GONORRHEA MANIPULATES AN ANTI-INFECTION MECHANISM IN THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT. April 13, 2017. PLoS Pathog 13(4): e1006269. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.100626 The BACTERIUM that CAUSES GONORRHEA INFECTS the FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT BY BREAKING CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CELLS IN the tract's PROTECTIVE LINING, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens. GONORRHEA is a widespread sexually transmitted disease caused when NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE bacteria infect the normally protective inner lining of human genital tissues. In women, the opening of the uterus, known as the ENDOCERVIX, SERVES AS A PRIMARY INFECTION SITE for N. gonorrhoeae. HOWEVER, the STRATEGY USED BY N. gonorrhoeae TO PENETRATE THE LINING OF THE ENDOCERVIX HAS BEEN UNCLEAR. TO INVESTIGATE THIS MECHANISM, Liang-Chun Wang of the University of Maryland, College Park, and colleagues NEEDED to develop AN ALTERNATIVE TO the MOUSE MODELS normally used to study gonorrhea, since they have been inadequate for this purpose. The team developed a NEW MODEL using tissue samples obtained from the human endocervix. The RESEARCHERS INFECTED the ENDOCERVIX TISSUE, AS WELL AS LAB-GROWN CELLS OF the SAME TYPE as those that line the endocervix, with N. gonorrhoeae. They THEN employed a VARIETY OF MOLECULAR AND IMAGING TECHNIQUES to examine the infection mechanism. The RESULTS DEMONSTRATE that N. gonorrhoeae PENETRATES the ENDOCERVIX LINING BY INTERFERING WITH A NORMALLY PROTECTIVE PROCESS. Usually, infected cells in the lining can be shed and disposed of without breaking the tight connections between cells that keep the lining uncompromised. N. gonorrhoeae APPEARS to be able TO BREAK these CONNECTIONS AND INDUCE CELL SHEDDING, OPENING PATHS FOR PENETRATION without reducing its ability to adhere to and invade the cells of the lining. The SCIENTISTS SHOWED that N. gonorrhoeae CAUSES DISRUPTION OF CELLULAR CONNECTIONS AND CELL SHEDDING BY promoting ACTIVATION AND ACCUMULATION OF a human protein known as NON-MUSCLE MYOSIN II. Depending on the PARTICULAR GENES being EXPRESSED BY N. gonorrhoeae at any given time, the team found, it can EITHER PROMOTE OR INHIBIT this PENETRATION MECHANISM. THIS STUDY REPRESENTS the FIRST LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF the PENETRATION OF N. gonorrhoeae INTO the human ENDOCERVIX and provides new insights into gonorrhea infection. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ MORE INFORMATION: Wang L-C, Yu Q, Edwards V, Lin B, Qiu J, Turner JR, et al. (2017) Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the human endocervix by activating non-muscle myosin II-mediated epithelial exfoliation. PLoS Pathog 13(4): e1006269. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006269 ____________________________________ PROVIDED BY: Public Library of Science. *************************+****************************** PREVIOUS STUDIES :- 1 ) Gonorrhea infections start from exposure to seminal fluid March 4, 2014. Provided by: American Society for Microbiology. 2 ) Antibiotic treatment speeds up spread of resistance in the gonorrhea superbug May 19, 2016. Fingerhuth SM, Bonhoeffer S, Low N, Althaus CL (2016) Antibiotic-ResistantNeisseria gonorrhoeae Spread Faster with More Treatment, Not More Sexual Partners. PLoS Pathog 12(5): e1005611. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005611 3 ) Researchers identify novel pathway responsible for infection of a common STD pathogen February 27, 2012. Provided by: Boston University Medical Center. 4 ) Failure of dual antimicrobial therapy for gonorrhea reported June 23, 2016. More information: Full Text Copyright © 2016 HealthDay. 5 ) Commercial brand of mouthwash can help kill off gonorrhea in the mouth (Update) December 20, 2016. Antiseptic mouthwash against pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae: a randomised controlled trial and an in vitro study, Sexually Transmitted Infections, sti.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052753 =========================================

