Sir ji thank u for sharing this invaluable information regarding covid19 with cancer pts and so on,Iwant to add only one thing is conditions(like atmosphere,eating habbits temp etc)around can alter the response of disease on the pt.why should we depend on the foreign researches and should try our work
Thank u sir . good information.
Nice informative post.
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WORLD'S FIRST HUMAN CASE OF RAT DISEASE FOUND IN HONG KONG. September 28, 2018. A Hong Kong man has developed the WORLD'S FIRST EVER HUMAN CASE OF the RAT VERSION of the HEPATITIS E VIRUS, according to new research from one of the city's leading universities. There had PREVIOUSLY been NO EVIDENCE the disease could jump from rats to humans, the University of Hong Kong said Friday, WARNING the DISCOVERY HAD "MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE". "This study CONCLUSIVELY PROVES for the first time in the world that RAT HEV CAN INFECT HUMANS TO CAUSE CLINICAL INFECTION," the university added. RAT HEPATITIS E VIRUS IS VERY DISTANTLY RELATED TO HUMAN HEPATITIS E VIRUS VARIANTS, HKU said. The DISEASE was FOUND IN A 56-YEAR-OLD MAN who persistently produced abnormal liver function tests FOLLOWING A LIVER TRANSPLANT. He COULD have CONTRACTED the ILLNESS THROUGH FOOD INFECTED BY RAT DROPPINGS, researchers said, according to details of the findings reported in the South China Morning Post. The man lived in a housing estate where there were SIGNS OF RAT INFESTATION OUTSIDE HIS HOME. HE IS NOW RECOVERING after being treated for the virus, the SCMP added. The HUMAN version of HEPATITIS E is a liver disease that AFFECTS 20 MILLION PEOPLE GLOBALLY EACH YEAR, according to the World Health Organisation. It is usually SPREAD THROUGH CONTAMINATED DRINKING WATER. SYMPTOMS include fever, vomiting and jaundice, and in rare cases liver failure. Rodent problems in Hong Kong have escalated in recent months because of a sustained spell of hot and humid weather. HONG KONG has been hit hard by disease OUTBREAKS IN THE PAST. In 2003, almost 300 people died from SARS—severe acute respiratory syndrome. The BUBONIC PLAGUE, carried by rats, swept through mainland China and Hong Kong in the late 19th century killing thousands. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The presence of the rat version of hepatitis E in a human is of "major public health significance", researchers say. ________________________________ AFP 09:34, UK, Friday 28 September 2018. ________________________________ IMAGE : 1 Credit: CC0 Public Domain. ________________________________ IMAGE : 2 There were signs of a rat infestation outside the patient's home. File pic. ***************************×**************************Dr. Puranjoy Saha16 Likes21 Answers
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Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women Background Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. Methods Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation. Findings All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 10⁹ cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8–9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9–10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus. Interpretation The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. To read more- https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673620303603 Source-sciencedirectDr. Pushker Mehra10 Likes15 Answers
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Care for Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 Initial reports suggest that COVID-19 is associated with severe disease that requires intensive care in approximately 5% of proven infections. Given how common the disease is becoming, as in prior major severe acute respiratory infection outbreaks—SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), avian influenza A(H7N9), and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09—critical care will be an integral component of the global response to this emerging infection. Management of severe COVID-19 is not different from management of most viral pneumonia causing respiratory failure. The principal feature of patients with severe disease is the development of ARDS: a syndrome characterized by acute onset of hypoxemic respiratory failure with bilateral infiltrates. Evidence-based treatment guidelines for ARDS should be followed, including conservative fluid strategies for patients without shock following initial resuscitation, empirical early antibiotics for suspected bacterial co-infection until a specific diagnosis is made, lung-protective ventilation, prone positioning, and consideration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory hypoxemia. To read complete article- https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2762996 Source- JAMA Authors- Srinivas Murthy, MD, CM, MHSc; Charles D. Gomersall, MBBS; Robert A. Fowler, MD, CM, MScDr. Vivek Jain20 Likes17 Answers
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According to the World Health Organization , waterborne diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY (disability- adjusted life year) global burden of disease , and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842,000 deaths per year, is attributable to a lack of safe drinking water supply, sanitation and hygiene (summarized as WASH ).  