? SCROTAL PATHOLOGY.. ? HYDROCELE.. NEED'S.. USG..STUDY.. SURGEONS OPINION..
I can say reason of pain know 80% by the ptn.how ever Chanderperbha vati & Mahayograj guggal tid with milk can cover with in two days.use Tasu flower with Luke warm water.
May b epididymitis, hydrocele USG for further evaluation. Meanwhile continue with antidiabetes , Hypertensives . Drainage of fluid can work..
रोगी का अंडकोष का अल्ट्रासाऊड कराएं ताकि उचित परामर्श दिया जा सके।
USG Scrotum Must Be Done With Serum PSA
Rx Pulsatilla 2m/3 dose weekly HydrocotyleQ & ShyzigiumQ/tds for 15 days
Needs USG. Meanwhile use of langot is advisable.
Any h/o varicocele ?
NEEDS COLOR. DOPPLER STUDY
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Friends today I am discussing about a very serious problem known as Low sperm count. Low sperm count means that the fluid (semen) you ejaculate during an orgasm contains fewer sperm than normal. A low sperm count is also called oligospermia (ol-ih-go-SPUR-me-uh). A complete absence of sperm is called azoospermia. Your sperm count is considered lower than normal if you have fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen. Having a low sperm count decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner's egg, resulting in pregnancy. Nonetheless, many men who have a low sperm count are still able to father a child. Symptoms The main sign of low sperm count is the inability to conceive a child. There might be no other obvious signs or symptoms. In some men, an underlying problem such as an inherited chromosomal abnormality, a hormonal imbalance, dilated testicular veins or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm may cause signs and symptoms. Low sperm count symptoms might include: Problems with sexual function — for example, low sex drive or difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction) Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosome or hormone abnormality When to see a doctor See a doctor if you have been unable to conceive a child after a year of regular, unprotected intercourse or sooner if you have any of the following: Erection or ejaculation problems, low sex drive, or other problems with sexual function Pain, discomfort, a lump or swelling in the testicle area A history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems A groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes The production of sperm is a complex process and requires normal functioning of the testicles (testes) as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary glands — organs in your brain that produce hormones that trigger sperm production. Once sperm are produced in the testicles, delicate tubes transport them until they mix with semen and are ejaculated out of the penis. Problems with any of these systems can affect sperm production. Also, there can be problems of abnormal sperm shape (morphology), movement (motility) or function. However, often the cause of low sperm count isn't identified. Medical causes Low sperm count can be caused by a number of health issues and medical treatments. Some of these include: Varicocele. A varicocele (VAR-ih-koe-seel) is a swelling of the veins that drain the testicle. It's the most common reversible cause of male infertility. Although the exact reason that varicoceles cause infertility is unknown, it might be related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation. Varicoceles result in reduced quality of the sperm. Infection. Some infections can interfere with sperm production or sperm health or can cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm. These include inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis) and some sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea or HIV. Although some infections can result in permanent testicular damage, most often sperm can still be retrieved. Ejaculation problems. Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of emerging out of the tip of the penis. Various health conditions can cause retrograde ejaculation or lack of ejaculation, including diabetes, spinal injuries, and surgery of the bladder, prostate or urethra. Certain medications also might result in ejaculatory problems, such as blood pressure medications known as alpha blockers. Some ejaculatory problems can be reversed, while others are permanent. In most cases of permanent ejaculation problems, sperm can still be retrieved directly from the testicles. Antibodies that attack sperm. Anti-sperm antibodies are immune system cells that mistakenly identify sperm as harmful invaders and attempt to destroy them. Tumors. Cancers and nonmalignant tumors can affect the male reproductive organs directly, through the glands that release hormones related to reproduction, such as the pituitary gland, or through unknown causes. Surgery, radiation or chemotherapy to treat tumors also can affect male fertility. Undescended testicles. During fetal development one or both testicles sometimes fail to descend from the abdomen into the sac that normally contains the testicles (scrotum). Decreased fertility is more likely in men with this condition. Hormone imbalances. The hypothalamus, pituitary and testicles produce hormones that are necessary to create sperm. Alterations in these hormones, as well as from other systems such as the thyroid and adrenal gland, may impair sperm production. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many different tubes carry sperm. They can be blocked due to various causes, including inadvertent injury from surgery, prior infections, trauma or abnormal development, such as with cystic fibrosis or similar inherited conditions. Blockage can occur at any level, including within the testicle, in the tubes that drain the testicle, in the epididymis, in the vas deferens, near the ejaculatory ducts or in the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X and one Y — cause abnormal development of the male reproductive organs. Other genetic syndromes associated with infertility include cystic fibrosis, Kallmann's syndrome and Kartagener's syndrome. Celiac disease. A digestive disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten, celiac disease can cause male infertility. Fertility may improve after adopting a gluten-free diet. Certain medications. Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal and antibiotic medications, some ulcer medications, and other medications can impair sperm production and decrease male fertility. Prior surgeries. Certain surgeries might prevent you from having sperm in your ejaculate, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries, and large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and rectal cancers, among others. In most cases, surgery can be performed to either reverse these blockages or to retrieve sperm directly from the epididymis and testicles. Environmental causes Sperm production or function can be affected by overexposure to certain environmental elements, including: Industrial chemicals. Extended exposure to benzenes, toluene, xylene, herbicides, pesticides, organic solvents, painting materials and lead might contribute to low sperm counts. Heavy metal exposure. Exposure to lead or other heavy metals also can cause infertility. Radiation or X-rays. Exposure to radiation can reduce sperm production. It can take several years for sperm production to return to normal. With high doses of radiation, sperm production can be permanently reduced. Overheating the testicles. Elevated temperatures impair sperm production and function.Although studies are limited and are inconclusive, frequent use of saunas or hot tubs might temporarily impair sperm count. Sitting for long periods, wearing tight clothing or working on a laptop computer for long stretches of time also might increase the temperature in your scrotum and slightly reduce sperm production. Health, lifestyle and other causes Other causes of low sperm count include: Drug use. Anabolic steroids taken to stimulate muscle strength and growth can cause the testicles to shrink and sperm production to decrease. Use of cocaine or marijuana might reduce the number and quality of your sperm as well. Alcohol use. Drinking alcohol can lower testosterone levels and cause decreased sperm production. Occupation. Certain occupations might be linked with a risk of infertility, including welding or those associated with prolonged sitting, such as truck driving. However, the data to support these associations is inconsistent. Tobacco smoking. Men who smoke might have a lower sperm count than do those who don't smoke. Emotional stress. Severe or prolonged emotional stress, including stress about fertility, might interfere with hormones needed to produce sperm. Depression. Being depressed may negatively affect sperm concentration. Weight. Obesity can impair fertility in several ways, including directly impacting sperm and by causing hormone changes that reduce male fertility. Sperm testing issues. Lower than normal sperm counts can result from testing a sperm sample that was taken too soon after your last ejaculation; was taken too soon after an illness or stressful event; or didn't contain all of the semen you ejaculated because some was spilled during collection. For this reason, results are generally based on several samples taken over a period of time. Risk factors A number of risk factors are linked to low sperm count and other problems that can cause low sperm count. They include: Smoking tobacco Drinking alcohol Using certain illicit drugs Being overweight Being severely depressed or stressed Having certain past or present infections Being exposed to toxins Overheating the testicles Having experienced trauma to the testicles Being born with a fertility disorder or having a blood relative, such as your brother or father, with a fertility disorder Having certain medical conditions, including tumors and chronic illnesses Undergoing cancer treatments, such as radiation Taking certain medications Having a prior vasectomy or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Complications Infertility caused by low sperm count can be stressful for both you and your partner. Complications can include: Surgery or other treatments for an underlying cause of low sperm count Expensive and involved assisted reproductive techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) Stress related to the inability to have a child Prevention To protect your fertility, avoid known factors that can affect sperm count and quality. For example: Don't smoke. Limit or abstain from alcohol. Steer clear of illicit drugs. Talk to your doctor about medications that can affect sperm count. Maintain a healthy weight. Avoid heat. Manage stress. Avoid exposure to pesticides, heavy metals and other toxins. Homeopathic solutions for low sperm count can be altered to address the particular triggers or physiological components at play in every individual case. Some of the most effective solutions for homeopathy are as follows: Homeopathic medications for low sperm count with orchitis (aggravation of the testicles): The best homeopathic medications for low sperm count with inflamed testicles are conium, staphysagria and rhododendron. Conium is chosen when there is swelling and enlargement of the testicles. A razor sharp pain is felt in the testicles. The testicles are additionally indurated and solidified. Homeopathic solutions for low sperm count caused by hydrocele: Aurum met, Rhododendron and Iodum are brilliant homeopathic prescriptions for low sperm count caused by hydrocele. Apart from hydrocele, high sex drive and night time problems are additionally present. Homeopathic prescriptions for low sperm count with reduced sexual power (erectile dysfunction): Homeopathic prescriptions like agnus castus, caladium and selenium offer the best treatment for low sperm count that come with reduced sexual power in guys. Agnus castus is an unmistakable solution for low sperm count with diminished sexual drive. In such a situation, there is weakness and fatigue to accomplish erections and the privates are casual, wilted, chilly and limp. Homeopathic treatment for low sperm count with varicocele: Other homeopathic prescriptions for low sperm count accompanied with varicocele are arnica, aurum met, hamamelis and acid phos. All these are normal solutions for enhancing the sperm number when varicocele is the cause. Homeopathic meds for low sperm count with a medical history of semen loss: Homeopathic medicines like elenium, acid phos and staphysagria are used for oligospermia with a background marked by over the top seminal misfortune. They are considered where a man is has automatic seminal discharges during rest, urination and stools. The greatest advantage of homeopathic drugs for low sperm count is that they are common solutions that help in enhancing the sperm count as well as the sperm quality. These homeopathic solutions for low sperm count do not cause any harmful symptoms. They treat the condition in the most secure and most effective way. Homeopathic prescriptions work by treating the basic cause behind oligospermia. However, it is important that you consult a Homeopathic before taking any of these medicines, as the potency and frequency of medicine is prescribed by the doctor only based on each and every individual's condition.Dr. Rajesh Gupta4 Likes9 Answers
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ABC OF : TESTICULAR CANCER. (Part II ). MAY BE USEFUL. *** TESTICULAR CANCER TYPES :- More than 90% testicular tumors originate from the testicular cells (also known as GERM CELL TUMORS). There are TWO PRIMARY HISTOLOGICAL VARIETIES : SEMINOMA and NONSEMINOMA. *** IT'S VERY RARE....... Fewer than 100 thousand cases per year in India....... Treatable by a medical professionals....... Requires a medical diagnosis....... Lab tests or imaging always required....... Consult a doctor for medical advice....... *** RISK FACTORS :- Scientists have found few risk factors that make someone more likely to develop testicular cancer. Also, most boys and men with testicular cancer do not have any of the known risk factors....... Risk factors for testicular cancer include : * AN UNDESCENDED TESTICLE * FAMILY HISTORY OF TESTICULAR CANCER * CARCINOMA IN SITU OF THE TESTICLE * HIV INFECTION * HAVING HAD TESTICULAR CANCER BEFORE * Being of a CERTAIN RACE/ETHNICITY....... * BODY SIZE....... Several studies have found that tall men have a somewhat higher risk of testicular cancer, but some other studies have not. Most studies have not found a link between testicular cancer and body weight. * AGE....... ABOUT HALF of TESTICULAR CANCERS OCCUR in men BETWEEN the ages of 20 AND 34. But this cancer can affect males of any age, including infants and elderly men....... *** CAN TESTICULAR CANCER BE FOUND EARLY ? Most testicular cancers can be found at an early stage. In some men, early testicular cancers cause symptoms that lead them to seek medical attention. Most of the time a LUMP ON THE TESTICLE IS THE FIRST SYMPTOM, or the testicle might be swollen or larger than normal. BUT SOME testicular cancers MAY NOT CAUSE SYMPTOMS until after they have REACHED an ADVANCED STAGE....... ***** TESTICULAR SELF-EXAM :- The best time for you to examine your testicles is during or after a bath or shower, when the skin of the scrotum is relaxed. ● Hold your penis out of the way and examine each testicle separately. Hold your testicle between your thumbs and fingers with both hands and roll it