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1 ) If we don't understand the pathogenesis of a particular bacteria, by doing several research by scientists from different parts of the world then question of clinical benefits does not arise. In that sense, this study has importance to the scientists, who are doing research in this aspects , and from the outcomes, questions of clinical impacts/importance/significance etc will arise....... 2 ) while giving benefits of bacterial diseases, to our patients, knowledge of bacteria, their virulence factors, toxins, mode of transmissions, clinical presentations, mechanism of escaping our immune system, type of sample/s for method/s of laboratory diagnosis, prophylaxis, selection of appropriate antibiotics etc etc, all matters....... ** Not all strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae are betalactamase producers.......some strains are sensitive to Penicillin also. Strains may be deficient of enzyme which have nothing to do with beta-lactam ring of Penicillin ...... All of these , we came to know today are derived through different research including studies of Staphylococcus aureus which were resistant to Penicillin before the discovery of Penicillin....... ** Similarly, many strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae produce IgA protease enzymes, that split secretory IgA, locally....... and evade local immunity............. ** DGI (Disseminated Gonococcal Infection ) cases are also found....... 3 ) This study has got merit to some extent , that it is the first laboratory demonstration of the penetration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae into the human endocervix and provides new insights into gonorrhea infection....... 4 ) How Neisseria gonorrhoeae reaches fallopian tube & ovary and produce salpingitis, öophoritis and salpingo-öophoritis leading to infertility AND many a times blockage / strictures may be polymicrobial or due to other organism/s ....... We came to know through different researchers and their findings, where a small finding (appearntly) may prove a huge impact on future research ....... Here is a publication from....... which will speak itself :- American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1 December 1980, Vol.138(7):985–989, doi:10.1016/0002-9378(80)91093-5 International Symposium on Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Microbiology and pathogenesis of acute salpingitis as determined by laparoscopy: What is the appropriate site to sample ? ABSTRACT Acute salpingitis is a POLYMICROBIAL disease. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and anaerobic gram-positive cocci were the predominant microorganisms isolated from the fallopian tubes of salpingitis patients. GONOCOCCI were isolated from the fallopian tubes in eight of 35 (23%) PATIENTS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA were recovered from 10 of 35 (28.5%). Although CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS was not recovered from the fallopian tube exudate, there was abundant serologic evidence of chlamydial infection in the salpingitis patients. TWENTY-THREE PERCENT of patients with PAIRED SEA had a FOURFOLD RISE in IgM AND IgG TITRE, which was CONSISTENT WITH systemic CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION. Comparison of cultures obtained via laparoscopy and culdocentesis suggested that culdocentesis is not an accurate reflection of the microbial milieu in the fallopian tube....... IN MEDICAL SCIENCE / MEDICINE DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES ARE INTERRELATED, AND SAME IS TRUE FOR RESEARCH ALSO. MANY A TIMES, RESEARCH IN ONE DISCIPLINE MAY HELP FURTHER RESEARCH IN ANOTHER DISCIPLINE AND MAY BE BENEFICIAL eg. FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRUGS, VACANCIES etc etc....... @Dr. Asv Prasad

Thank you @Dr. Asv Prasad, nice to know your work on 'Betalactamase strains in and around Visakhapatnam' , and the views you have shared with me and amongst Curofians. I understand your statement of 90 % and 'EAT THE FRUITS.......' But please keep in mind of those 10 % ....... Anyway, thanks a lot for the interaction....... @Dr. Asv Prasad .

