can take at home to reduce the effects of bronchitis. Although home remedies will not cure the underlying cause of allergic bronchitis, they may help to reduce symptoms. These steps including: Using a humidifier: A humidifier will moisten the air. This can loosen mucus and make it easier to expel. It may also decrease wheezing. People with asthma should check with their doctor before using a humidifier. Drinking plenty of fluids: Drinking enough water may help keep mucus thin. Gargling with salt water: The coughing from allergic bronchitis can lead to a sore throat. Gargling with salt water might ease discomfort. Taking a cough drop: A cough drop may keep the throat moist and can provide relief from coughing. Click here to choose online from an excellent range of humidifiers with thousands of customer reviews. Prevention Preventing allergic bronchitis usually involves avoiding irritants, such as chemical fumes, dust, and air pollution. Prevention of asthmatic bronchitis includes both avoiding triggers and managing your underlying asthma according to the plan developed with your doctor. Cigarette smoke is one of the leading causes of allergic bronchitis, so quitting smoking, or not starting at all, is one of the best ways to prevent the condition. If outdoor allergens, including pollen or mold, tend to cause allergic bronchitis, wear a mask when carrying out yard work. This might also prevent symptoms. BEST HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR ALLERGY Arsenic alb - There is thin watery discharge from the nose with burning sensation, recurrent sneezing one after another with runny nose. Burning and tearing of eyes . There is puffiness around eyes, stuffy nose. The person has an asthmatic tendency with breathing difficulties, and oppression of chest which is generally worse when he lies down. On sitting with a forward bending posture makes the patient little comfort from his asthmatic problem. There is marked wheezing sound during asthmatic affection. The asthma is worse in wet cold weather. Besides that the constitutional symptoms of arsenic alb are anxiety, restlessness, prostration, burning sensation. The anxiety that is found in Arsenic alb is intermingled with fear. The other prominent symptoms are debility, exhaustion, restlessness, with nightly aggravation. Great exhaustion after a slightest exertion. Sulphur – There is itching with redness of eyes in allergic condition. The itching is followed by burning sensation and relieved by cold application. sulphur patient is always irritable, depressed, thin and weak, but good vappetite. He is having forgetful nature, difficulties in thinking. He has many good ideas but cannot implement it. Selfish type person, no regards for others. very lazy person, not cleanness, never look after about his dressing and clothing. Don’t like to take bath. Having of skin diseases always. The skin rashes itch a lot generally in night and warm atmosphere. The person has a feeling congestion or oppression of chest in asthmatic condition.– Natrum mur – Natrum mur is generally well indicated in case of allergic condition which gives the symptoms of more itching of nose, throat, ear with recurrent sneezing one after another. The characteristic discharge from the mucous membranes is watery or thick whitish, like the white of an egg.Natrum mur patient is very sensitive in nature. Every thing he/she takes into the heart. The person is irritable in nature and when in upset does not like any body’s present or giving of any consolation.Consolation aggravated the state of the mind - the melancholy, the tearfulness, sometimes brings on anger. The Natrum mur patient is extremely emotional. The whole nervous economy is in a state of fret (visible anxious like scratching finger on her skin in worry). Completely or desperately in love brings on complaints. The natrum mur patient desire to take extra salt in his diet. Sabadilla- it has good action on mucous membrane of the nose and the lachrymal glands, producing coryza and symptoms like hay-fever. There isspasmodic sneezing one after another. symptoms of hay-fever or allergic rhinitis with itchy nose and fluent coryza. Either nostril stuffed up, inspiration through nose labored, snoring. Violent sneezing is occurred from time to time, shaking abdomen followed by lachrymation. There is runny nose with severe frontal headache and redness of eyelids. Allium Cepa Allium Cepa is one of the most commonly used Homeopathic medicines for Allergic Rhinitis or Hay Fever. It is generally used in the symptoms of severe runny nose that drips from the tip of nose with watery eyes. There is burning of nose due to over secretion mucous. Along with the watery nasal discharge there is watery eye. There is profuse sneezing associated with runny nose and watery eyes. Tuberculinum- The patient is very susceptible to catch cold. The physical constitution is lean and thin like natrum mur, but not obese like calcarea carb. If there is family history of tuberculosis or bronchial asthma then is more suitable to give this medicines in any allergic or asthma condition. The person is very depressed, melancholic, taciturn sulky nature.Dr. Rajesh Gupta22 Likes30 Answers
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Spot diagnosis and management. A male aged 30 years having fever , cough since 25 days. During night he feels respiratory distress.Dr. Arjun Singh Shekhawat4 Likes34 Answers
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52 /F Obese ,non thyroid ,non diabetic Has seasonal(winter) sob with fever(very mild) and cough mostly non productive. All vitals normal ,spo2-97 on RA Mild chest pain intermittent. Chronic bronchitis? Sputum for gram staining and afb sent Taken azithromycin 500 od for 5 days Medrol 16 in tappered dose Neb with duolin and Budate given for 2 days. Levocetrizine +montelukast given for 10 days Sob reduced,fever subsided...Dr. Nilanko Ghosh16 Likes100 Answers
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20yrs old male pt working in hair saloon came wid c/o Cough wid Expectoration since 2 weeks....Headache , Chest pain, Fever , Nasal block, Breathlessness since 2 days .......Diagnosis & Management??Dr. Ritesh Sompura1 Like25 Answers
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80 yrs, male presented with progressive dyspnea and cough since last 3 weeks. no history of fever anorexia chest pain etc. bil wheezing heard. spo2 96% HR 110/min BP 120/70mmhg. plz comment on cxray.Dr. Sandeep Ghodekar2 Likes15 Answers