Overview The term waterborne disease is reserved largely for infections that predominantly are transmitted through contact with or consumption of infected water. Trivially, many infections may be transmitted by microbes or parasites that accidentally, possibly as a result of exceptional circumstances, have entered the water, but the fact that there might be an occasional freak infection need not mean that it is useful to categorise the resulting disease as "waterborne". Nor is it common practice to refer to diseases such as malaria as "waterborne" just because mosquitoes have aquatic phases in their life cycles, or because treating the water they inhabit happens to be an effective strategy in control of the mosquitoes that are the vectors . Microorganisms causing diseases that characteristically are waterborne prominently include protozoa and bacteria , many of which are intestinal parasites , or invade the tissues or circulatory system through walls of the digestive tract. Various other waterborne diseases are caused by viruses . (In spite of philosophical difficulties associated with defining viruses as " organisms ", it is practical and convenient to regard them as microorganisms in this connection.) Yet other important classes of water- borne diseases are caused by metazoan parasites. Typical examples include certain Nematoda , that is to say "roundworms". As an example of water-borne Nematode infections, one important waterborne nematodal disease is Dracunculiasis . It is acquired by swallowing water in which certain copepoda occur that act as vectors for the Nematoda. Anyone swallowing a copepod that happens to be infected with Nematode larvae in the genus Dracunculus , becomes liable to infection. The larvae cause guinea worm disease .  Another class of waterbornemetazoan pathogens are certain members of the Schistosomatidae , a family of blood flukes . They usually infect victims that make skin contact with the water.  Blood flukes are pathogens that cause Schistosomiasis of various forms, more or less seriously affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide.  Long before modern studies had established the germ theory of disease , or any advanced understanding of the nature of water as a vehicle for transmitting disease, traditional beliefs had cautioned against the consumption of water, rather favouring processed beverages such as beer , wine and tea . For example, in the camel caravans that crossed Central Asia along the Silk Road , the explorer Owen Lattimore noted, "The reason we drank so much tea was because of the bad water. Water alone, unboiled, is never drunk. There is a superstition that it causes blisters on the feet."  Socioeconomic impact Waterborne diseases can have a significant impact on the economy, locally as well as internationally. People who are infected by a waterborne disease are usually confronted with related costs and not seldom with a huge financial burden. This is especially the case in less developed countries. The financial losses are mostly caused by e.g. costs for medical treatment and medication, costs for transport, special food, and by the loss of manpower. Many families must even sell their land to pay for treatment in a proper hospital. On average, a family spends about 10% of the monthly households income per person infected.  Infections by type of pathogen Protozoan Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Amoebiasis (hand-to-mouth) Protozoan ( Entamoeba histolytica ) (Cyst-like appearance) Sewage , non- treated drinking water , flies in water supply, saliva transfer (if the other person has the disease) Abdominal discomfort, fatigue , weight loss, diarrhea , bloating , fever Cryptosporidiosis (oral) Protozoan ( Cryptosporidium parvum ) Collects on water filters and membranes that cannot be disinfected , animal manure , seasonalrunoff of water. Flu-like symptoms , watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, substantial loss of weight, bloating , increased gas, nausea Cyclosporiasis Protozoan parasite ( Cyclospora cayetanensis ) Sewage , non- treated drinking water cramps , nausea, vomiting , muscle aches, fever, and fatigue Giardiasis (fecal- oral) (hand-to- mouth) Protozoan ( Giardia lamblia ) Most common intestinal parasite Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks, leaks, groundwater contamination, campgrounds where humans and wildlife use same source of water. Beavers and muskrats createponds that act as reservoirsfor Giardia. Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating , and flatulence Microsporidiosis Protozoan phylum ( Microsporidia ), but closely related to fungi Encephalitozoon intestinalis has been detected in groundwater , the origin of drinking water  Diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals. Bacterial Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Botulism Clostridium botulinum Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision , difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea . Death is usually caused by respiratory failure . Campylobacteriosis Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni Drinking water contaminated with feces Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever . Usually lasts 2–10 days. Cholera Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nausea , cramps , nosebleed , rapid pulse , vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours. E. coli Infection Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli ) Water contaminated with the bacteria Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness. M. marinum infection Mycobacterium marinum Naturally occurs in water, most cases from exposure in swimming poolsor more frequently aquariums ; rare infection since it mostly infects immunocompromised individuals Symptoms include lesions typically located on the elbows, knees, and feet (from swimming pools ) or lesions on the hands ( aquariums ). Lesions may be painless or painful. Dysentery Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonella with the most common being Shigella dysenteriae Water contaminated with the bacterium Frequent passage of feces with blood and/ or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood. Legionellosis(two distinct forms: Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever) Caused by bacteria belonging to genus Legionella (90% of cases caused by Legionella pneumophila ) Legionella is a very common organism that reproduces to high numbers in warm water;  but only causes severe disease when aerosolized.  