Dear Dr Saha Thaks for ur spirited reply. I lke it. No body denies that research about any disease is multideciplinary .This per.haps need not be eloberated. Contobution of eah such ss a micro biologist, a pathologist, an immunologest, a biochmist , a molecular biologist, a genecist, an epidimiolpgist, and clinician etc contibution of each to the understanding of a disease fo ussed now on gonnorhea. Ur post is a testimony to involvement of each of the groups as to their respective fields. The opening sentence in this way was not slight the microbiological break through than it's immediate relevence from a clinician's point of view. For instace varios cell signalling pathways and their cross talk say for ex in insulin resistance r illuminating but not to an average clinician. So the oulook factor makez difference. I worked on " beta lactmating strains in around visakhapatnam" and produed a thesis in 1980.The same was published in IMA journal say in 1982. Perhaps u may not get a ref. Dating b 4 in India as I happened to review world wide oncidence/ prevalance with the help of WHO and CDC updates. As u r aware there r many mechanisms of resistane which I dummerised in the said work including step - wise mutation causing resistance ( to prncillinThe then wonder drug) Though that all strains of GC donot produce, their incidence sharply rose mor so in far east between 1975 on wards and reached epidemic prportions. Dose of p.pencillin rose from 8 lacks to 1 2, 2.4 And 4.8 megsunits when WHo recommended not to use it where the treatment failures were more than 5%.from public health point of view. The continuing threat of betala tmase is that it is plasmid mediated and starting with shigela- E COLI- GONOCOCCUS- STAPHYLOCOCCUS SO ON AND SO FORTH. THERE IS MUCH MORE EE CAN TALK BUT FOR OUR FELLOE CUROFIANCE 90% OF THEM PERHAPS SKIP THIS LENGTHY APPARENTLY USELESS TALK, EVEN THOUGH THE FACTS MIGHT BE LITTLE KNOWN. MY POINT IS THAT IS READY TO HAND OVER THE FRUITS OF RESERACH AT THIS MOMENT R MORE RELEVANT THAN FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH WHICH IS LIKELY TO BEAR FRUITS DECADES LATER. EVEN THEN COLLEGUES LIKE TO "EAT THE FRUITS" THAN 'BOTHER ABOUT ITS SEED'- AN UNDENIABLE FACT. SO MY POINT IS THAT WE " DELIVER THE FRUITS THAN SEEDS" TO READERS OF CUROFY OF VARIOUS SHADES OF INTEREST IN WHAT GOES AROUND IN THEIR CLINIC THAN AROUND THE WORLD OVER. THAT PERHAPS MAKE MY APPROACH SEEM NEGATIVE TO SUCH POSTS SIR. I RECOLLECT HOW I MISSED MY MEDAL IN MICROBIOLOGY BECAUSE WE AS STUDENTS WERE ENCOURAGED HERE TO FILLOW BOOK BY Dr Pandale being an ex professor of my collage which became outdate in 1967 itself and new commer might not have even heard the name. Gonococcus and microbology take me back to my student days. Iresepect all pre and paraclinical subjects as they gave us strengh to stand on our legs even today in understanding the "behind the scene .of what we discuss today in curofy. I do not know how much what I intended to say has been translated by my " unfaithful mobile ..with regards Dr Saha for making me live again ib yrs bygone. " U LIVE ONLY TWICE (J.BOND) AND U HAVE GIVEN IPPERTUNITY TO LIVE TWICE OFCOURS ' AT THE EXPENCE OF CUROFIANS PATIENCE...SIR ETC...

@Dr. Puranjoy Saha , mocrobiologist.
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The research is of limited clinical application .However it enters, it causes edocervicitis the aftermath of which is more important.... salpingo- oopharitis...causing stricture in uterine tubeand causing infertility. The resistance to Gonococcus is mainly beta lactimase induced. That it penetrates between epithelial cells of urthra in male was known more than 3 decades b 4. It stays in submucosa in the urethra. What is now shown is that it invoves non-musscle myosin 2 to reach the sub mucosa and entry into endocervix aided by genes which promote or inhibit this penetration. There is no identification as to what henes actually control this and in absence of which the mechanism is only speculative and not of any use. If true they should cite the gene locii and the on and of mechanisms of promotor and repressor regions as is elucidatedin some of the bacteria. It is of bacterialogical Interest having no immediate clinical impact. Any thing that adds to our knowledge 'is useful information'.

Yes sir. For the 10% ....seeds sre as good as fruits! But If seeds or eaten where will be fruits.? All in light vein sit. Thank u for recommendation to curofy.sir- I am grateful...regards sir.

You are most welcome dear sir, you deserve it. Thank you very much @Dr. Asv Prasad . Some seeds are rich in Vitamin B17, prevent cancer , so it's useful to............. .
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Very nice update and discussions.

Informative @Dr. Puranjoy Saha

Thank you very much @Dr. Kartik Kota .
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... If so...better B 17 sir, than seeds ! G ...more seedful and fruitful intersctions sir.

... If so...better B 17 sir, than seeds ! G ...more seedful and fruitful intersctions sir.

Very nice and informative study.

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