gently between your fingers. ● Look and feel for any hard lumps or nodules (smooth rounded masses) or any change in the size, shape, or consistency of your testicles. ● It’s normal for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other, and for one to hang lower than the other. Normal testicles also contain blood vessels, supporting tissues, and tubes that carry sperm. Some men may confuse these with abnormal lumps at first. If you have any concerns, ask your doctor......who will rule out hydrocele or varicocele....... *** SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS :- * LUMP or SWELLING IN THE TESTICLE * feeling of HEAVINESS or ACHING IN the LOWER ABDOMEN OR SCROTUM. * Some testicular tumors might cause PAIN, but most of the time they do not. * BREAST GROWTH or SORENESS.......certain types of germ cell tumors secrete high levels of HCG, which stimulates breast development....... Some Leydig cell tumors can make estrogens, which can cause breast growth or LOSS OF SEXUAL DESIRE....... * EARLY PUBERTY IN BOYS : Some Leydig cell tumors can make androgens (male sex hormones)...... Androgen-producing tumors may not cause any specific symptoms in men, but in boys they can cause signs of PUBERTY AT AN ABNORMALLY EARLY AGE, such as a deepening voice and the growth of facial and body hair. *** SYMPTOMS OF ADVANCED TESTICULAR CANCERS :- Even if testicular cancer has SPREAD to other parts of the body, many men might not have symptoms right away. But some men might have some of the FOLLOWING SYMPTOMS: LOW BACK PAIN, from cancer spread to the lymph nodes (bean-sized collections of immune cells) in back of the belly ● SHORTNESS OF BREATH, chest pain, or a cough (even coughing up blood) may develop from cancer spread in the lungs. ● BELLY PAIN, either from enlarged lymph nodes or because the cancer has spread to the liver. ● HEADACHES or CONFUSION, from cancer spread in the brain. ** A number of NON-CANCEROUS CONDITIONS, such as testicle injury or inflammation, CAN CAUSE SYMPTOMS SIMILAR TO those of testicular CANCER. Inflammation of the testicle (known as ORCHITIS) and inflammation of the epididymis (EPIDIDYMITIS) can cause swelling and pain of the testicle. Both of these also can be caused BY VIRAL OR BACTERIAL infections. SIGNS OF TESTICULAR CANCER : Some men with testicular cancer have no symptoms at all, and their cancer is found during medical testing for other conditions. Sometimes IMAGING TESTS done to find the cause of infertility can UNCOVER a small testicular cancer. *** HOW IS TESTICULAR CANCER DIAGNOSED ? Testicular cancer is usually found as a result of symptoms that a person is having. It can also be found as a result of tests for another condition. Often the next step is an exam by a doctor. * ULTRASOUND OF THE TESTICLES * Blood tests for tumor markers like alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). *** NON-SEMINOMAS often raise AFP and/or HCG levels. PURE SEMINOMAS occasionally raise HCG levels but NEVER AFP LEVELS, so any increase in AFP means that the tumor has a non-seminoma component....... * lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH levels can also be increased in conditions other than cancer. A high LDH level often (but not always) indicates widespread disease. * SURGERY TO DIAGNOSE TESTICULAR CANCER : Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing a small piece of the tumor and looking at it under a microscope for cancer cells....... *** IMAGING TESTS :- * Computed tomography (CT) SCAN and CT GUIDED NEEDLE BIOPSY....... * Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) SCAN....... * Positron emission tomography (PET) SCAN....... can help spot small collections of cancer cells in the body....... * Bone scan....... *** SURVIVAL RATES, BY STAGE :- ** Stage 5-Year Relative Survival Rate Localized 99% Regional 96% Distant 73% *** OTHER PROGNOSTIC FACTORS :- As can be seen in the table above, how far the cancer has spread at the time it’s diagnosed can affect chances of long-term survival. But IN GENERAL, the outlook for testicular cancers is VERY GOOD, and most of these cancers can be cured, even if they have spread. Some other factors can also affect outlook, such as: ● The type of testicular cancer ● Levels of tumor markers after the testicular tumor has been removed....... Patient should ASK his DOCTOR how these or other prognostic factors might affect his outlook.......Dr. Puranjoy Saha12 Likes20 Answers
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20 yrs M itching , pain since 2 days Plz Dx n RxDr. Ram Golde4 Likes24 Answers
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1.5 months age, progressively increasing scrotal swelling. DD?Sushmita Haodijam0 Like44 Answers
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A 36 year old male presented with complaints of mild pain in right testicles and decrease frequency of urine since today afternoon. He also admits that 3 days back he had done prolonged sitting for four hours straight, after which he found his left scrotal swelling to the size shown in pics. Vitals WNL Kindly comment on differentials and how to manage this case.Dr. Ajeet Singh3 Likes16 Answers