Pontiac fever produces milder symptoms resembling acute influenza without pneumonia . Legionnaires' disease has severe symptoms such as fever , chills , pneumonia (with cough that sometimes produces sputum ), ataxia , anorexia , muscle aches, malaiseand occasionally diarrhea and vomiting Leptospirosis Caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira Water contaminated by the animal urine carrying the bacteria Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The second phase then occurs involving meningitis , liver damage (causes jaundice ), and renal failure Otitis Externa (swimmer's ear) Caused by a number of bacterial and fungal species. Swimming in water contaminated by the responsible pathogens Ear canal swells, causing pain and tenderness to the touch Salmonellosis Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness . Symptoms include diarrhea , fever , vomiting, and abdominal cramps Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Ingestion of water contaminated with feces of an infected person Characterized by sustained fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), profusesweating ; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium , and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called "rose spots", small red spots on the abdomen and chest. Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio alginolyticus , and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Can enter wounds from contaminated water. Also acquired by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters . Symptoms include abdominal tenderness, agitation, bloody stools, chills, confusion, difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), delirium, fluctuating mood, hallucination, nosebleeds, severe fatigue, slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.  Viral Disease and Transmission Viral Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus Manifests itself in improperly treated water Symptoms include fever , myalgia , lethargy , gastrointestinal symptoms , cough , and sore throat Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Can manifest itself in water (and food) Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue , fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression . Poliomyelitis (Polio) Poliovirus Enters water through the feces of infected individuals 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with delirium , headache , fever , and occasional seizures , and spastic paralysis , 1% have symptoms of non- paralytic aseptic meningitis . The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysisor death Polyomavirus infection Two of Polyomavirus : JC virus and BK virus Very widespread, can manifest itself in water, ~80% of the population has antibodies to Polyomavirus BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplantpatients. JC virus infects the respiratory system , kidneys or can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain (which is fatal).  Algal Disease and Transmission Microbial Agent Sources of Agent in Water Supply General Symptoms Desmodesmus infection desmodesmusDr. Tapan Kumar Sau10 Likes14 Answers
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Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) : And Indian scenario. :- Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) a RNA virus. India is considered as a hot spot for emerging infectious diseases. In the recent past many infectious diseases of emerging and re-emerging nature have entered this subcontinent and affected a large number of populations. A few examples are Nipah, Avian influenza, Pandemic influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus and Chikungunya virus. These diseases have not only affected human and animal health but also economy of the country on a very large scale. During December 2010, National Institute of Virology, Pune , detected Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus specific IgG antibodies in livestock serum samples from Gujarat and Rajasthan states. Subsequently, during January 2011 Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus was confirmed in a nosocomial outbreak, in Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. This disease has a case fatality rate ranging from 5 to 80 % The evidences of virus activity and antibodies were observed during and after the outbreak in human beings, ticks and domestic animals (buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep) from Gujarat State of India. During the year 2012, this virus was again reported in human beings and animals. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has not been reported previously from India before 2011 . Initial clinical features of dengue fever and CCHF are similar and it is very difficult to differentiate and diagnose CCHF. Common clinical features of CCHF include; high grade fever with chills, headache, body ache, myalgia, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness and bleeding from multiple sites. Laboratory investigations showed cytopenia, raised prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), raised creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as altered liver and renal functions. Patients with above symptoms can rapidly progress to bleeding from multiple sites and death compared to dengue fever. It is crucial to recognize CCHF at early stage to institute Ribavirin treatment and also to prevent nosocomial spread of disease to health care providers. Here lies the importance of personal protective equipments. Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. PPE must be used by all health care providers who are treating a case of CCHF and who are handling patients samples in the laboratory equipped with Biosafety level 3 facilities. The present scenario in India suggests the need to look seriously into various important aspects of this zoonotic disease, which includes diagnosis, intervention, patient management, control of laboratory acquired and nosocomial infection, tick control, livestock survey and this, should be done in priority before it further spreads to other states. Being a high risk group pathogen, diagnosis is a major concern in India where only a few Biosafety level 3 laboratories exist and it needs to be addressed immediately before this disease becomes endemic in India.Dr. Puranjoy Saha14 Likes11 Answers